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No. I. DECEMBER 1857. Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

Prospectus. 

Thoughts on our National Difficulties. 

Preliminary Remarks. 

John Knox on Church Discipline. 



The distiuctive object of this small and cheap periodical is accurately to 
ascertain and render intelligible the real character and exact position of Britain, 
by contrasting its present politico-ecclesiastical constitution with that which it 
had during the era of the Second Refoemation. 

By the term constitution, as thus employed, we mean those systematized 
political principles, which define the reciprocal rights and duties of the prince 
and the subjects, a,nd in accordance with which the legislative and executive 
functions of tht government of the realm must be exercised, whether they 
respect mere politics, or religion, or both in conjunction. 

In prosecuting this contrast, we propose strictly confining ourselves to an 
investigation of the comparative merits of these two national constitutions ; 
not so much by abstract reasoning, or, in the first instance, by weighing them 
in the balance of the sanctuary, as in the light of their own respective fruits. 
And as prejudice cannot find shelter among well-authenticated historic facts, so 
we shall arrive much more readily and effectually at a solution of our vastly 
"important problem by adopting our Lord's rule, " By their fruits shall ye know 
them," than by special pleading, popular plausibilities, or vague generalities. 

In prosecuting the line of reasoning thus indicated, we shall be able to de- 
monstrate the national securities for the personal and ofl&cial honour and piety 
of the occupant of the throne, for the integrity of legislators, for the purity of 
the administrators of law and justice, for elevating and sustaining a high tone 
of public morality, and for the piety, unity, and patriotism of the whole 
community. 

This, we apprehend, the more reflecting and pious portion of this country, 
notwithstanding the great amount of British literature, science, and art, has 
felt to be a desideratum, which our humble periodical professes to meet, and to 



accomplish which we shall address ourselves in all earnestness, and according 
to the best of our ability. 

The pages of this publication shall be open to those individuals or societies 
who may feel themselves misrepresented, or who may question our inferences 
fi-om notour facts in application to the popular movements of the day. But, 
in making this announcement, we wish it to be distinctly understood, that 
we shall refuse the insertion of articles that indicate a litigious spirit, or seek to 
prolong controversy for its own sake. 

In conclusion, while we shall studiously avoid the use of any terms that may 
give unnecessary offence ; yet as we claim, so we shall exercise our right, as 
Britons, and professing Christians, to make the trumpet give a certain and 
intelligible sound. In other words, we are resolved not to mince the matter, 
but to use greatest freedom of speech in these days of damaging and delusive 
expediency against sound policy. 



f Ijougljts m mn l^ataul §iiatltits. 

' ' Well may we tremble now ! what manners reign ! 

But wherefore ask we ? when a true reply 
Would shock too much. Kind Heaven avert events, 

Whose fatal nature might reply too plain ! 
Vengeance delay' d but gathers and fennents ; 

More formidably blackens in the wind, 
Brews deeper draughts of unrelenting wrath, 

And higher charges tlie suspended .storm.' 



The rapid and varied succession of 
great and unlooked-for events, begin- 
ning with the revolutions of 1848, and 
reaching onwards to oiu- present Indian 
and Commercial crises, has been pro- 
ductive enough of that excitable class 
of people called alarmists. We cer- 
tainly have no desire to rank amongst 
this class ; yet we are compelled to 
subscribe to what is almost universally 
allowed, that our times are fraught 
with the dark elements of moral and 
social depravity to such a degree as to 
foreshadow very serious retribution 
from on high. The tokens of God's 
righteous displeasure have already been 
so manifest, that it must add fearfully 
to our guilt if we refuse to see His 
hand lifted up, and to search out and 
confess the sins which have provoked 



Young. 

the eyes of His glory. When God 
clearly designs to alarm us, it is des- 
perate folly not to be alarmed : and 
our position at present as a nation 
renders the words of the prophet pe- 
culiarly applicable, " Hear, all ye 
people ; hearken earth, and all that 
therein is ; and let the Lord God be 
witness against you, the Lord from His 
holy temple. For, behold, the Lord 
Cometh forth out of His place, and 
will come down and tread upon the 
high places of the earth. . . For the 
transgression of Jacob is all this, and 
for the sins of the house of Israel. 
What is the transgression of Jacob 1 " 
Mic. i. 2-5. This is the gTeat question 
— Wliat is the transgression of Britain ? 
Without assuming that human na- 
ture is more degenerate in our age than 



formerly, or that the condition of our 
own nation is much worse than that of 
many others, it is nevertheless pain- 
fully evident to every serious and re- 
flective lover of his country, that whUe 
humanity in general is even now 
gToaning under numerous harrowing 
opiiressions, and destructive immorali- 
ties, our own nation in particular is 
struggling in a vortex of moral and 
social evUs that threaten to overwhelm 
us in ultimate dissolution. It may be 
said that every people under heaven 
has to struggle against the same evils 
as oiu"selves : this Ave will not dispute ; 
but in our case the conflict is more 
manifest and appalling, just as disease 
is more painfully violent when it attacks 
a constitution that has been previously 
sound and healthy, than when it slowly 
and silently gnaws at the vitals of one 
that has all along been under its in- 
fluence. 

It is scarcely necessary to specify 
the evils to which we refer ; they per- 
vade the entire frame-work of British 
society, and each individual of the 
community is liable to sufi"er from them, 
in consequence of a share in the na- 
tional guilt. Statesmen, and Philan- 
thropists, tlie Clergy, and professing 
Christians in general, are dismayed to 
see vice and depravity of every sort 
springing up on every side with such 
alarming strength and rapidity as to 
outstrip and render abortive every 
successive effort of the most indus- 
trious and devoted reformers of so- 
ciety. 

As one of the most fatal evils, we 
are far advanced in a gradual relapse 
into the arms of the Antichristian 
Moloch ; and at no very distant period 
we may expect to form in the eyes of 
the world, of angels, and of a holy 
God, the mournful spectacle of a 
self-immolated nation : for, once in 
the embraces of mystical Babylon, 
there is no possible way of avoiding a 
participation in the cup that is to be 



I given to her, of the wine of the fierce- 
ness of the wi-ath of God. 

To such a dire conclusion we are 
craftily hurried on by the wiles and 
blandishments of Popish instrumenta- 
lity, as well as by our own sopoiific 
unconcern, and an infatuated conceit 
of self-security. And moreover, the 
emissaries of Rome, who are devoting 
themselves to the destruction of our 
Protestant liberties, find shelter and 
quietness in their work under the con- 
fusion and hesitation that result from 
the conflicting tendencies of a liber- 
tine Government on the one hand 
doing everything, whether consciously 
or not, to help forward the Romish 
apostacy, and on the other, a pro- 
fessedly Protestant but divided com- 
munity, forming schemes and entering 
into combinations to avert the im- 
pending calamity. 

WhUe the occupants of our beseiged 
Protestant citadel are thus divided 
against themselves, the assailing ad- 
versary exults ui the faith of a com- 
plete success. But along with this 
ancient Antichristian enemy from 
without, there is a host of internal 
disorders in our social system, so mul- 
tiplied and grievous as to carry dis- 
may to every Christian and patriotic 
heart. Infidelity is fearfully increas- 
ing amongst our artizans; covetous- 
ness, speculation, and oppression 
amongst those who are over them ; 
mutual confidence is fast disappear- 
ing ; and crimes, at once horrible and 
ingenious, are becoming rife. And 
notwithstanding the apparently exten- 
sive cultivation of polite literature, 
and the advancement of science and 
art, there is still an alarming amount 
of ignorance, idleness, and immorality 
leavening the lower strata of society. 
WhUe we do not here enter upon a 
view of the ecclesiastical degeneracy 
of our times, we may remark, merely 
for the sake of connecting our train of 
thought, that since the religious part 



THE ARK. 



of the community, popularly called 
the Church, has fallen into a lamenta- 
ble disregard of many ruling doctrines 
of the Word of God, which were 
much esteemed, and earnestly con- 
tended for in former and more godly 
generations — since doctrinal religion is 
now commonly ranked as of merely 
secondary imi)ortance, and non-essen- 
tial — since, with an easy conscience, 
point after point of a scriptural code 
of doctrine, worship, discipline, and 
government, is freely abandoned, in 
order to remove every obstacle in the 
way of a superficial semblance of 
Christian peace, love, and unity, which 
are held as the essentials to be sought 
after, whatever may become of the 
glory of Emmanuel, the beautiful 
order of His House, and the piu'ity of 
the faith which He committed to the 
saints, — since all this, and much more, 
has become the outstanding character 
of our modern Scottish Christianity, 
it is not to be wondered at, that 
families should catch the spirit of the 
Church, and throw off the yoke of 
fireside godliness, forget to worship 
God together, and hand over the work 
of catechising their children to a few 
raw lads and simpering gii-ls in a 
Sabbath-school, instead of following 
the Divine rule. "And these words 
Avhich I command thee this day shall 
be in thine heart ; and thou shalt teach 
them diligently unto thy children, and 
shalt talk of them when thou sittest 
in thine house, and when thou walkest 
by the way," &c. Hence the rising 
generation is allowed to remain in a 
mournful ignorance of the first prin- 
ciples of the faith, and to assume the 
fair form of godliness without the 
power, — while the substantial family 
piety of better days, is chased from 
our homes, and a moping or trifling 
sentimentalism is substituted and fos- 
tered by an attractive array of " Sunday 
Stories," " Sunday at Home," and 
" Sunday Picture Books," sufficient to 



eradicate every solid and scriptural 
habit of family and personal religion. 
Notwithstanding all this, it must be 
acknowledged that there is a great 
deal of earnest but too unsuccessful 
effort on the part of professing Chris- 
tians to oppose and remove the evils 
hinted at. Numerous and well-con- 
trived schemes have been set in opera- 
tion as antidotes to the in-flowing 
flood of iniquity. Against the inva- 
sion of P(j})ery we have mustered and 
marshalled an imposing and active 
force of Reformation Societies, Pro- 
testant Associations of young men and 
ladies ; we have, with a laudable as- 
siduity and resolution laboured to erect 
our "Rocks" and '■^Bulwarks''' to cover 
our Protestant intrenchments, and 
have kept up a running fire from our 
batteries, in the shape of lectures and 
popular assemblies and speeches against 
the Man of Sin ; so that had these 
been the divinely-appointed instru- 
ments of his destniction, he should 
long ago have been routed and slain. 
But so far is this from being the case, 
he is growing in courage and skill, 
— reinforcing his besieging host, and 
is gaining, by bribery and perversion, 
a large accession of apostate Protes- 
tant allies within the very citadel. 
His own batteries are almost silent, 
but it is the silence of a well-assured 
triumph, speedUy to be achieved, un- 
less our Protestantism be renewed as 
of old, and we in the name of our 
God set up our ancient and legitimate 
Banner, and take up the sword of the 
Lord, and the shield of the mighty, 
which have been vilely cast away. It 
is manifest that the approved means 
has not yet been employed, otherwise 
the adversary would have been long 
ago overcome. The engines of defence 
used by professing Protestants in our 
land for some years past have proved 
their utter inadequacy to roll back the 
invading Antichrist, and are now 
almost hopelessly abandoned by those 



THE AKK. 



who worked them ; and the stillness 
that haugs over the combatants is only 
broken at intervals by a random shot 
from some passing orator, vainly at- 
tempting to demolish some of the 
more prominent parts of the Romish 
position ; but such meet with a very 
poor sympathy, and an unwiUing at- 
tention from a community akeady 
quite worn out by the fruitless strug- 
gle ; and every Christian who has 
been exerting himself to remove all or 
any of these political, or social, or 
reUgious difficulties — every patriotic 
statesman, philanthropist, and mis- 
sionary, is ready to euquu'e in blank 
disappointment, "Who will show us 
any good ? " " We have been in pain, 
we have as it were brought forth wind ; 
we have not wrought any deliverance 
in the earth ; neither have the irdiabi- 
tants of the world fallen % " Isa. xxvi. 
18. 

What, then, the reader may ask, 
would you have us to do, since so 
many promising efforts have failed % 
Our reply is very brief, at present, as 
the subject wUl be prosecuted more in 
detad in subsequent issues of our 
pubhcation. Let it suffice in the 
meantime to state, that in order to do 
good, it is not enough that the means 
employed be merely expedient ; they 
must be in harmony with the wiU of 
God, revealed in His Word ; and in 
regard to rehgious reformation, in par- 
ticular, they must be those which are 
appointed expressly by the Head of 
the Church, and the Prince of the 
kings of the earth. 

Now such means were, by the sove- 
reign goodness of God, committed to 
this nation little more than two cen- 
turies ago ; when the Church and 
nation were solemnly leagued together 
to defend, maintain, and promote that 
righteousness which exalteth a nation ; 
when the sacred principles of civil and 
religious Hberty, as they are found 
revealed in the Scriptures, and the 



purity of the doctrine, worship, dis- 
cipline and government of the Church, 
were clearly exhibited in the Confession 
of Faith and Catechisms, as standards of 
a holy uniformity for Christ's visible 
Church ; and when all these precious 
principles and attainments were ad- 
hered to as the groimd and the means 
of true reformation, and solemnly 
fenced by an oath between the Church 
and nation, and the Most High : then 
indeed were the words of the leader 
of Israel applicable to us — "What 
nation is there so great, who hath God 
so nigh unto them ] . . And what 
nation is there so great that hath 
statutes and judgments so righteous f 
These scrii3tural standards have been 
boldly infringed in a thousand different 
instances ; and they are practically 
ignored by the vast majority of British 
Christians at the present day. And 
while the solemn National Oath has 
been violated — abolished — ridicided — 
and consigned to contemptuous obU- 
vion, by the nation and the Church, 
very many who profess to hold it 
in reverence, are ashamed formally to 
own it. Verdy "we have forsaken 
the fountain of Uviug waters, and have 
hewn out to ourselves broken cisterns 
that can hold no water." This gross 
national perjury is the sin that rankles 
at the heart and gnaws at the vitals, 
of' our Constitution. It is the prolific 
source of the midtiplied confiisions of 
our whole British society — of the 
moral blight that is darkening the 
religious community and creating end- 
less heresies and divisions, — it is the 
cause of the absence of the Spmt, and 
the consequent inefficacy of eveiy 
effort at reformation. "The Lord's hand 
is not shortened that it cannot save ; 
neither His ear heavy that it cannot 
hear ; but our iniquities have separated 
between us and our God, and our sins 
have hid His face fi-om us, that He 
will not hear." Hence also He begins, 
by the tokens of His anger upon us at 



present to fulfil the Word, " Shall I 
not visit for these things, saith the 
Lord 1 Shall not my soul be avenged 
on such a nation as this 1 " But the 
national conscience is, alas ! painfully 
seared in regard to this sin, as is 
proved by the fact that, amongst the 
numerous confessions of guilt, during 
the late national humiliation, neither 
from the pulpit nor the press was 



there any mention made of this mortal 
and crowning national transgression. 
But though our nilers, our princes, our 
judges, and our ministers may forget 
and deny it, it is ratified in the court 
of heaven, and is held in righteous 
remembrance by Him who keepeth 
trath for ever, and who will not hold 
any guiltless that take His name in 
vain. 



IrcliminavD llcnuirks. 



From a variety of startling, hard- 
pressing, and concuiTcnt events, rush- 
ing with frightfid velocity from the 
circumference to the centre, the more 
reflecting and pious part of the British 
community are putting the anxious 
question, " What shall the end of these 
things be 1 " And should the public 
engine for the next few years travel at 
the same rapid rate, causing so many 
abrupt and disastrous stoppages, it 
requires not extraordinary sagacity, or 
the qualifications of a seer, to predict, 
that the upshot may bring us, and at 
no distant time, to a dead stand, or 
precipitate an explosion. Without 
undertaking, especially in these Pre- 
liminary Remarks, to address our- 
selves to rigidly accurate statistical 
information, we are within the mark 
when we say, that notwithstanding 
the extensive difi"usion among the 
masses by means of pviblic lectm-eships, 
the extraordinary amount of political 
and general information by means of 
a cheap daily press, and the con- 
tinuous and strenuous efforts of mis- 
sionary enterprize ; yet we have to do 
battle with the antagonistic forces of 
novel and scientific crime, ingenious 
speculation terminating in fraudulency, 
missionary zeal checked by lowest 
political considerations, or quenched in 
the blood of mutinous rebellion, and 
the crafty but steady advance of 



Popery amid the apathy of so-called 
Protestantism, and the complacency of 
Anglican Tractarianism. 

Although the above is meagrely in- 
dicative of the real state of our coun- 
try, and abstracts altogether from its 
relative position as seriously affected 
by our closest and very equivocal con- 
nection with the continent of Europe ; 
yet it contains enough to show, that 
we labour under a disease which has 
passed from the acute and settled down 
into the chronic stage, and, preying 
on the vitals, calls for immediate and 
active means. And that the patient 
— the politico-ecclesiastical body — is 
not sufficiently aware of his perilous 
state, is but another illustration of the 
dangerous fact, that in all cases of 
insidious pulmonary disease, he is 
posting on to the last crisis. 

Feeling, although but partially, that 
his health is gradually declining, he 
naturally runs to those appliances that 
have effected rapid cures in foreign 
countries, and in critical and revolu- 
tionary times. 

The political empiric confidently 
prescribes closest alliances with Popish 
continental powers ; the philanthrojjist 
advises the moral means of mingling 
information with the amusement of 
the working classes ; while the eccle- 
siastic insists, with strange inconsis- 
tency, on submerging the essentials of 



denominationalism for the alleged supe- 
rior advantage of a united although 
fictitious front against the compact, 
well-drilled, and advancing battalions 
of Romanism and attractive literary 
scepticism. 

But notwithstanding the ingenuity 
and philanthropy which have suggested 
these various remedies, the untiring 
energy with which they have been press- 
ed on society, the confidence with which 
they have been prescribed, and the ad- 
vertised isolated cases of cure, yet the in- 
creasing public complaints demonstrate 
that the patient has not been material- 
ly relieved, that the seat of the disease 
has not been reached, that the rapid 
and wiry pidse indicates a higher state 
of inflammation, and that dangerous 
eruptions of a political, ecclesiastical, 
commercial, and social kind are more 
frequent and more distinctly marked. 

The o])vious inference from this pain-i 
fully tme account of the patient's break- 
ing-down constitution is, either that 
the real disease under which he labours 
has not yet been accurately ascertained, 
or that the means employed have been 
of an improper kind. And sound rea- 
son in such a critical case would sug- 
gest, that the regimen to which the 
patient has been so long and so hope- 
lessly subjected, and the medicines 
which have been so confidently pre- 
scribed and so readUy taken, shoidd be 
discontinued imtil a new consultation 
shaU be had. And as rash experi- 
menting, as mere tentative measures, 
might aggravate the disease, and might 
precipitate a dissolution ; so the safer 
and more rational course to pursue, is 
to discover that regimen by following 
which the patient once acquired and 
long enjoyed a vigorous constitution, 
and a departure from which has been 
followed by his present feeble and pre- 
carious state. Were it not that by his 
numerous and complicated corporeal 
distempers his mind has become affect- 
ed, the patient himself would seek his 



native air, and would restrict himself 
to that simpler and more nutritious 
diet, on the strength of which he for- 
merly exemplified honesty in the tran- 
saction of his secular aftairs, prosecuted 
literature and science in accordance 
with the clear dictates of inspiration, 
displayed wisdom in framing and yield- 
ed ready obedience in observing the 
righteous laws of the realm, demon- 
strated his sanctified patriotism in de- 
finding his blood-bought religion and 
liberty, and in being blessed in the 
practice of that substantial piety which 
regulated his deportment in every re- 
lation he sustained. 

That such was the sound constitu- 
tion and moral health of the patient, 
some two himdred years ago, or during 
the era of the Second Refoemation, 
requires not the formality of reasoning 
to shew, but is rendered transparent 
by well-accredited historic facts, which 
admit not of being tortured by perverse 
ingenuity, or laughed dovra by literary 
scepticism. And as these luminous 
and regnant facts" of European, and 
especially of British history, are the na- 
tive fniits of clearly-defined gi-eat prin- 
ciples, so they are fixed and not am- 
bulatory, and are not peculiar to any 
age or to any coimtry ; while the hon- 
est and formal adoption of them would 
guarantee an infusion of fresh blood, 
and enable the feeble and diseased pa- 
tient to throw off these peccant hu- 
mours, to renew his youth, and sur\ave 
the next threatened attack upon the 
very seat of life. 

Ha-ving some acquaintance with the 
leading principles and the salient 
points of the Second Reformation, and 
deeply interested in the apprehended 
issues of a serious and not distant 
struggle ; we feel that — not to employ 
the fatuous phraseology of ISTapoleon 
III. — we have a mission to discharge 
in pointing out what has heretofore, 
and " in troublous times," proved the 
salvation and triumph of these isles of 



the sea, and to demonstrate fi-om their 
inherent value that they alone are 
adequate to secure against the virulence 
of our great national epidemic. 

Had the comprehensive measure 
which our pages profess to illustrate, 
defend, and recommend for immediate 
and formal embracement, been novel 
and merely tentative, and had it not 
already, and in equally perilous cir- 
cumstances, been tested and proved 



j adequate, we would have paused be- 
fore making the confident announce- 
ment, that what it achieved for our 
country before, it can achieve again ; 
and if adopted, even at this the ele- 
venth hour of the history of our 
dearly-beloved country, would abash 
the insolent adversary, rebuke the bold 
apostate, and prove itself conservative 
of Britain's remanent liberty. 



|,aljn fmK on Chirtlr Jlisti})lint 



It is the Lord's great mercy, that, in the 
Reformation of this Kirk, He hath been 
preached and professed King, Priest, and 
Prophet ; and it shall be the glory of this 
land thankfully to acknowledge that incom- 
prehensible benefit, and always carefully to 
keep whole -nathout rent, and to carry a 
reverend estimation to the great work of the 
reformation of this KirL For this effect ye 
must arm yourselves against the lords of 
tongues, who have said, "With our tongues 
we will prevail." .... It is clearly 
known to many in this kingdom, and in 
foreign parts, what a wall for defence, and a 
band for peace, and progress of the gospel, 
was that heavenly discipline, whereby bro- 
therly amity, and sacred hannony of prince, 
pastors and professors were so continued and 
increased, that all, as 'ne man did stand 
together for the doctrine, sacraments, and 
kirk-government, against the adversaries, 
either lurking or professed. It was the 
hedge of the Lord's vineyard, and the ham- 
mer whereby the horns, both of adversaries, 
and disobeyers, were beaten and broken. 
And of this happy mean it might be truly 
said, that in the strength of it, more than 
by our own virtue, were we strong and pre- 



vailed. And to shari)en our love, it is thus 
written by a stranger, but a friend, "Albeit 
it be necessary that they who have their city 
in heaven, repose altogether thereupon, yet 
nothing should hinder us to behold, as it 
were, heaven upon earth, that is, the power 
of God in His own city. By most evident 
•rtiasons, I judge the kirk of Scotland to be 
of this sort : in which the many mighty 
and long continuliig a.ssaults of Satan, the 
like whereof as I think, no nation sustained, 
could neither defile the purity of doctrine, nor 
bow the rule of right ""iwip'iiie. This is a 
great gift of God that iu- hath brought to- 
gether to Scotland, both the purity of religion 
and discipline, whereby, as in a bond, the 
doctrine is safely kept. I pray and beseech 
you so to keep these two together, as that ye 
may be assui-ed that if the one fall, the other 
can no way long stand." 

[Does this extract not throw an instructive 
light upon the cause of the degeneracy of 
our present ecclesiastical condition ? Discip- 
line has been gradually tll^o^^n aside, and as 
a necessary consequence, the purity of doctrine 
is esteemed only of secondary importance, in 
comparison with an apparent outward unity]. 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by James S. Muik, 60 New Buildings, North 

Bridge (to whom all Communications — prepaid — may be addressed), 

and sold by all Booksellers. 



T. I,. AITKEK, PRrNTER, GEORGE IV. BRIDGE. EDINBURGH. 



Mht %Yt 



No. II. 



JANUARY 1858. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

A Survey of the Events of the Year 1857. 
" Occupy till I come." 
Garnishing Sepulchres. 



|l Sutljen at i\}t (fcljenis of tlje ]^m m7. 



The commencement of a new year 
calls to a retrospective survey of the 
leading events of that which has 
passed away ; and to this call we now 
respond by attempting to extract the 
practical benefit of the poet's apho- 
rism, "We learn the future by the 
past," or, in the language of inspira- 
tion, " to redeem the time, because the 
days are evil." 

The year 1857 has been signalised 
by the extremely rare occurrence of 
the Parliament of our country having 
been three times called together, and 
three times dismissed. The ground- 
swell of the Russian campaign was 
strongly felt, when our anxieties for 
the fate of the British arms were 
directed to the East. Scarcely had 
the Chinese war commenced with the 
bombardment of Canton, when the 
stunning report of a formidable revolt 
among our native Indian army reached 
our shores. The whole country is 
gradually wrought up to the highest 
pitch of a raging fever, when a com- 
mand for a day of public humiliation 
comes from the Crown, the observance 
of which excites ecclesiastical contro- 
versy. While telegram after telegram 



brings more harrowing details of the 
perpetration of fiendish massacres, the 
commercial ocean has been worked 
into a state that threatened to reduce 
America, Europe, and this country to 
a disreputable and incalculable bank- 
ruptcy. The year has closed, whUe our 
war with China and India is for from 
settled ; while Russian aggressive poli- 
cy, especially on Turkey, is far from 
adequately met ; while bankruptcy 
examinations are disclosing a fearful 
amount of lowest morality by reckless 
specidation ; iand whUe tlie vibrations 
of the monetary crisis seriously affect 
large numbers of the unemployed, 
especially in the mining and manu- 
facturing districts. As illustrative of 
the magnitude of the commercial 
crisis, we have to remind the reader, 
that, apart from its eftects upon the 
United States of America and the 
Continent of Europe, no fewer than 
five Joint-Stock Banks, and very many 
of the most extensive and reputable 
firms, in Great Britain alone, have 
been compelled to suspend payment, 
and inflict misery on thousands, with- 
in the brief space of two months. 
Not a few, whose large experience in 



these matters is entitled to respect, 
have thought it would be wise, by in- 
stituting a contrast, or rather a com- 
parison, betwixt the years 1847 and 
1857, to be prepared against the 
highly probable political excitement 
throughout Europe consequent upon 
the monetarj' crisis and concomitant 
events of 1847. To a very general 
and brief consideration of this pro- 
blem, we shall address ourselves under 
its two aspects, — -first, the Political ; 
and second, the Religious. 

Ten years ago, our country entered 
upon a new political and commercial 
career. The ministry of the late Sir 
Robert Peel, after relinquishing the 
main line of policy which it had so 
long and so successfully prosecuted, 
and after losing its supporters, resigned 
in 1846. The system of Free Trade 
now introduced gave an impulse to 
commerce, and although this was 
materially enhanced by the subsequent 
abolition of the Navigation laws ; yet 
this policy could not fail to open up 
new channels through which commerce 
would flow. The eifects produced 
were beneficial, and would have been 
lasting, but for the railway mania of 
1845, and the failure of the potato 
crop of 1846. The consequent high 
price of corn imported from foreign 
countries created a drain of gold from 
this country in payment of the re- 
quired supplies of food. Capital to an 
immense amount was sunk in railways 
and other schemes of speculation, 
which, in the great majority of cases, 
ended in irreparable loss. The Bank 
of England, in consequence of a want 
of circulating medium as well as gold, 
was compelled to apply for a suspen- 
sion of the Act regulating its issues, 
which suspension, however, was not 
taken advantage of, as the panic was 
not so serious as had been anticipated. 
The lesson read the nation by this 
event was, that in consequence of keen 
speculation, and the payment of gold 



for imported supplies of food, while 
the sunk capital was unavailable, 
commerce was carried beyond its 
natural limits. 

Without examining into the causes 
of this, we would merely tlarow out 
the few following hints, as we have 
not space to take up the svibject for- 
mally. Since 1847, the commerce of 
our country has been more widely de- 
veloped by the immense amount of 
treasure discovered of late years in 
the fields of Australia and California. 
This has given a fresh impulse to 
trade and industry ; our exports have 
considerably increased ; Mobile agri- 
culture, at one time thought to have 
received a heavy blow by the abolition 
of protective duties, has reached a 
height of great prosperity. But the 
calm and reflective mind, not content 
with a mere superficial glance, could 
not fail to see, that our whole com- 
mercial system, although shewing ex- 
ternal prosperity, was founded on a 
wrong principle, by our having a cur- 
rency based on gold, the standard by 
which the value of every article in 
commerce is regulated. Without 
further entering upon this intricate 
question, we deem it sufiicient to re- 
mark, that unless the standard of 
money be altered from something of 
inti'insic to something of merely secu- 
ritive value, all legislation will be 
fruitless in providing a cure for mone- 
tary evils such as those which from 
time to time have visited the commer- 
cial world. 

But the events of 1847 were but 
the precursors of a political convulsion 
on the continent of Europe, and which, 
to a certain extent, was felt in this 
country. Who has not heard of the 
state of France, Hungary, Italy, and 
Germany, during that short period 1 
The Orleans dynasty disappeared in 
France ; the Emperor of Austria was 
obliged to flee from Vienna ; and, to 
omit many other startling occurrences. 



the eventful tragedy closed with the 
Pope making his escape from Rome in 
disguise. It is somewhat remarkable 
that we have every ten years our at- 
tention attracted by events somewhat 
similar. Thus in 1817, we had a 
commercial crisis followed by political 
excitement ; the same holds true of 
1827, as well as 1837, when there 
was an American monetary crisis of 
such magnitude and severity, that the 
Government of the United States had 
to suspend payment. Nothing can be 
more certain than the fact that these 
decadal periods mark the history of 
the world, proceeding, doubtless, from 
the arrangements of Providence, by 
the intervention of natural causes, 
although it is difficult to explain how 
these operate. 

In 1847, several circumstances cor- 
responding to those of the past year 
were observable. We had a dissolu- 
tion of Parliament. The elections 
were characterized by the popular re- 
jection of many great men who had 
done service to their country. As soon, 
however, as an opportunity presented 
itself, the very constituencies who had 
violently thrown them ofi", welcomed 
them back with applause. This oscil- 
lation of public feeling has been still 
more fully exemplified in 1857. Al- 
most every member of the Peace 
Society was in the list of defeated 
candidates ; and in the larger consti- 
tuencies, where the popular element 
prevails, there was an unmistakable 
approbation expressed as to the aggTes- 
sive policy of Government in China. 
Only a month or two pass over, when 
nearly all these rejected candidates are 
re-elected, and the press who, at the 
time of the elections, spoke vehement- 
ly against them, now regard their 
political career in a new light. This 
shows an alarming amount of prejudice 
and lack of public principle, which, if 
allowed to extend, cannot fail to lead 
to disastrous consequences. One of 



these is already manifested in a pre- 
vailing disregard for constituted autho- 
rity, because of no fixed principle to 
guide the magistrate in administering 
the law. Judges and inferior magis- 
trates are now too apt to pander to 
pubUc opinion ; forgetting that the 
office they hold is created primarily 
for the preservation of order, which 
can only be effected by a rigid ad- 
herence to the laws and constitution 
which the nation has laid down for the 
distribution of justice, and the security 
of life and property. 

That this principle, which may be 
termed the foundation of all govern- 
ment, is now openly set at nought, 
appears from what we see daily pass- 
ing around us. Political power is to 
a great extent abused and taken ad- 
vantage of to gratify the prejudices of 
men who are constantly exciting at- 
tention by proposals of a novel des- 
cription. A magistrate happens to be 
in office who, not satisfied with setting 
an example in matters relating to 
private life, exerts all his official in- 
fluence to bring the general habits of 
the people in accordance with his own. 
He considers the numerous social evils 
that demand remedy, and attempts to 
remove these by enforcing such regula- 
tions as will eventually be eftectual 
for the gradual suppression of a traffic 
which is pregnant v/ith moral disaster 
to society. To a mind accustomed to 
view matters in a superficial light, 
such a course cannot fail to appear 
plausible. By forsaking our funda- 
mental principle of government, how- 
ever, the usual resort is to a series of 
impulsive and temjjorary measures, 
which, while they may for the present 
give a sudden check to the disorder, 
only leave it to rush onward with. 
fiercer impetuosity after it has swept 
away the feeble barrier. It cannot be 
denied that di-unkenness is one of our 
most prolific vices as a nation ; but it 
is questionable if the proper cure has 



yet been fairly tried ; and while re- 
formers themselves are so divided in 
opinion, it is surely fitted to increase 
the evil to resort to schemes which are 
plainly at variance with the constitu- 
tion. There are, however, many objects 
more desirable than the suppression 
of the liquor traffic not sought after 
by modern reformers. Good govern- 
ment is one of these. 

In a countiy like ours, where the 
constitution is essentially representa- 
tive, and where the middle and even 
the working classes to a very large 
extent, form the body politic, the 
Government must look to public opin- 
ion for guidance as to hjgislation. In 
such circumstances, it is expected that 
no laws shall be passed infringing the 
liberties of the subject, unless the 
nation become so infatuated as to allow 
their representatives to vote away 
their dearly-bought privileges. But 
when this actually happens, as it now 
does too fi-equently, it can only be 
explained by an admission, that the 



principles of civil government as a 
natural institution are now entirely 
subverted. 

The consequence of all this is a dis- 
regard of constituted authority on the 
part of the suliject, while, on the other 
hand, the magistrate falls into igno- 
rance as to the due limits and just 
powers of his office. Natural evUs 
require cures in accordance with na- 
ture ; but if well-meaning people wiU 
devise remedies which are not sanc- 
tioned by the God of nature, we can- 
not speak of these but in condemna- 



tion. 

It was our intention to have taken 
up the more important, because reli- 
gious, part of the subject in this num- 
ber, but want of space compels us to 
defer this to another opportunity. We 
beg, however, in conclusion, to remark 
that, if the year 1848 was remarkable 
for political confusion consequent upon 
what occurred in 1847, what may we 
expect in 1858? 



iBttm till I tonic' 



In the contemplation of the universe, 
there is, perhaps, no fact more strikingly 
apparent to the careful observer, than 
that of the restless activity of matter. 
All created organisms, whether animate 
or inanimate, from the microscopic 
monad, not exceeding in size the twelve 
thousandth part of an inch, to those 
majestic spheres, that circle ceaselessly 
through the immensities of space, 
maintain their existence in obedience 
to the laws of the Almighty Creator. 
Well might the ancients speak of "the 
music of the spheres," whose celestial 
tones are imperceptible to dulled human 
sense ! Year succeeds year, and age 
after age passes away ; yet no jarring 
discord disturbs the harmony of the 
miiverse. Mutually acting and acted 



upon, those ponderous orbs move in the 
paths assigned them by the Almighty 
creative fiat ; and by a system of the 
most marvellous and exquisitely ad- 
justed compensations, the beautiful and 
glorious whole is maintained in undis- 
turbed security. 

In our own planet, the restless, though 
unchanging ocean, pursues unwearied 
her appointed labours, supporting the 
teeming myriads that animate her 
waters ; and, in connection with other 
benignant influences, modifies the ex- 
tremes of atmospheric temperature, and 
dispenses, by means of her gigantic 
heating -apparatus, the gulf- stream, 
warmth, and healthfiil fertilising 
showers, to lands, which, owing to 
their high latitudes, would otherwise 



have remained bleak, barren, and in- 
hospitable. 

But what shall we say of electric 
and magnetic agencies, without whose 
action no substance, either organic or 
inorganic, could exist ; and above all, 
of that mysterious princijile which we 
call Hght 1 Where light does not 
penetrate, there life ceases to be ; and 
where its greatest intensity occurs, 
there we find life's highest development, 
in luxuriance of growth, richness of 
colouring, symmetry of form, and per- 
fect organisation. 

But we do not require to instance 
the grand and the stupendous in nature, 
in order to shew the inexhaustible 
energies of all created things. The 
humblest and most minute have a mis- 
sion assigned them, which they fulfil in 
a very orderly and unostentatious man- 
ner. The poor despised earth-worm is 
a most useful animal in creation. 
Without it the trees of our forests 
would not attain their gigantic height 
and rich luxuriance, for no other than 
the industrious earth-worm is the 
preparer and refiner of their soil. 
Even the venomous nettle supports 
upwards of fifty different species of 
insects ; and they, in their turn, prey 
on its root, stem, leaves, and flowers, 
to prevent the too great increase of a 
weed, so easily disseminated, that it 
has found its way to every quarter of 
the globe. 

Seeing then tliat the irresponsible 
part of creation is thus actively engaged 
in fulfilling the will of their glorious 
Author, let us now consider what is the 
appointed decree for the resiwiisihle 
agent, man. 

Linked to the material world by his 
body, a wonderful epitome of the 
mineral, the vegetable, and the animal, 
he stands at the head of creation as 
the perfect development of divine 
creative thought, and is, on this ac- 
count, emphatically styled " the highest 
part of the dust of the world." But 



he has a purer and more glorious con- 
nection ! Endowed with a reasonable 
and immortal soul, which allies him 
to the spiritual and invisible, he is, in 
this respect, but " a little lower than 
the angels." 

What, then, is the work for so exalted 
and gifted a creature 1 We have the 
answer in oiu* title, ' Occupy till I come.' 

The parable from which these words 
are taken was, no doubt, intended by 
our Lord to shew, that every one has 
some talent entrusted to his keeping, 
by the improvement of which, he is 
to glorify God, "the giver of every 
good and perfect gift." 

Fallen man in his natural state is 
morally incapacitated for so doing. 
Formed originally in the image of God, 
a pure and happy being ; possessed of 
an unerring intellect, of affections, 
which rose by their own spiritual 
buoyancy to the footstool of Deity, 
and of a will ever directed Godwards ; 
his duty was to him as easy, as it was 
pleasurable. 

Through the subtlety of the Tempter, 
man fell from this glorious estate ; and 
breaking T!ovenant with God, he wil- 
fully defaced the glorious image which 
dwelt in his inner temple, and bowed 
down to the grim idol erected in its 
stead. Sinful, guilty, and depraved, 
holiness is now to him unattainable : he 
has left him no base line broad enough 
to take its parallax ; and sinking yet 
lower and lower by continued trans- 
gression, it can never to his unaided 
senses subtend an appreciable angle. 

But God, in his infinite mercy and 
condescension, has stepped forth from 
his place, to rescue a chosen number 
from so terrible an abyss. Stripped of 
their original righteousness. He has 
provided for them an infinitely greater 
one ; the righteousness of His only- 
begotten Son, who came into the world 
to offer up Himself a willing sacrifice 
to appease the offended majesty of 
Godhead ; to receive the punishment 



due to the siuuer ; aud, iu exchange, 
to confer ou hiin the spotless righ- 
teousness, which his perfect obedience 
to the whole law of God has wrought 
out. " For God so loved the world, 
that He gave His only-begotten Son, 
that whosoever believeth in Him should 
not perish, but have everlasting life." 
Believing in His name, they are restored 
to the path they have forsaken : no 
longer, however, to be easily trodden, 
because of the thorns that sin has 
planted, and the lions which the arch 
enemy has placed in the way. 

The command then has gone forth, 
" Occupy till I come ; " and to enable 
all those who earnestly strive to obey 
its requirements. He has promised the 
aid of the Holy Spirit, without whose 
divine influence all human effort to 
please God is exerted iu vain. All those 
who profess to be in Christ, are required 
to give proof thereof, by obeying His 
commands ; as Christ Himself says, 
"If ye love me, keep my command- 
ments." 

In obeying our Lord's injunction, 
" Occupy till I come," our first duty 
plainly is, a solemn dedication of our- 
selves and all we possess to God. To 
serve God, presupposes that we are 
already his received servants. Without 
this solemn devotement, the noblest 
and most elevated actions of the crea- 
ture are dishonouring to God, for 
"whatsoever is not of faith, is sin." 
Previous to the Fall, man lived for 
God, and for him only ; but, by his 
transgression, he wilfully absconded 
from the service of his lawful Lord, 
and bound himself and all his posterity 
to a cruel task-master ; whose wages 
are death and an eternity of unutter- 
able woe. From so terrible a bondage 
nothing esteemed precious among men 
can save him ; nothing, save the price- 
less ransom of tlie Ptedeemer's blood. 

To be freed from the bondage of sin 
and Satan, and to be restored to the 
glorious liberty of the sons of God, 



he must be united to Christ by a lively 
faith in him, without which it is im- 
possible to please God. Then, and 
then only, can he bring forth fruits 
meet for repentance ; for, " as the 
branch cannot bear fruit of itself except 
it abide in the vine ; no more can ye, 
except ye abide in me." 

Having thus presented our bodies a 
living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto 
God, which is our reasonable service, 
our next duty unquestionably is, to seek 
out that talent by which we may best 
glorify God, and in the improvement 
of it, to occupy ourselves tiU the Lord 
come to receive His own with usury. 

Let no one say he is too inconsiderable 
to do anything for God. As in nature, 
we find the meanest things contributing 
to the general well-being and harmony, 
so in Scripture we read of the poorest 
and weakest being rich in faith, and 
in good works towards God The eye 
of Jesus can detect the widow's hard 
spared two mites, though He pass by 
unheeded the costly offerings of the 
self-righteous : and a cup of cold water 
bestowed on a poor disciple, in His 
name, shall not lose its reward. 

Is it not surprising, how we labour 
and toil to fit ourselves for our earthly 
vocations, while there is little or no 
effort to work for God ; how much 
struggling aud straining there is for 
what not only perishes in the using, but 
is besides a terrible snare to the soul ; 
how multitudes spend their time and 
means in the search after an evanescent 
and unsatisfying happiness ; how men 
richly endowed with the heaven-be- 
j stowed gifts of intellect and genius, 
rest content in the pursuit of a mere 
human knowledge, that puffeth up : 
and all this in an age in which men 
loudly profess to worship God 1 Is 
this occupying till Christ come ? Or 
is it a burying of our talent in the 
earth ? Nay — it is a yet darker and 
deadlier sin ; — it is an immolation of 
God's gifts at the shrine of the Devil. 



If men had but a tithe of the de- 
sire to overcome their own corruptions, 
that they have to overcome one another ; 
if they shewed as much Christian humi- 
lity in taking God's way to work, as they 
shew a vain conceit in the adoption of 
human expedients ; if men straggled as 
nobly for God, as they do for their 
natural and social rights ; — we should 
not have in the Church so many cold 
professors, not distinct from, but merg- 
ing into, the Profane. But alas, the 
scourge of disciplinary cords has been 
discarded from the service of the 
temple ; and the degraded worshippers 
make merchandise in her hallowed 
courts ! 

In conclusion, and especially as an- 
other year is at its close, (one whose 
events have been graven by fiendish 
hands, armed with fire and sword, on 
a fleshy tablet, where Britain may read 
Retribution in characters of lurid flame) 
we would now urge, not only to employ 
our talents in God's service, but to 



stiive, with the energy of our whole 
nature, to cultivate every gift of God, 
whatever it may be, to the utmost, so 
that we may serve Him with our best, 
and not with that which costs us 
nothing. No earthly master will re- 
tain in his service a slothful and un- 
skilful workman : and shall we offer 
to God what man would reject 1 

How marvellous is the long-suffering 
mercy of God, that it has not long ere 
this been said, " Thou wicked and sloth- 
ful servant." "Take from htm the pound, 
and give it to him that hath ten pounds." 

With this new year, confessing our 
past shortcomings, let us pray God to 
give us grace from on high, to begin 
life anew ; to serve Him with every 
power and faculty of our being ; that, 
when He cometh, we may receive the 
commendation — " Well done thou 
good and faithful servant ; thou hast 
been faithftil over a few things, I will 
make thee ruler over many things : 
Enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." 



iarni^ing Se^ultlim. 



A FEW weeks ago, a paragraph ap- 
peared in the public prints giving an 
account of the erection of a monument 
at Stirling to the memory of James 
Guthrie the Martyr. The imposing 
ceremony of the inauguration was 
attended by clergymen of various de- 
nominations, as well as by distinguish- 
ed laymen, and addresses were deli- 
vered in honour of the martyi'S who 
laid down their lives in defence of the 
truth. Thus the j^resent generation 
delights to honour our persecuted fore- 
fathers ; and by acknowledging them 
as martyrs, would seem to approve of 
the principles for which they suffered. 
But what were these principles ? Let 
us hear the testimony of James 
Guthrie himself. Before his head was 
struck off at the Netherbow of Edin- 



burgh, he made the following declara- 
tion : — 

" It hath been my lot to have been 
a man of contention and sorrow ; but 
it is my comfort that for my own 
things I have not contended, but for 
the things of Jesus Christ, for what 
relateth to His interest and work, and 
the well-being of His people. . . . 
One thing I would warn you all of, that 
God is wroth — yea, very wi'oth with 
Scotland, and threateneth to depart 
and remove His candlestick ; the causes 
of His wrath are many. . . . One 
great cause is that horrible treachery 
and perjury that is in the matter of 
the Covenant and Cause of God, and 
work of Reformation : ' Be astonislied, 
ye heavens, at this, and be horribly 
afraid ; be ye very desolate, saith the 



Lord ; for my people have committed 
two evils : they have forsaken me, the 
the fountain of living waters, and have 
hewed them out cisterns, broken cis- 
terns that can hold no water.' Shall 
he break the Covenant, and prosper ; 
I fear the Lord is about to bring a 
sword on tliese lands which shall avenge 
tlie quan-el of His Covenant. . . . 
May the Lord open the mouths of His 
servants to speak His word with all 
boldness, that Covenant-breaking may 
be discovered and reproved, and that 
the kingdom of Jesus Christ may not 
be siipplanted, nor the souls of His 
people be destroyed without a witness. 
. . Cleave to the Covenant and work 
of Reformation : do not decline the 
Cross of Jesus Christ ; choose rather 
to suffer affliction with the people of 
God than to enjoy the pleasures of sin 
for a season. . . . I die in the 
faith of the Apostles and Primitive 
Christians, aud Protestant Reformed 
Churches, particularly the Church of 
Scotland, whereof I am a member and 
minister. I bear my witness and tes- 
timony to the doctrine, worship, dis- 
cipline, and government of the Church 
of Scotland by kirk-sessions, presby- 
teries, synods and general assemblies : 
Popery and Prelacy, and all the trum- 
peiy of service and ceremonies that 
wait upon them I do abhor : I do 
bear my witness unto the National 
Covenant of Scotland, and solemn 
league and Covenant of the three 
kingdoms, Scotland, England, and Ire- 
land : these sacred solemn public oaths 
of God, I believe, can be loosed or 



dispensed loith by no person, or party, 
or power upon eaHh ; but are still 
binding upon these kingdoms, and will 
be for ever hereafter, and are ratified 
and sealed by the conversion of many 
thousand soids since our entering 
tliereinto." 

After his face had been covered with 
the napkin, he raised it up a little, and 
cried " The covenants, the covenants, 
shall yet be Scotland's reviving." 

These are the principles for which 
James Guthrie suffered. Will those 
who build his monument subscribe to 
them? Who are the Covenanters 
now? 

Thus we find that our martyrs died 
for their testimony to the principles of 
the covenanted Reformation — princi- 
ples that are essential to the glory of 
the Redeemer. We are entitled to ask 
those who erect monuments to the 
martyrs, whether they do so from 
respect to the men, or to the cause 
which made them men of God '? If it 
be from respect to the cause, why then 
are you ashamed to acknowledge these 
very covenant obligations which are 
the glory of that cause ? Will you 
applaud the martyrs, yet contemptuous- 
ly scorn and repudiate their luminous 
principles ? " Woe unto you, scribes, 
and Pharisees, hypocrites ; because ye 
build the tombs of the prophets, and 
garnish the sepulchres of the righteous. 
Ye be witnesses unto your- 
selves that ye are the chikben of them 
which killed the prophets." Matt, 
xxiii. 29-31. 



Edin})urgli : Publislied for the Proprietorii by James S. Muik, 60 New Builrlings, North 
Bridge (to whom all Communications — prepaid — may be addressed) ; John Menzies, 
61 Princes Street. Glasgow : William Love, St Enoch Square ; and sold by all 
Booksellers. 



MTKEN, PRINTER. GEORGE IV. BRIDGE. EDINBURGH. 



§ht %Yt 



(±^ 



No. III. 



FEBRUARY 1858. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 
A ScRVET OF THE EvE^Ts OF THE Year 1857 — Continued. 
"lote xoi the world, neither the things of the world." 

Which has borxe the best frcit — The Cotesasted Kefobjiatiox or Modern Espediesct ? 
A Faithfll Warsisg. 



gl B\\x\iq of tl]c (L-'ijciit.s cf tlie Ucar i857. 



-Continued. 



Ix our last number, vre directed atten- 
tion to tlie more prominent political 
events of the year 1857, by contrasting 
them with those of 1847 and other 
previous decadal periods. As proposed, 
■we now address oureelves to a con- 
sideration of the subject in its more 
important, because religious, bearings. 
The lack of civil order, arising more 
immediately from a growing disregard 
to constituted authority, is fairly 
traceable to the- characteristic morality 
of the age. The divine command, < 
" Fear God," takes precedence of, and | 
secures obedience to, "Honour the | 
the king," with which it is firmly ] 
linked. Eight reason and sound policy I 
accord with the comprehensive and ; 
conservative dictate of inspiration, i 
that "the fear of the Lord is the 
beginning of wisdom," that "righ- \ 
teousness exalteth a nation, but «sin is ; 
a reproach to any people." This . | 
foundation and directive principle, is : 
explanatory of the first law in the ! 
code of all nations, " cura deorum" 
the care of the gods ; shews the 
incalculable value of the political 
maxim, that "what is morally right 
cannot be politically wrong ;" f^ 



demonstrates the soundness of the 
poet's couplet, — 

" When nations are to perish in their sins, 
'Tis in the church the leprosy begin.s." 

Starting with the principle of that 
gospel tnith, "The grace of God 
teacheth to deny all ungodliness and 
worldly lusts, and to live soberly, 
righteously, and godly in this world," 
we deem it a legitimate conclusion, that 
the admitted and complained of moral 
and social evils of our times are to be 
ascribed to the world called religious, 
or, in popular phrase, to the church, 
— a conclusion which amounts to a 
charge as painfully true, as it will be 
felt by many to be ungracious. 

As our space prevents anj-thing like 
a formal discussion of this vastly 
important and deeply interesting ques- 
tion, our subsequent remarks are 
designed to be of a very general and 
merely suggestive character, or hints 
contributive to the safe prosecution of 
the#ibject. 

'■R cannot fail, then, to strike the 
moj-e thinking portion of the com- 
munity, that the more zealous of the 
clergy, and philanthropic of the laity. 



have put forth all their power in 
devising and working schemes held to 
be alone, or specially adequate to meet 
growing evils in the social, and 
divisions in the religious world. 
Among these we find so-called 
Evangelical Alliances, Protestant Asso- 
ciations, and Abstinence Schemes. 
Now, such schemes, and especially 
when worked by the clergy, do obvi- 
ously conflict with the principle we 
have specified above, and do imply 
that the gospel of the blessed God, 
even in the preacher's mouth, is 
inadequate for the emergency. The 
Christian poet has beautifully said, — 

' ' I am no preacher, let tliis hint suffice, 
The cross once seen, is death to ev'ry vice." 

But in addition to the above virtually 
libellous charge against the competency 
of the church for the work of moral re- 
generation, such schemes are liable to 
numerous and grave objections. They 
foster, if they do not create, the 
alarmingly prevalent notions, that 
the church has no definite constitution, 
that a distinctive profession of sys- 
tematized truths is of very minor 
importance, that no obligation attaches 
to us because of her former attain- 
ments, and that "the man that can 
play well on a musical instrument" is 
to be preferred to attachment to the 
standard of divine truths. These are 
most serious evils, and more than 
sufficient to account for the admitted 
and deplored innumerable social dis- 
orders of the continent and our own 
country. 

But this phase of our social state 
is all the more startling and confound- 
ing, inasmuch as amid the clamant 
demand for union, we find none of 
the denominations, as such, giving 
forth a clear and tangible deliverance 
on the subject, while all hitherto 
attempts to effect it have proved 
abortive. All the unions of an 
ecclesiastical kind which have been 



effected in this country have not only 
proceeded upon a resolution to sub- 
merge, or keep in abeyance, "truths 
most surely believed ;" but they have 
left a residuum of discontent, or have 
compelled the parties uniting to allow 
a latitudiuarianism inconsistent with 
the unity and uniformity of any well 
regulated corporation. Anxious to 
avoid giving unnecessary off"ence by 
specifying all that is illustrative of the 
above, we shall take the liberty of 
adverting to the following. Charity 
is cried up at the expense of duty to 
God and his truth, as if firm attach- 
ment to the latter were incompatible 
with the free exercise of the former, 
and as if the apostolic description of 
the grace of charity, that it " thinketh 
no evil, but rejoiceth in the truth," 
were ujijust or apocryphal. This 
novel and lax definition of charity has 
led to much and conflicting speech and 
action within the pale of respective 
rehgious denominations, a kind of 
practical forbearance, not with personal 
faults and failings, but with central 
doctrines of inspiration, and with not 
only diverse, but antagonistic religious 
practice and rule. 

In this category we find Toleration 
set up and worshipped as the popular 
idol, before which all who value repu- 
tation must fall down at the sound of 
the music. Herein the spirit of the 
age is opposed to that of all the re- 
formers, whose individual writings and 
judicial utterances consigned it to its 
proper place of voluntaryism. To 
institute formal reasoning against the 
modern view of Toleration, is beside 
our object ; but yet we may hint, that it 
supposes and implies evil, for the tolera- 
tion of good is a viisnomer ; that the 
history of toleration shews, that when 
it was popular heresy was rife, and 
Popery was at the door ; that tolera- 
tion prevents discipline, while it 
naturally throws up the grand charac- 
teristic of the period, " when there was 



no king in Israel, and every man did 
what was right in his own eyes." 

Thus ecclesiastical toleration, which 
is the " sanctum sanctorum" of the reli- 
gious world, cannot work in any mere 
political societj^ or obtain a footing in 
any proper social corporation, is yet 
honoured as a goddess by the church. 
In the light of these revived dogmas, 
that were popular among the sectaries 
during the Protectorate, and that 
maimed the Refoimation, have we a 
painful exposition of the clerical scam- 
pering which ill accords with not only 
the common order, but also distinctive 
principles of the denominations to 
which they belong. By way of illustra- 
tion : Does any clergyman, the main 
dogma of whose creed is the voluntary 
principle, which condemns magistra- 
tical interference in religion as anti- 
scriptural, publicly plead the absolute 
necessity of Acts of Parliament to put 
down the liquor traific as denounced 
in the divine Word 1 In such an in- 
stance clerical consistency is not very 
apparent ; while the import of such con- 
duct appears to be, that the gospel 
cannot deal effectively with rough and 
hard sinners, and they must therefore be 
first made to pass through the hewing, 
and hammering, and blocking out pro- 
cess of the Abstinence Society. 

From the operation of the same 
stretchable tenet, diversity of forms of 
worship are not only practised, but de- 
fended by not a few of the influential 
clergy of the Established Church of 
Scotland. This close approximation 
to the liturgical service of the Episcopal 
Church, and ulterior bearings on 
Puseyism, is destructive of the genius 



I of Presbytery, and in contravention of 
I not only Presbyterian usage, but in 
direct opposition to " the Directory, for 
the public worship of God" as explained 
[ in the Act of the General Assembly, 
! establishing the same, and the Preface 
j to that invaluable standard. That 
[ such glaring innovations should be prac- 
tised every Sabbath, demonstrates, 
either that the majority of the estab- 
j lished clergy are afraid to hazard a dis- 
cussion, or that the Presbyterian Estab- 
lished Church of Scotland lacks a 
decent number of ministers resolved to 
know " the law of the house." " There 
is something rotten in Denmark." 

The discussion of this question will 
receive our early consideration in a 
more formal manner. 

In the same categoiy must be placed 
the strongly expressed desire, if not 
resolution, of the leading members of 
the Free and United Presbyterian 
Churches to unite, which cannot be 
efi'ected without a manifest judicial 
resilement from their respective domi- 
nant principles. 

And, in conclusion, the infeffence is as 
ob\aous as it is startling, that tlie eccle- 
siastical associations specified above are 
united in practically ignoring the con- 
stitution and regnant principles of the 
Church of Christ at the period of the 
Second Reformation, through whose 
instrumentality the Lord was publicly 
honoured. Popery and Prelacy refuted 
and abjured, practical godliness felt 
and practised, and an eflfectual blow 
struck at the heart of despotism in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, which 
read a salutary lesson to the continent 
of Europe and the world. 



** f 0lje U0t \\t iuorlir, neitkr tl]^ tilings jof \\% toorllj." 

Such is the oft repeated, very the public honour of God, the interests 

intelligible, and ever seasonable com- of the church, and the cause of 

mand of Him whom we profess to humanity in every relation of life, 

serve. It must have struck the care- political, social, and ecclesiastical, have 

ful reader of the divine Word, that suffered most serious damage by the 



THE ARK. 



operation of the cupidity of the 
natural heart. Without speculating 
upon covetousness as the ruling 
element of the first transgression' of 
our first progenitor, or insisting upon 
the siguificancy of the love of the 
•world being the first of the three 
temptations with which Satan assailed 
our Lord in the wilderness, we have 
it as our object simply to advert to 
a few instances of tbe practice of this 
sin, which are recorded in the volume 
of inspiration, as illustrative of its 
contrariety to the first principles of 
sound morality, and the most obvious 
lessons of Christianity. 

Ail plausible reasouiug, and all 
popular maxims, urged in defence of a 
keen prosecution of secular gain, and 
as palliating the sin of love of the 
world, are exposed in the clear and 
steady light of the apostolic declara- 
tion, " The love of money is the root 
of all evil ; which while some coveted 
after, they have erred fi-om the faith, 
and pierced themselves through with 
many sorrows." It requires no mental 
effort to see tliat this inspired passage 
declares the following gravest points, 
— That "the love of money" is an 
evil; that it is "the root" of evil; 
that it is " the root of all evil ;" that 
it turns away the affections from 
superiiatural truth ; and that the 
indulgence of it secures a bitter 
reward. " Which while some coveted 
after, they have erred from the faith, 
and pierced themselves through with 
many sorrows." And, we apprehend, 
few, even of those who have been the 
most successful competitors in the 
race fi)r riches, will scruple to admit, 
to a lesser or greater degree, the truth 
of the above inspire'd description. 

A striking and attractive elucidation 
of this principle is given in all those 
recorded instances of the victory of 
grace over the selfishness of nature, 
by freely parting with their worldly 
substance at the call of duty to God, 



his trath, and suffering humanity. 
Need we, in illustration, specify the 
names of Abraham, Moses, David, 
Paul, and of Him, " who, although he 
was rich, yet for our sakes became 
poor, that we through his poverty 
might become rich." But while, on 
the one hand, no feature has been 
more characteristic of the most., emi- 
nent saints of God than their practical 
preference of "the durable riches of 
Christ" to those that "make to them- 
selves wings, and fly away as an eagle 
towards heaven ;" there is not, on 
the other, a more decided evidence of 
a carnal heart, than a strong love of 
the world. " If any man love the 
woiid, the love of the Father is not 
in him." To give point and force to 
the numerous expressions of the divine 
abhorrence of the love of the world, 
and to defend the chui'ch against the 
admission of the covetous into her 
sacred ranks, her glorious Head, jea- 
lous of his honour and her character, 
has written over the strait gate in 
most legible characters, " Strait is the 
gate, and narrow is the way that lead- 
eth to life ; and few there be that go 
in thereat." How legible the divine 
commentary upon the nature and 
character of this unintellectual and 
mean vice is the judgment inflicted 
upon the church of Israel when taking 
possession of the literal Canaan, and 
when entering upon the New Testa- 
ment economy. In the former case, 
Israel's victorious career was checked, 
because Achan coveted the wedge of 
gold, and the Babylonish garment ; 
and so hot was the displeasure of the 
Lord against the transgressor, that, 
notwithstanding his formal and public 
confession, himself, wife, children, and 
all th?3' had, were reduced by fire. 
Even more telling, as it was more 
divinely tragical, was the judgment 
inflicted on Ananias, and his wife 
Sapphira, whose covetousness led them 
to attempt to deceive the church, and 



THE AEK, 



to lie against the Holy Ghost. While 
these two recorded instances are all 
the more prominent and instructive, 
inasmuch as they occurred at the 
commencement of the two dispensa- 
tions of grace, they were no doubt 
designed, by way of preface, to arrest 
the attention of both teachers and 
taught in the church of God. It is 
beyond the power of man to assign 
limits to the exercise of covetousuess, 
because of which it is said to be " as 
the sin of witchcraft;" and, accord- 
ingly, we read, that one " thought to 
purchase the gifts of the Koly Ghost 
with money," while another, and a 
professed friend, actually betrayed the 
Lord of Glory for " thirty pieces of 
silver." How traethe declaration, "the 
love of money is the root of all evil." 
In making a personal and practical 
application of these few recorded 
instances of love of the world, we are 
fully alive to the popular distinction 
made by the covetous betv.dxt nionetj 
and the love of money ; and have, 
without formal discussion, simply to 
remark, that it is not, especially in 
degenerate times, easy for even a 
believer to be increased in goods. Our 
Lord himself, who knoweth fully the 
human heart, said, " It is easier for 
a camel to go through the eye of a 
needle, than for a rich man to enter 
into the kingdom of heaven ;" and to 
those who were astonished at the saying, 
he explained, " With man it is impos- 
sible, but all things are possible with 
God ;" shewing that even with God 
it was hub a possibility. Moreover, 
the heathen approved of the proverb, 
"that the love of money increases 
with the money acquired ;" and true 
it is, that, hitherto, the wealthy have 
not been the most liberal promoters of 
religion and-liberty. Self-examination 
on this vitally important question, 
especially in an age of disreputable 
revelations of bankrupt examinations, 
is an eminently pressing duty ; and 



we throw out, as aiding in the honest 
discharge of it, these few brief sug- 
gestive remarks. 

On what subject do we catch our 
affections most engaged, when falling 
into the arms of sleep, or when awak- 
ing out of sleep in the morning ? On 
what subject do we think most closely, 
and speak most coherently ? After 
what do we discover our thoughts to 
travel, whether in our personal, social, 
or public religious exercise ? And 
upon what subject do we find our 
mem.ory most retentive % These hints, 
calmly pondered, and duly improved, 
may contribute to bring us to a safe 
conclusion. 

But there are other questions, a 
formal and candid answer to which 
may go far to shew vis our true 
character in regard to this subject. 
Who, in our estimation aud practical 
calculations, has the fiist claim to our 
worldly substance ^ To whom do we 
give the first ripe sheaf of our harvest- 
field, the first ripe fruits of our vine- 
yard, the fat of our lambs, or the 
juice of our pomegranates ? Is it to 
God or ourselves, to God or our natural 
relations, to God or our lusts I What 
is the proportion of our gifts to God, 
and to ourselves, and to the world? 
Without forther prosecuting this sug- 
gestive train of questioning for self- 
examination before Him with whom 
we have to do, we may conclude by 
specifying, by way of caution, the 
following Yeyj general and very gross 
modes of loving the world by those in 
whom is not the love of the Father. 

Can the love of the Father dwell in 
those who can, for a more lucrative 
situation, leave the land of spiritual 
privilege 1 who, for a few more silver- 
lings, can change his profession of 
religion'? who can use his utmost 
efforts to contract a mercantile mar- 
riage? who acts honorably and con- 
sistently towards religion and brethren 
when in his moderate circumstances. 



but oil acquiring a little more of 
worldly substance relaxes ill his formerly 
reputably-discharged duties '? Can the 
love of Christ dwell iu him who is 
more concerned about a secular bank- 
ruptcy in the world, than about a 



moral bankruptcy of faith and morals 
in the church, the state, and the social 
world 'i Are we not warranted, in 
conclusion, in putting the solemn 
question, " How dwelleth the love of 
God in that man 1 " 



Mlliit^ lias borne the best fruit— (Tbc (Lol)tnituttir Bcformatinn, 
or glokru i£^KpVmuv? 



We often meet with those who ques- 
tion us much to the following effect, — 
What good was accomplished by the 
Covenants 1 Can you specify any de- 
cidedly evident and permanent moral 
or religious benefits that attended the 
adoption of these bonds? Did that 
method of reformation produce any 
such effects upon the moral and social 
state of society as are produced 
by the extensive and well-planned 
schemes of reformation which are now 
operating on all sides 1 

In reply, we shall simply point to a 
few of the more manifest and lasting 
effects of that scriptural and cove- 
nanted reformation wrought for our 
land by God in former times. The 
National Covenants did more for the 
extirpation of religious heresy and 
social depravity than all other means 
that have been subsequently employed. 
This assertion is proved by the follow- 
ing historical facts, and several testi- 
monies worthy of all credit : — 

I. History declares that, by the bless- 
ing of God upon the efforts of the Cove- 
nanters, and by means of the Cove- 
nants, oiu- nation was delivered from 
all the corruptions of Popery — more 
effectually than any other of the Re- 
formed communities, — all traces of the 
mystery of iniquity being scrupulously 
banished from the civil as well as 
ecclesiastical constitution of the laud. 
" Come out of Popery, and be ye clean," 
said the Lord. The nation obeyed, 
and vowed to persevere in the tinith. 



II. On a second occasion of entering 
into covenant with God, our progenitors 
were so countenanced from on high, as 
to sustain a long, strenuous, and success- 
ful resistance to Prelacy and Erastian- 
ism ; and had they not so resisted, 
during a period of more than forty 
years, the Church of Scotland would 
have been conformed to the Church of 
England, the Church of England would 
have been conformed to that of Rome, 
and consequently the religious condi- 
tion of the world would have been 
altered. 

III. They were Covenanters who 
withstood the repeated and violent 
attempts of Charles and James to force 
Prelacy and Popery on the countiy 
after the Restoration. That heroic 
band of witnesses for the truth for- 
sook their homes, and churches, and 
lands, and went to prison, to torture, 
to exile, and to death, for the confirma- 
tion of their testimony. 

IV. To their steadfast adherence to 
the Covenants we owe whatever re- 
mains to us, their ungrateful posterity, 
of civil and religious liberty. Yet 
some of us can quietly rest upon the 
inheritance they died to preserve for us, 
and iisk in contempt. What have our 
fathers done 1 

Amongst many testimonies given by 
eye-witnesses of the religious and social 
blessings that came upon the nation by 
means of these Covenants, we select 
the following : The Rev. Robert 
Fleming, author of the " Fulfilling of 



the Scriptures," says in that work, " That 
was also a remarkable time wherein the 
Lord did let forth much of the Spirit 
on His people in the year 1638, when 
this nation did solemnly enter into 
Covenant, which many alive yet at 
this day (1669) do know, how the 
spirits of men were raised and -nTOUght 
on by the Word, the ordinances lively 
and longed after ; for then did the 
nation own the Lord, and was visibly 
owned by Him ; much zeal, and an en- 
larged heart did appear for the public 
cause ; personal reformation seriously 
set about ; and then also was there a 

} remarkable gale of Providence that did 
attend the actings of His people, which 
did astonish their adversaries, and 
forced many of them to feign submis- 
sion Must not we also 

say, since the land was engaged by 
Covenant to the Lord in these late times 
(after 1638), what a solemn out-letting 
of the Spirit hath been seen, a large 
harvest with much of the fniit of the 
Gospel discernible, which we may say 
with a warrant, hath been proven in 
the inbvinging of thousands to Christ. 
Kirktou, another minister, who lived 
in those times, and suffered under the 
persecution, gives the following descrip- 
tion of the effects of the Covenants : 
" jSTow the ministry was notably puri- 
fied, the magistracy altered, and the 
people strangely refined. Scotland 

' hath been, even by emulous foreigners, 
called Philadelphia ; and now she 

seemed to be in her flower 

I verily believe there were more souls 
converted to Christ in that short period 
of time than in any other season since the 
Reformation, though of treble its dura- 
tion ; nor was there ever greater 
purity and plenty of the means of 
grace than was in that time. Every 
parish had a minister, every village 
had a school, every family almost had 
a Bible, yea, in most of the country, 
all the children of age could read the 
Scriptures, and were provided of Bibles, 



either by their parents or their 
ministers. I have lived many years 
in a parish where I never heard an oath, 
and you might have rode many miles 
before you had heard any. Also, you 
would not, for a great part of the 
country, have lodged in a family where 
the Lord was not worshipped by read- 
ing, singing, and prayer. Xobody com- 
pkined more of our chiu:ch-govemment 
than our taverners, whose ordiuaiy la- 
mentation was, their trade was broke, 
the people were become so sober." Let 
Total- Abstinence Societies ponder this ! 

Defoe, the well-known author, in his 
" Memoirs of the Church of Scotland," 
gives a similar testimony. He says, 
"The people (of Scotland) are re- 
strained in the ordinary practice of 
common immorahties, such as swear- 
ing, drunkenness, slander, fornication, 
adiUtery, and the like : As to theft, 
murder, and other capital crimes, they 
come under the cognisance of the civil 
magistrate as in other countries : But 
in those things which the Church has 
power to punish, the people being con- 
stantly and impartially prosecuted, 
they are thereby the more restrained, 
kept sober, and under government, 
and you may pass through twenty towns 
in Scotland ■svithout seeing any broil, 
or hearing an oath swore in the streets ; 
whereas, if a blind man was to come 
from thence into England, he shall 
know the first town he sets his foot in 
within the English border, by hearing 
the name of God blasphemed, and pro- 
fanely used, even by the very httle chil- 
dren in the street."' 

Such then was the moral and social 
condition of our land under the in- 
fluences of the Covenants. Can any 
other plan of reformation adopted since 
that time display results worthy to be 
compared with those above described ? 
Can modem schemes, whose main ele- 
ment is expediency, whether in accor- 
dance with right principle or no, pre- 
sent us with any fruits so agTeeable, so 



THE ARK. 



real, or so permanent? The nation 
then gloried in the sacred obligations 
under which it lay to God : it was 
a land worthy of the name of Beulah, 
for it was married to the Lord in a 
Covenant of love and obedience, and 
the Lord rejoiced over it to bless it 
with spiritual and temporal prosperity. 
But now Scotland has despised and 
violated and forgotten these obliga- 
tions ; how then can we expect God 



to delight in us as a nation, or prosper 
our ■ devices which we have chosen in 
"preference to His institutions 1 It is 
more likely that,, we shall have to be 
"ashamed of our confidenc?s," and 
that all our labours, while lying under 
the guilt of perjury, shall be "for 
nought and in vaiu." " Can we break 
the Covenant and escape?" Let our 
present condition as a nation furnish a 
reply to this solemn query. 



5 |iiit|ful Mliirniug. 



The awful defection of these lands 
from former attainments in reforma- 
tion, their gross violation of solemn 
vows come under to be the Lord's 
people, and the cruel persecution of 
tiie faithful followers of Jesus, are 
sins which are now confessed and 
mourned over by few as ground of 
the Lord's controversy w-ith these 
nations. Where do we now hear 
from the pulpit such a faithful warn- 
ing as the following, delivered by the 
judicious Boston of Etterick 1 — 

" The avowed breach of Covenants 
made with God for reformatron,— the 
blood of the Lord's people, shed in 
fields and on scaffolds, for adhering 
to the oath of God, — the fining, con- 
fining, imprisoning, banishing, and 
other barbarous usage of them, whereby 



for many years these nations carried 
on a war with heaven, — these are an 
old debt lying on the head of Scotland, 
England, and Ireland, for which God 
will pursue them, and pursue them, so 
that it will appear to be both for 
principal and interest during the time 
it .has lain over. These things are 
forgotten, or laughed at now, as what 
we have no concern in ; a stone is 
rolled to the mouth of the sepulchre 
where they are supposed to be buried ; 
but God will readily arise, although 
the stone were sealed, and these facts 
forgotten quite and clean, ' For when 
they shall say, Peace and safety, then 
sudden destruction cometh upon them, 
as travail upon a woman with child, 
and they shall not escape.' " 



Edinbiirgli : Published for the Proprietors by James S. Muir, 60 New Buildings, North 
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No. IV. 



MARCH 1858. 



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CONTENTS. 

Pkesbtterian Liturgies. 

A True Picture of Prelacy. 

"Shall He not much more clothe yovV 

Christian Union — a Contrast. 



)rtsl)i|tcriaii; f itwrgics. 



In these days of boasted improvement, 
we are apt to overlook the leading 
principles which actuated our fathers 
in their struggles for civil and religious 
liberty. That to their conduct are 
traceable the remanent privileges we 
still enjoy, will be readily granted by 
every intelligent Scotsman. Although 
during the period of the First Re- 
formation, much light dawned upon 
our country ; yet, because of numerous 
and serious intervening political clouds, 
it was not fairly developed, and 
formally recognized, until the era of 
the Second Reformation. It appears 
to be a prevalent misconception, that 
the Church of Scotland has, from her 
establishment in 1.592 to the present 
time, been constitutionally the same 
church ; a misception which ignores 
her advanced purity and efficiency 
during the Covenanted period from 
1638 to 16-30, and confounds the 
present Revolution Church of 1690 
with that of its predecessor, which 
was delineated in the Westminster 
standards of covenanted uniformity. 
Without specifying, at present, the 
respective peculiarities of these three 
Churches of Scotland, it is sufficient 



for our present purpose to remark, 
that Presbyterianism was the leading, 
the ruling element of them aU. 
Accordingly, "The act ratifying the 
Confession of Faith and settling 
Presbji;erian Church Government" — 
the charter of the present Established 
Church — declares "that Popery and 
Prelacy are abolished." 

About two years subsequent to this 
Settlement of Presbyterian Church 
government, not a few of the curates 
" were admitted on the easiest terms " 
to hold the status of ministers of the 
Revolution,Church, which was the ori- 
gin of that Moderatism that did battle 
with Evangelism, that forced many 
a disruption, and, even now, threatens 
to inflict a blow that will level her 
Presbyterianism with the dust. Scot- 
land's Claim of Rights, of which the 
settlement of religion was the echo, shews 
beyond all reasonable controversy, that, 
in her own strong language, " Prelacy is, 
and hath been, a great and insupport- 
able grievance to this nation, and con- 
trary to the inclinations of the gener- 
ality of the people;" that Prelacy re- 
not only the government, but 
the worship of the Church ; that 



even "the Directory of Public Wor- 
ship was not one of the public stan- 
dards of this Church ; and that whatever 
liturgies were used among the early 
fafiers ot the first Reformation, were 
now, and for ever abolished. We are not 
to be understood as objecting to the 
Directory of Public Worship, in the 
Preface to which we have an intelli- 
gible explanation of its character and 
objejt, and a modest excuse for the 
liturgies of their reforming predecessors ; 
but simply to shew, that no modern 
liturgist can plead that document 
whidi is none of the standards of the 
Established Church ; while, at the sime 
time, it is the standard of the Reformed 
Covenanted Church of Scotland that 
will least of all serve the defenders 
and compilers with liturgical ser- 
vices, and upon which we would esteem 
it a favour to join issue in debating 
the question. And it must be known 
to those who are introducing this horse 
within the walls of the Presbyterian 
Church of Sco4and, that the same 
game was played about the beginning 
of the last century, when the General 
Assembly interfered by interposing a 
formal and solemn check to all such 
innovators, which is still the law of the 

house. 1 . o i 

In directing attention to this bcot- 
tish question, forced upon us in an evil 
and hazardous time, we ara pained to 
think, that Presbyterians in the nine- 
teenth century are under the necessity 
of "fighting all their battles o'er 
again" with episcopo presbyterian litur- 
gTsts ; and has it come to this, that 
the Presbyterian Church of Scotland 
can extract liturgical services out of 
her authorized standards or practice ? 
Are we compelled to remind these Pres- 
byterian Uturgists that the term Utu.rgij 
is derived from a Greek word used 
in Scripture to denote an office of a 
public or political kind, whi-.h is ob- 
vious from its etymology. The apostle 
so employs the cognate noun in Rom. 



xiii. 6, when speaking of the civil 
magistrate. In the same sense was it 
applied to the Levitical priesthood, 
wiiich was natural and not eHsentkdli/ 
divine ; and consequently " it passed 
away," and another and better was in- 
troduced. Accordingly, Paul, in his 
epistle to the Hebrews, argues the 
superiority of the priesthood of Christ 
after the order of M-lchezedec over 
that of Aaron, which was but "the 
shadow of good things to come." The 
service, or Utnrgy, of the h'.gh-priest 
consisted in killing the propitiatory 
sacrifice in the outer court, preparatory 
to his carrying the smoking blood with- 
in, which service being typical was 
designed to prefigure the sacrifice of 
Christ to come ! These two elements 
were essential to the litiivgij, or service, 
of the high priest, and to separate 
them, as Presbyterian or Episcopalian 
Uturgists do, is to put asunder what 
God^joined together ; while the at- 
tempt is to pour contempt on the fin- 
ished work of Christ, and to despise 
our freedom from "a yoke and a 
burden which neither we nor our 
fathers were able to bear," and to pre- 
fer "the beggarly elements" of an 
abrogated economy. And have we to 
make the demand which our Presby- 
terian fothers made to the Uturgists of 
their day. Where is there in the 
Scriptures of either the Old or New 
Testaments a single clear instance of a 
FORM of prayer for Public Worship ? 
All boasting a side, we would esteem 
it a privilege to have an opportunity 
of trying with any of these innovators 
the keenness of those weapons which 
our fathers so effectually wielded on 
this old battlefield, when they "were 
in perils from false brethren." 

Reserving to another occasion a 
more formal consideration of the anti- 
scriptural, anti-Scottish, and ijicon- 
grnous character of Presbyterian 
liturgies, we might get some light on 
the question by observing its history, 



THE AEK. 



especially in Scotland. The liturgy, 
in its common aci'eptation, has been 
tenaciously adhered to by those eccle- 
siastical bodies against which the 
Church of Scotland testified and strug- 
gled. We need scarcely refer to Popery, 
Lutheranisra, Episcopacy, and Fusey- 
ism. Neither Calvin nor Knox ever de- 
fended liturgies, while they used them 
in the grey light of the morning of 
the Reformation. Knox, even with 
the friendly aid of Calvin, was com- 
pc41ed to retire from his place of 
ministerial labours, because of Epis- 
copalian forms. At what period of 
the history of the reformed church of 
Scotland was the liturgy ever attemp- 
ted to be imposed, but when despotism 
and Popeiy sought to rule ? What 
Scotsman is unacquainted with the 
attempt to destroy the liberty of the 
church and the nation by the imposi- 
tion of the five Articles of Perth in 
1618 1 How fared it -with Scotland, 
politically and ecclesiastically, in 
1636, when Jenny Geddes fluDg her 
stool at the head of the liturgist. 
This heroine, taught by ministers of 
the church of Scotland, understood 
the question, when she cried, " Villain, 
dost thou say mass at my lug '?" 
while the universal exclamation was, 
"A Pope, a Pope." When, on the 
restoration of Charles II. Presbytery was 
overthrown, and Episcopalian govern- 
ment and worship were established, 
where was the liberty civil or religious 



I of this country 1 Let the 28 years 
of Episcopal domination and dark 
persecution answer that instructive 
question. What did the notorious 
Sacheverel, and the Court that sheltered 
him, do for the bigoted church of 
Scotland ? Hazarded her very existence, 
to preserve which she enacted the 
solemn question to be answered by 
every licentiate and minister, "that I 
shall observe uniformity of worship, 
and the admiuistration of all public 
ordinances, as the same are at present 
performed and allov/ed." Nor should 
it be overlooked, that the history of 
the liturgy in our country has been 
connected with Armenianism, ill- 
concealed Uuitarianism, and Erastian- 
isni. And may we ask, when did the 
defenders of liturgies resist despotism, 
refuse pensions from the public and 
royal purse, or prove fast friends to 
their fallen royal patrons ? Let Scot- 
land's history, especially in the years 
1618, 1G36, 1661 to 1690, 1715, and 
1745, make answer. 

In all these eventful and tragical 
eras, Scotland and her Presbyterian 
Church retained their vitality by the 
discipline of her faithful ministers on 
those who wounded her sacred cause 
in the house of its professed friends. 
It remains to be seen, whether the 
spirit of Scotland's established church 
has fled, or whether she is to drift 
from her ancient moorings towards 
Anglican Tractarianism 1 



^ Ixu piim jof |nlit3|. 



As expository of the preceding article 
on Presbyterian Liturgies, we shall 
furnish the reader with the following 
extract from the graphic and almost 
prophetic pen of the late Professor 
Bruce : — 

' ' Another cause facilitating the progress of 
Popery is the near affinity and striking resem- 



blance between the Romish Church and those 
established by law in Britain and Ireland ; a 
resemblance so striking, that Papists have 
not failed to observe and avail themselves of 
it. To the present hour Popery has never 
been legally abolished by the Bdtish legis- 
lature, (1^ we except a very short period, 
after the Reformation, when a wise and truly 
patriotic senate, the greatest and most en- 
lightened ever England saw, attempted to lay 



the axe to the root of the tree) ; but, in a 
new dress it is still retained, and mag- 
nificently supported, to the extinction of 
piety, the adulterating of Christianity, the 
disgrace of divine worship, the reproach of 
reason and common sense, and to the intoler- 
able biu-deu of the injured community. 
Were we to enter upon the subject, it would 
be easy to show, that the Church of England 
is but the second edition of that of Rome, 
with some amendments ; and that the Re- 
formation she boasts of is at best but a bun- 
gled piece of patchwork, a piece of new cloth 
upon an old garment, or like a fool's coat of 
divei-s colours. Excepting some doctrinal 
articles, a great part of which her clergy 
have now relinquished, all the rest is Popish, 
and made current by the royal seal, instead 
of the Fiaher's rinr/. What remains is but 
like a cajmt mortuum in the chemist's cruci- 
ble, after the purer substances are separated, 
and the spirituous parts evaporated. The 
hands which reared the anticlu-istian fabric 
prepared the model of England's ecclesiastic 
monarchy, her stately hierarchy, her childish 
liturgy, her canonical habits, her senseless 
and mimic forms, and the whole farrago of 
superstitious and sla\ish ceremonies, imposed 
and kept up by the dint of mere authority, 
and which serve no other purpose but to keep 
the people still within sight of Rome, 
and to make the leap back again to it more 
short and easy. Instead of weaning men's 
minds gradually from it, and preparing them 
for fartlier advances in Reformation, as was 
the absurd pretence for retaining at first some 
of these confessed relics of Popery, they have 
had the very contrary tendency, to engage 
their aifections more to it, and to dispose 
them to a nearer conformity and closer coali- 
tion with Ron.e, which hath more than once 
been attempted, by a set of high-flying 
churchmen, while they have ever avoided to 
take the least step the other way, and obstin- 
ately refused to change the least iota in the 
Episcopal canon, or to relax the smallest 
cord, or loose the least pin of rigid conform- 
ity for the sake of union with scrupulous 
Protestants ; a sure presage that the rotten 
fabric must in the end be tumbled down to 
the lowest foundation, to bear Buhyhn the 
Great company in her final fall. Those parts 
of Romish superstitions which the Church of 
England laid aside, were entirely of a piece 
and exactly in the same taste, with those 
which she is still so proud of, and on which 
she so fondly doats. While the canons of 
Lambeth ai-e kept, those of the Vatican can 
never be forgot ; and as long as the statutes of 
Henry, Elisabeth, and Charles are in force, 
those of the Gregories, the Innocents, and 



the Clements, can never become altogether 
obsolete. Her consecrated Churches and 
altars, with all the inventory of holy things 
belonging to them, her orchestral music and 
antiphonal singing, her unlighted candles 
and empty cups, her train of fasts and festi- 
vals, (which, by the bye, are hallowed only 
that they may again be profaned), her 
fragments of Popish devotions, stolen 
out of the old breviaries and mass-books ; 
her processions, bowings, kneelings, oflerings, 
crossings, cringings, and a thousand such 
apish fooleries, only put one in mind of the 
rest that are wanting to make the meretri- 
cious dress a little more uniform and com- 
plete. And while we have primates, metro- 
politans, bishops, deans, prebends, arch- 
deacons, chancellors, commissaries, rectors, 
vicars, and all the tribe of ecclesiastical 
subalterns, who but must conclude, that the 
Pope has yet a standing army, or at least a 
powerful corps de reserre kept up for him in 
England : When one hears litanies, collects, 
mumbled credos and paternosters, shreds of 
mangled lessons, hymns, and prayers ; when 
he sees wood and stone adored, and priests 
sitting on thrones and rioting in palaces ; 
when he liears of days sacred to St Peter and 
St Paul, St Michael and all the saints in the 
calendar ; when his ears are saluted with 
matins and vespers, — and are perpetually 
hearing of vigils, advents, epiphanies, — of 
lents, ember- weeks, and rogation times, — of 
Quadragesima, Quinquagesima, and all the 
remains of barbarous and monkish gibberish, 
— can he help imagining himself transported 
to Italy, the abject and beggarly land of 
priests ? Whoever has a taste for a religion 
of this sort, should go to the church of Rome, 
where it v.n\\ find full scope and ample grati- 
fication. If these things make any part at 
all of religion, or are conducive to devotion, 
every person may readily perceive that 
Papists have greatly the advantage and must 
confess that the church of Rome is the most 
improved, and lest constituted church in the 
ivwld. . . . Thus, one way or other, 
Popery may find too ready access. What 
through ignorance, error, supsrstitition, divi- 
sion, indifference, scepticism, licentiousness, 
thirst for show, amusement, and novelty, 
together with the exuberance of vice and 
folly, we are prepared for anything except 
the pure and undefiled religion of Jesus, 
which "teacheth men to deny ungodliness 
and worldly lusts, and to live soberly, righ- 
teously, and godly in the world" — and 
whose' scope is to lead them to worship Him 
who is a spirit in spirit and in truth. — 
Bruce's Free Thoughts, pp. 321-323. 



THE ARK. 



"S|all le imt imidr mm tM\it mi?" 



All mankind may be divided into 
two great classes : first, those who 
live for God ; and secondly, those who 
live for themselves. Between these 
no intermediate position may be occu- 
pied ; neither can any man belong to 
both. Such is the express declaration 
of our Lord. " No man," says He, 
" can serve two masters ; for either he 
will hate the one, and love the other ; 
or else he will hold to the one, and 
despise the other. Ye cannot serve 
God and Mammon." 

What, then, is the inference 1 

He who professes to serve God 
must renounce the service of Mammon. 

There is, doubtless, no sincere pro- 
fessor of religion unaware of the fact, 
that, if he be in Christ, he must deny 
himself; living no longer to the flesh, 
but to the Spirit, he must first seek 
the kingdom of God and His righ- 
teousness, and trust to Him for the 
adequate supply of all His necessary 
■wants. 

In order to show that God has 
pledged Himself to sustain His chil- 
dren temporally as well as spiritually, 
and to point out the folly and sin of 
distrusting His providence, the Divine 
Preacher, in the passage from which 
our title has been taken, brings for- 
ward and expatiates upon some beauti- 
fully apt illustrations of God's tender 
care for even the smallest and least 
important of His works. 

Our Lord first speaks of the fowls 
of the air, for whose wants the Al- 
mighty Creator has amply provided. 
When we consider their immense 
numbers, their almost infinite varie- 
ties, and the desolate and barren loca- 
lities which many of them inhabit, 
we at first feel inclined to inquire how 
is it possible for such to be fed 1 But 
our heavenly Father never gave any 
creature a natural craving which He 
is unable to satisfy. Every form of 



life has been adapted by Him in His 
infinite wisdom, for the locality in 
which He has placed it ; and there do 
we find all the requisites for its sus- 
tenance and preservation. 

The gigantic condor, that scorns the 
approach of the foe from the inacces- 
sible heights of the Cordilleras, is not 
there forgotten by God, who has en- 
dowed him with a vision so keen and 
perfect that he perceives far down in 
the valley below, the carcase of an 
animal sunk there exhausted to die ; 
and soaring aloft and along, the huge 
bird, by a series of majestic circles, 
descends on his prey, and enjoys a 
plentiful repast. 

How is it that, during many months 
of the year, the breeze is employed in 
wafting countless millions of the ar- 
rowed seeds of our composite plants 
to sitiiations favourable to their 
gi'owth 1 It is for this reason, that 
our heavenly Father may feed the 
teeming numbers of the tiny feathered 
tribes. 

Christian, can ye doubt any longer 
His providence 1 Are ye not much 
better than they? He who endured 
the unspeakable agonies of the Cross, 
that He might nourish thy soul with 
His body, which is meat indeed, and 
with His precious blood, which is 
drink indeed — think ye, wall He deny 
thee what He provides for the most 
inconsiderable of all His creatures 1 

Art thou destitute of all earthly com- 
forts ? Is life to thee a wilderness, cold 
and cheerless, where there is no eye to 
see, no heart to pity, and no hand ex- 
tended to aid thy necessities 1 Trust 
in the Lord. See how He sustains the 
patient camel, as he pursues his long 
and toilsome way over wastes of burn- 
ning sand, unblest by well or brook, 
save at long and dreary intervals ; and 
where he has no other food than the 
stunted prickly herbage of those deso- 



late regions ! But, mark, how tenderly 
the wise Creator hiis cushioned his 
feet, to ease the painful way ; how He 
has sujiplied him with an internal re- 
servoir to contain sufficient water to 
slake his thirst till he may drink again ; 
and how he carries on his back a hump, 
whose visible decrease during a long 
journey manifests its use in furnishing 
the huge body of tlie animal with the 
requisite amount of nourishment, 
which the niggard vegetation of the 
desert denies him. 

Is this same God unable or unwilling 
to sustain thee 1 Has He not given 
thee still better assurance, in the count- 
less thousands of Israel, wliom He fed 
for forty years in the desert ? Who 
fed thee tlirough tliat great and ter- 
rible wilderness, wherein were fiery ser- 
pents and scorpions, and drought, 
where there was no water ; wlio 
brought thee forth water out of the 
rock of flint ; who fed thee in the 
wilderness with manna which thy 
fathers knew not." And why 1 " That 
He might humble thee, and that He 
might prove thee, to do thee good at 
the latter end." 

Art thou aged and infirm 1 Do the 
keepers of thy house tremble ; the 
the strong men bow themselves ; and 
is even the grasshopper a burden, so 
that thou mayest no longer tod to earn 
raiment to clothe thy exhausted body ] 
Fearest thou for this 1 Listen to t;ie 
Divine Preacher ; for He condescends 
yet again to reason with thee, and 
remove thy doubts. 

Thou art old and mayst labour 
no more, therefore thou fearest thou 
shall not be clothed as aforetime. 
What saith the Lord ? " Consider the 
lilies of the field, how they gi'ow ; 
they toil not, neither do they spin: 
And yet I say unto you, that even 
Sol;)moa, in all his glory, was not 
arrayed like one of these." 

What can be more beautiful, more 
exquisitely clothed, than those wild- 



ings of the woods ! Unemulous and 
unconscious of the outward, they 
meekly look up to the all rejoicing 
light ; and expanding their delicate 
tissues to its quickening influences, they 
grow more pure and fair, and dispense 
abroad those fragrant charms, bestowed 
upon them from above. 
Christian, is it so with thee ? Dost thou 
look up to heaveu for all thou needst 1 
As each leaf broadens to the light, 
does thy soul expand to the life giving 
beams of the " Sun of Righteousness," 
that thou mayst be transformed into 
His glorious image ! Ah then, thou 
needst not fear ! If He so clothe thy 
immortal soul, think ye, will He 
gi-udge thee one poor garment for thy 
dying body ? " Wherefore if God so 
clothe the grass of the field, which to- 
day is, and to morrow is cast into the 
oven, shall He not much more clothe 
you, ye of little faith V 

There is, perhaps, no sin more incon- 
sistent with the Christian profession, 
more opposed to the genius of the 
Gospel, than an over care about the 
things of this life. The love of the 
world is the especial sin of those who 
are without. " After all those things 
do the Gentiles' seek," saith our Lord. 
And yet, how many of God's people 
do we fi.id, Martha-like, "cumbered 
about many things." 

This portion of our Lord's sermon 
on the Mount, seems specially intended 
to show the unreasonableness of this 
sin, which can only proceed from want 
of faith. In order to do so, our Lord 
selects arguments from two very wide, 
though not equally glorious fields ; 
first, from God s providence, as exhi- 
bited in the works of Creation ; and 
secondly, from its outshining manifes- 
tation in the infiaitely higher work of 
redemption. 

All creation is so exquisitely 
balanced, that each part ministers to 
the general well being ; and man, its 
head, is the chief recipient of the 



munificent contribution. For him the 
earth has been disrupted to yield her 
miaeral treasures ; and her soil has 
been specially prepared, to grow for 
him every tree that was pleasant to 
the eye, and good for food. The 
gorgeoualy-inwrougbt mantle of vege- 
tation is vv'id^ly dispread over the 
face of the globe, principally, because 
of its indispensable uses to man, and 
to those animals, on which he so 
largely depends for food, clothing, and 
muscular exertion. The vegetable 
world not only supplies man's more 
immediate wants, but likewise fur- 
nishes him with valuable medicines to 
restore his wasted heiltb, or to soothe 
racking pain ; and above all, it is the 
great supplier of his atmosphere, and 
tends greatly to maintain the equality 
of its temperature. 

The promise which God made to 
Noah after the flood that " seed time 
and harvest shall not cease," He is 
still fulfilling by the same agent which 
He employs to paint in the watery 
cloud the sign of the everlasting Cove- 
nant, made then by God, between 
Himself and every living creature. 
The glorious sunbeam, with its three 
great principles, the chemical, the 
luminous, and the calorific, is so 
adjusted that we find each of these 
individual agencies predominant at 
the season when it is especially de- 
manded. It is in spring that we 
have the chemical force operating most 
powerfully, as it is the agent required 
for the budding of the tender germ ; 
in summer, when the growth of the 
plant is being developed, and carbon 
secreted, the luminous principle pre- 
vails ; and in autumn, the heat-giving 
rays acquire the ascendancy, to clothe 



our trees with ruddy fruits, and our 
fields with ripening grain. 

Of the contributions of the animal 
world to man's comforts, it were need- 
less to speak. All creation manifests 
the superabundance of the gootlness 
of God to man, as well as His appeal 
to his higher nature, by making the 
use'.'ul, the perfect, and the beautiful. 
While over all, He stretched the 
glorious heavens, 

' ' As the book of God, before him set. 
Wherein to read His wondrous works, and 

learn 
His seasons, hours, or days, or months, or 

years." 

But an adequate portion of the 
temporal gifts of God, spiritualized 
into blessings, has been made over to 
the Christian in the glorious work of re- 
demption. He, who died to redeem the 
soul, died also to redeem and sanctify the 
body. That body, in order to live 
and work for God, must be sustained ; 
and God has promised that He shall 
do so. " Bread shall be given him ; 
his waters shall be sure." " Your 
heavenly Father," saith our Lord, 
"knoweth that ye have need of all 
these things." And has He not 
commanded us to ask such from God 1 
It is as much our duty to pray, " Give 
us day by day our daily bread," as it 
is, " Forgive us our trespasses ;" and 
we have as much ground to expect an 
a.nswer to the one, as to the other. 
The greatest proof which God ever 
gave to man, of his love and care for 
him, is certainly to be found in His 
unspeakable gift, His only beloved 
Son. " He that spared not His own 
Son, but delivered Him up for us all ; 
how shall He not with Him, freely 
give us all things 1 



Qm\xm lliiiojt— a (liiDntrast. 



The Christian Church Visible is a 
distinct society under the government 
of Jesus Christ, and is ajipointed for 



the exhibition of a system of sound 
principles according to the Word of 
God : for the maintenance of divine 



ordinances in their purity and integi'ity ; 
and for the promotion of holiness. 
But in the case of divided Churches, 
it is their duty to seek Union by re- 
forming abuses and endeavouring after 
conformity to the plan of Church 
order laid down by Christ in His 
Word, so that the Catholic Church 
may attain to tlie unity of the Spirit, 
and become visibly connected in the 
bond of peace. 

We do not read of any disunion in 
the Apostolic Churches ; but since 
that period there have been very 
grievous division proceeding from 
various causes. At the time of the 
Second Reformation in our land, there 
were numerous a^id important points 
of difference between the Churches of 
tlie three kingdoms ; but it pleased 
the Head of the Church to awaken 
a general and earnest desire for an en- 
tire and scriptural uniformity. In 
pursuance of this object, the famous 
Westminster Assembly of Divines was 
convened at the will and expense of 
the nation. This learned and pious 
convocation spent four years in a calm, 
patient, and prayerful investigation of 
the Will of God expressed in the 
Scriptures in regard to the proper 
system of doctrine, worship, discipline, 
and government for the Church. The 
result of their pi'ayerful deliberations 
was the formation of a thoroughly 
scriptural Basis of Union, embodied 
in tlie Confession of Faith and Cate- 
chisms, and rendered obligatory upon 
them and all coming generations by 
the Solemn League and Covenant 
taken and subscribed by the members 
of the civil government, by the divines 
assembled at Westminster, and after- 
wards by all ranks of persons in the 
kingdom. There were many blessed 



results of this measure, which we need 
not here specify. It is enough to 
say tiiat, under its influence, the cause 
of God prospered throughout the 
nation in a manner never experienced 
either before or since. But it is a 
melancholy fact that the Basis and 
Bond of Unity alluded to have been 
long disowned and despised by the 
majority of our nation. The deplora- 
ble consequence is that disunion has 
increased more than ever, and the 
Church has therefore proved inadequate 
to reform the masses, and vice and 
misery has fearfully increased, while 
Christians have been contending with 
one another. Again, however, tlie 
cry for Union has become general ; 
and numerous efforts have been made 
to effect it, and new schemes are daily 
propounded to abolish all the existing 
denominational differences. But the 
nature of these schemes is quite the 
reverse of that which our renowned 
ancestors adopted. They submitted 
their differences to the clear light of 
revelation, — renounced their errors, 
and bowed to the authority of the 
will of Christ. But now, the plan 
most popularly followed is to abstract 
from the conflicting bodies all the 
points of difference — to consign all 
controversies to oblivion, and to bring 
together the separate parties on the 
undebatable ground which is common 
to all. "This," says the late Dr 
M'Crie, "is a remedy which proves 
worse than the disease — an expedient 
which lays the basis of union upon 
the grave of all those valuable truths 
and institutions, which have been in- 
volved in the disputes of different 
parties, and which constitute the firm 
and sacred bonds of ecclesiastical 
confederation and communion. 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by James S. Muir, 60 New Buildings, North 
Bridge (to wliom all Communications — prepaid — may be addressed) ; John Menzies, 
61 Princes Street. Glasgow : William Love, St Enoch Square ; and sold by all 
Booksellers. 



ArrKKN, PRtNTEB, GEORGE IV. BRIDGH. HajIlTBUROH. 



®h« |irL 



No. V. 



APRIL 1858. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

Historic Eesiarks on Instrumental Music. 

Instrumental Music in Churches. 

Protestant Popery. 

A Forgotten National Sin. 

The Stronghold of Christ's Witnesses. 



Jistfldr 'gtnmxk m Instrttmtntal glttsix. 



As the days in which our lot is cast 
are perilous, we would do well to take 
good heed to our steps, especially as 
the enemy (and from quarters not 
expected) is coming in like a flood, 
loosening Zion's stones, and breaking 
down her carved work. AVell may 
she take up her old complaint, " ^^Hiich 
of all the sons I have brought up is 
there to take me by the hand !" 

Leaving to the subsequent article of 
this number of the Ark the more 
formal discussion of the question of 
instrumental music in the New 
Testament Church,— the agitation of 
which very important question is a 
very ominous sign of the time, and if 
properly managed may conduce to root 
more firmly Scotland's Presbyterianism, 
— our object is to shew the tendency | 
of the introduction into the churches | 
of such so-called aids of devotion, as i 
ascertained by the light of their , 
history. j 

We cannot, however, by way^of pre- i 
liminary, resist the temptation of ' 
putting the question to those with j 
whom such aids are in good odour, 
Where is the clear, distinct, positive 
command for their use in divine 



worship, either before, under, or since, 
the abrogation of the Levitical 
economy ? and whether were the stick- 
lers for their introduction into churches, 
or those who resisted their use, either 
on the Continent, or in this country, 
the most intelligent and fast friends of 
civil and religious liberty? Let the 
history of Christendom, and especially 
of Presbyterian Scotland, answer this 
question. 

To pretend to occupy the spacious ' 
field of the history of this question, ■ 
would be unsuitable to our limited 
space, quite Herculean in any circum- ' 
stances, and might conduce httle to a [ 
satisfactory settlement of the question. ! 
We shall therefore instance a few out- ' 
standing facts, and specify a few , 
leading authorities. 

It is an equally startling and in- ' 
stractive fact, admitted by some of the ' 
leading organists, that organic music 
was not in public use for the first seven 
centuries. ^Miile this fact disposes of 
the ^-ulgar plea of the poverty of the 
Chiu-ch, and her subjection to persecu- 
tion, it is sufficient to exercise the 
ingenuity of those favourable to the 
introduction of instrumental music to 



account for its exclusion for such a 
long period of time. In illustration 
and confirmation of the above historical 
fact, we would simply mention the 
names of such schoolmen and fathers 
as Justin Martyr, Pliny, Basil, 
Chrysostom, Jerome, Augustine, Pareus, 
Zepperus, &c. 

It is of some importance to have 
the matured judgment of the leading 
Reformers on the question ; and candid 
reasoners will distinguish betwixt the 
early views and practices of those men, 
and their riper and confirmed deliver- 
ances. Although the Lutherans have 
insisted on instrumental music, yet 
Luther himself "reckoned organs 
among the ensigns of Baal." Although 
the organ has been used in some of 
the Dutch Churches, yet this is against 
the Synodical Declaration of the Church 
of Holland and Zealand, of date 1594. 
The deliberate judgment of Calvin 
against instrumental music is found in 
different parts of his works ; in his ex- 
hortation to Charles V., in his Homily 
on 1 Sam. xviii. 1 — 9, and especially 
in his words, "That instrumental 
music is not fitter to be adopted into 
the public worship of the Christian 
Church, than the incense, the candle- 
sticks, and the other shadows of the 
Mosaic law." The history of the 
Church of England brings out the 
fact, that in her acknowledged purer 
eras, her best men declared against 
instrumental music. This appears 
in wliat is said in her Homily, "Of 
the Place and Time of Prayer ; " 
in the complaint against cathedral 



singing, in the reign of Edward VL, 
and such was true of the English 
Convocation of 1.362, when the organ 
question carried only by the casting 
vote. At a.n after and purer era, 
England I'ejected organs by the formal 
adoption of the Westminster Standards. 
And, in conclusion, we have to refer 
to the whole history of Scotland, and 
Scotland's Church, from the dawn of 
the Reformation, as one continued 
protest against " the kist of whistles ;" 
and we are not sure that a single well- 
authenticited instance can be given of 
the Church of Scotland resting her 
protest on the low, and obviously 
unpresbyterian ground of permission 
or expediency. 

If those who claim identification 
with the Historic Church of Scotland, 
and delight in the cry, "Our fathers," 
are to support that claim, and give 
meaning to that cry, consistency re- 
quires that they shall not now com- 
promise the question from a vain 
desire to secure a peace that cannot 
be permanent, and thus sacrifice the 
uniformity of worship that is essential 
to Presbytery and genuine liberty. 
Now is the time to play the man ; for 
the present call in providence, if not 
vigorously improved, will prevent all 
future consistent action in defence of 
the distinguishing antecedents of Scot- 
laud and her Church. 

Let those who have no stomach for 
the fight take care, lest they impede 
the valiant ; and " God defend the 
right." 



=i'(ustrumcutal J^Iiisit in d^hircks. 



It is an equally striking and instruc- 
tive fact, with which every intelligent 
observer of providence and reader of 
the volume of revelation is familiar, 
that heresy, in point of doctrine and 
idolitry, in regard to worship, have 



invariably characterized the close of 
every preceding dispensation. The 
truly philosophic mind, instead of 
resting satisfied with this well ascer- 
tained characteristic, will not fail to 
hold it as the reason with God for 



concluding the dispensation and intro- 
ducing another. Nor are we, in read- 
ing the signs of the times, left to infer 
the near future ; but have dis- 
tinctly specified in the written Word 
the clear indications of " the last and 
perilous times" that immediately pre- 
cede the removal of the old eccle- 
siastical heavens and the old political 
earth. " For the mystery of iniquity 
doth already work ; only he who now 
letteth will let, until he be taken out 
of the way ; and then shall that 
wicked be revealed, whom the Lord 
shall consume with the spirit of his 
mouth, and shall destroy with the 
brightness of his coming." The mind 
that would address itself to a solution 
of the complicated problem of the age, 
must include, as essential to it, that 
with progress in literature and science, 
we have progress in immorality and 
novel crime. The Christian poet 
directs to the genidne test, the satis- 
factory exponent, of the state of society 
religious, political, and social, when he 
says, — 

"I say the pulpit (in tlie sober use 

Of its legitimate, peculiar pow'rs) 

Mu.st .=!taind acknowledg'd, while the world 

shall stand. 
The most important and effectual guard. 
Support, and ornament, of virtue's cause." 

These remarks are designed to lead 
to a very general consideration of the 
question of instrumental music in 
Churches, which, together with litur- 
gical services, has been favourably 
responded to by some of the would-be 
"masters in Presbyterian Scotland," 
and threatens, if fairly discussed, and 
honestly carried out, to precipitate 
disraptive events at no distant period. 
It is apprehended that the question, as 
lately discussed, has been encumbered 
with numerous and foreign adjuncts, 
which look like a studied attempt to 
shrink from facing its real merits. We 
allude to such slipshod phraseology as, 
" There is no clear and distinct pro- 



hibition in the New Testament 
Scriptures of its employment in the 
Church," " The Directory for Public 
Worship does not forbid its use ;" and 
"its employment was at least sanc- 
tioned in the former dispensation, 
while it is in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of our nature." • We cannot 
help suspecting, that those who resort 
to such negative reasoning find the 
ground they occupy infirm, especially 
when assumed in discussing what is 
necessarily a positive institution — the 
worship of God. Those who affirm 
that instrumental music in the praise 
of God is in accordance with nature, 
forget to distinguish betwixt what is 
moral natural, as characteristic of man 
previous to the fall, and what is merely 
natural, as characteristic of him in 
his depraved state ; for if they rest 
their reasoning on the latter, they 
would encumber and destroy every in- 
stituted ordinance of God by the most 
grotesque practices of the heathen. 
As the manner of worshipping God is 
moral positive, we require a positive 
command for instrumental music. — 
In every such case. Scripture ftu-nishes 
with plainest, positive injunctions. 

Those who attempt an escapement 
from the positive law of conducting 
the psalmody, contained in the Direc- 
tory for Public AVorship, by specifying 
the singing of the Psalms, have surely 
shut their eyes to the last chapter of 
that document ; to the Confession of 
Faith, chap. xxi. 5 ; to the Larger 
Catechism, Quest. 108 ; and, indeed, to 
the clear-toned deUverances of the 
Reformed Church of Scotland in all 
her adopted Westminster Standards. 
We would request the attention of all 
M'ho have solemnly vowed adherence 
to these Standards to read their nega- 
tive lucubrations in the light of Parlia- 
ment's ratification of the Reformation 
then attained. "May 16-44. — The 
Lords and Commons assembled in 
Parliament, the better to accomplish 



the blessed Reformation so happily 
begun, and to remove all offences and 
things illegal in the worship of God, 
do ordain, That — all organs, and the 
frames or cases wherein they stand, in 
all churches and chapels aforesaid, 
shall be taken away and utterly de- 
faced, and npne other hereafter set up 
in their places." Be this authoritative 
and expository deliverance right or 
wrong as to the merits of the, question, 
it does most distinctly shew up the 
lamentable ignorance of would-be 
reasoners for the alleged silence of the 
Directory for Public Worship, and 
authorized Standards of the Church of 
Scotland. The controversy has been 
involved by the foreign elements that 
have been allowed to cluster around 
the supposed or real ceremonial aspect 
of instrumental music ; the anti- 
o)-ganists affirming that it is cere- 
monial, and the organists denying, or 
professing that they cannot see, its 
ceremonial character. As our limited 
space prevents a formal discussion of 
this essential phase of the question, 
we would simply suggest, that if in- 
strumental music be ceremonial, then 
it has been abrogated ; but, on the 
other hand, if it be not ceremonial, it 
must be moral natural, and the or- 
ganist must shew that it has a place 
in the the moral law of God, or is a 
positive institution among New Testa- 
ment ordinances. It is immaterial to 
the organist which of these horns of 
the dilemma be chosen, seeing that 
neither of them will serve his purpose. 
But apart from the mere sesthetical, 
mechanical, sentimental view of the 
question, we shall briefly address our- 
selves to its scriptural character, by 
making a few remarks of a suggestive 
kind. 

The alleged strength of the or- 
ganist's argumentation is, that there is 
nothing in the New Testament Scrip- 
tures against the use of instrumental 
music in the Church. This, we appre- 



hend, is the organist's tower of 
strength. 

Now, 1, as the manner of worship- 
ping God is a moral positive duty, we 
have an undoubted right to demand a 
positive command for organic music ; 
without something positive, worship 
would cease to be worship. 

2. It will not be readily proved that 
the New Testament Scriptures are 
silent on the manner of worshipping 
God in psalmody, while so much is 
said of singing the praise of God with 
the human voice, and without a single 
hint of mechanical music ; neither 
will it be easy to shew, that the apostle 
would have used sucii liberty with in- 
strumental music, had it been divinely 
sanctioned, when he spake contemp- 
tuously of "a sounding brass and a 
tinkling cymbal." Such liberty was 
not used by any of the officials, or 
prophets, under the former economy. 

3. It is requisite on the part of the 
organists to shew, that, in the days of 
our Lord's humiliation, the Jewish 
Church, either in the temple or in 
the synagogue, used instruments of 
music. On this we desiderate and 
demand proof If these instruments 
were not used in the Jewish Church 
in the days of our Lord's flesh upon 
earth, we can readily discover why he 
did not condemn what had no exis- 
tence, what was not practised. 

4. All the argumentation of the 
organists upon those passages of the 
New Testament, and especially apoca- 
lyptic ijortions, as Rev. xiv. 2, in which 
the ransomed witnesses in the Church 
militant are represented as using harps, 
is vulnerable at every point. Space 
allows only the following remarks sug- 
gestive of the mode of obviating this 
vulgar defence : (1) If in these apoca- 
lyptic passages we expound the harps 
literal harps, consistency requires that 
we expound " the jdtars, the sacrifices, 
the incense, the temple, the ark, the 
sacerdotal vestments," &c. also as 



literal. (2) Whereas in the two passages 
cited above, we have the symbolic 
worship of the saiuts, we have their 
exercise iu contrast with that of Rome 
and her daughters at the closing scene 
of this dispensation. The contrast 
betwixt the parties is thus described, 
Rev. xviii. 22 : " And the voice of 
harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, 
and trumpeters, shall be found no 
more at all in thee." Rev. xix. 1, 
"And after these things I heard a 
great voice of much people in heaven, 
saying. Alleluia : salvation, and glory, 
and honour, and power, unto the 
Lord our God." Wherefore this con- 
trast 1 and wherefore the cessation of 
Rome's confessedly literal harps, and 
the continuance of Zion's living voice? 
(3) These remarks apply to the other 
portions of the New Testament Scrip- 
tures ; for if we are literally to render 



Paul's Jewish phraseology, then what 
shall the organists make of Heb. 
xiii. 10, " We have an altar, whereof 
they have no right to eat which serve 
the tabernacle." In conclusion, the 
apostle furnishes with the true and 
satisfactory exposition of all the Jew- 
ish phraseology which he employs 
throughout all his epistles, on this, 
and all cognate subjects, when he says, 
Heb. xiii. 15, " By him therefore let 
us offer the sacrifice of praise to God 
continually, that is, the fruit of our 
LIPS, giving thanks to his name." 
Unless the organists can fairly meet 
this last passage, which is expository 
of all that the inspired apostle wrote 
on the subject, they have not advanced 
a single step in the right direction. 
But we shall resume this interesting 
subject in a future number of the 
Ark. 



We -are not alone in viewing with 
alarm a steadily increasing desire, on 
the part of some of our religious de- 
nominations, still called Presbyterian, 
for some of the threadbare and childish 
rags of Popery, which were specified 
and condemned by our strong-minded 
and manly fathers. Our forebodings 
of a dark and not distant future are 
not diminished by the fact, that the 
latter half of the nineteenth century, 
with its boasted physical science, lite- 
rature, and religion, has furnished the 
resurrectionists of these relics long 
since honoured with a national funeral. 
As our sheet is small, we shall men- 
tion only a few of these ominous 
freaks of modern Presbyterianism. 

I. Ecclesiastical Architecture. 
— In prosecuting this branch of the 
subject, it is not our intention to re- 
commend a crusade against those 
magnificent ruins, which were once 



the dens of organised bands, who, 
under the guise of religion, destroyed 
the souls and spoiled the property of 
fellow-men. Let destroying time do 
its work with such relics. And yet 
we cannot refuse to subscribe to the 
sagacious remark of our own Knox, — 
" Pull down their nests, and the rooks 
will fly." We aUude to the striking 
fact, that modern Presbyterians are 
falling out of love with that plain and 
simple style of buildings hitherto used 
for worshipping God, and are indulg- 
ing an appetite for more gorgeous and 
costly edifices. The decent meeting- 
house must resemble a Cathedral, and 
display on its Gothic front those carved 
figures which their Vandal fathers des- 
troyed. Apart from this imitation of 
the Mediaeval customs, such erections 
have entailed heavy pecuniary liabili- 
ties on not a few poor struggling con- 
gregations ; while the expenditure of 
vast sums on these erections, together 



with their childish ornaments, renders 
somewhat ridiculous ministerial fervent 
appeals for fuiids to spread the (rospel 
among the perishing heathen. This 
ecclesiastical mania is ever and anon 
manifesting itself in fixing upon the 
most foshionable and heavily- burdened 
localities for the sites of imposing 
churches, not for the convenience of 
the body of the poorer brethren, but 
for the aesthetics of religion. And 
how un-presbyterian, how curacy- 
like, the expedient- of erecting meaner 
buildings — ragged churches — for the 
low-born ! " For if there come unto 
your assembly a man with a gold ring, 
in goodly apparel, and there come in 
also a poor man in vile raiment ; and 
ye have respect to him that weareth 
the gay clothing, and say unto him. 
Sit thou here in a good place, and say 
to the poor. Stand thou there, or sit 
here under my footstool ; are ye not 
then partial in yourselves, and are 
become judges of evil thoughts V 

II. Symbolic Ornaments. — In 

company with gorgeous erections for 
public worship, we have external 
symbols of a ritualistic character or 
appearance. We allude to the prevail- 
ing custom of making the symbol of the 
cross to crown, or figure on, some con- 
spicuous part of the building. If this 
sign is not symbolic, why should Pres- 
byterians fix it on their churches 
rather than on their private houses, 
and fix it without, rather than within, 
these places of worship 1 The reason- 
ing that sustains placing the cross 
without, will be found strong enough 
for introducing it within ; if merely 
ornamental without, why not merely 
ornamental within '] and why for 
mere ornament I'esort to the sign of 
the cross at all, seeing it is the favourite 
symbol of Antichrist '? The Church 
and kingdom of Scotland shewed a 
deeper knowledge of human nature, 
when, in 1644, "they ordained, that 



the representations of any of the 
persons of the Trinity, or of any angel 
or saint, in or about any cathedral, 
collegiate or parish church, or chapel, 
or in any open place within this king- 
dom, shall be taken away, defaced, and 
utterly demolished ; and that no cross, 
crucifix, picture, or representation of 
any of the persons of the Trinity, or of 
any angel or saint, shall be, or continue 
upon any plate or other thing, used or 
to be used in or about the worship of 
God." All low cavilling aside, could 
these men who aided in compiling the 
Westminster Standards, wei-e they to 
revisit our country, distinguish in the 
erections of modern Presbyterians those 
who claim to be their successors and 
representatives? "Abstain from all 
ai^pearance of evil." 

III. The Internal of these 
Presbyterian Edifices. — On step- 
ping within these Presbyterian temples, 
what meets the eye ? All is in striking 
accordance with the exteritn* decora- 
tions. Here and there monuments 
recording the worth of departed pas- 
tors and generous donors ; dioramic 
representations of Scripture characters ; 
coats of arms ; the ten commandments ; 
and in some, on the back of the 
pulpit, the gilded sign of the cross ; 
elaborately-carved pulpits ; seats for 
the band ; in some, no pulpit, but 
a platform readily convertible into an 
altar ; and, in fine, the religious light 
coming through stained-glass windows ! 
And these are aids to devotion ! "• The 
kingdom of God cometh not with 
observation." These naturally divert 
the soul from the simplicity, purity, 
spirituality of the worship of the 
New Testament Church. In confirma- 
tion of this aid to superstition we 
appeal to the outstanding facts of the 
history of the Church of Rome, " after 
which the whole world wondered ;" to 
the feelings of every man who has 
violated duty in entering within such 



edifices ; and to the fact, that those 
who have made this dangerous experi- 
ment can write in our public journals 
the history of all these sensuous 
attractives, but are dumb as the dead 
on what of the gospel was addressed 
to guilty and perishing sinners. 

IV. A GENER.4L SUMMARY OF 

Popish -LOOKING customs. Under this 
head we allude to the exhibition of 
paintings of a scriptural character ; 
the productions of the pencil, the 
chisel, the general artist, whether pano- 
ramic, dio ramie, in printshops, or 
bookseller's windows. The mediaeval 
spirit has taken possession of the 
popular mind, and permeates even the 
Scottish conscience. Nothing takes 
that does not smell of Italy, that looks 
not towards Rome. Wherefore do we 
wonder at such innovations as Presby- 
terian liturgical services, at the rage 
for instrumental music, at the contro- 
versy among Scotch Episcopalians about 
the Eucharistical service, at the success 
of Tractarianism in England and Scot- 
land, at the number and influence of 
English and Scotch perverts to Rome 1 
Having by modern and modish prac- 
tices left the constitutional ground of 
Scotland and its Reformed Church, we 
cannot resist the strong incoming tide 
of scepticism, infidelity, and immor- 
ality ; we cannot, clothed with Popish 
garments, and wielding Popish 
weapons, firmly resist our old and 



highly-stratagetic adversary of Rome. 
Protestants, and even Presbyterians, 
have of late years, like the Russian 
st)ldiers, been drinking stimulants to 
excite to a spasmodic rush against an 
experienced and determined adversary ; 
instead of taking their cooling, spiri- 
tualizing, and refreshing draughts from 
the crystal tide of the New Testament 
dispensation. 

In fiae, we despair of convincing 
those who are mad on those rites and 
ceremonies, " weak and beggarly ele- 
ments," of the Levitical economy, 
mercifully removed by the work and 
death of Christ, and solemnly abjured 
by England, Scotland, and Ireland ; 
for if the spiritual weapons with which 
our fathers stood their ground, and 
successfully resisted Rome, now fail, 
nothing remains to close the scene but 
weapons of a far different kind, and 
wielded by rougher and bloodier hands. 
To attempt formal reasoning with the 
spirit of the age, we deem almost a 
work of supererogation ; and shall 
conclude by reminding the Presby- 
terians, that their weapons of self- 
defence are those of an abrogated 
Mosaic economy, are the very same 
which Rome has always wielded, and 
which, in Presbyterian hands, shall 
cut themselves, the system of Presby- 
tery, and the whole woi'k of a dear- 
bought reformation in our beloved 
country. 



^ iaxpiUw l^atwiiai ^iii. 



The 29th of May 1662, being the 
anniversary of the King's Restoration, 
was ordered to be kept as a day of 
public thanksgiving, or, as they pro- 
fanely termed it, "a holiday to the 
Lord." On this day the Covenants 
were torn in pieces at the Cross of 
Edinburgh by the hands of the com- 
mon hangman. The town of Linlith- 



gow, at the same time, signalised 
itself by an act of wanton insult on 
these sacred bonds still more revolting. 
After divine service, the streets were 
filled with bonfires, and the fountain 
in the centre of the town was made 
to flow with wine. At the Cross was 
erected an arch with four pillars, on 
one side of which appeared the figure 



THE ARK. 



of an old hag with the Covenant in 
her hand, and the inscription, "A 
glorious Reformation." On the top 
was another figure representing the 
devil, with this label in his mouth, 
" Stand to the Cause." On the king's 
health being drunk, fire was applied 
to the frame, and the whole was re- 
duced to ashes, amidst the shouts of a 
mob inflamed with liquor. This 



solemn burning of the Covenants was 
got up by the provost and minister of 
the place, both of whom had been 
Covenanters. By the more respectable 
class of inhabitants it was witnessed 
with grief and horror, as a profane 
and daring afront offered to the God 
of heaven. — M'Cries Sketches of Scot- 
tish Church Historij. 



%\n Stt0nql)0l^ ,of €\)mU MWwmn, 



The folloAving lines are extracted from 
Frasers Magazine of 1831. They are 
a translation of the song which Luther 
wrote when he was about to appear 
before the Diet of Worms. To those 
who love the truth for its own sake, 
these lines will prove refreshing, espe- 
cially in the present time, when it is so 
usual to estimate the goodness of a 
cause by the numbers, rank, and in- 
fluence of those who adhere to it, and 
when that faith is so rare, which caused 
Moses to esteem the reproach of Christ 
greater riches than the treasures of 
Egypt, and to endure as seeing Him 
who is invisible : 

A safe stronghold our God is still, 
A trusty shield and weapon ; 
He'll help us clear from all the ill 
That hath us now o'ertaken. 
The ancient prince of hell 
Hath risen with purpose fell, 
Strong mail of ; craft and power 
He weareth in this hour — 
On earth is not his fellow. 



With force of arms we nothing can, 
Full soon were we down-ridden ; 
But for us fights the proper Man, 
Whom God himself hath bidden. 
Asli ye, Who is this same ? 
Christ Jesus is His name, 
The Lord Zeboath's Son, 
He, and no other one. 
Shall conquer in the battle. 

And were this world all devils o'er, 
And watching to devour us, 
We lay it not to heai-t so sore, 
Not that they can o'erpower us. 
And let the prince of ill 
Look grim as e'er he will. 
He harms us not a whit. 
For why ? His doom is writ, 
A word shall quickly slay him. 

God's word, for all their craft and force, 

One moment will not linger, 

But, spite of hell, shall have its course, 

'Tis written by His finger. 

And though they take our life. 

Goods, houses, children, wife, 

Yet is their profit small. 

These things shall vanish all. 

The city of God remaineth. 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by James S. Muir, 60 New Buildings, North 
Bridge (to whom all Communications — prepaid — may be addressed) ; John Menzies, 
61 Princes Street. Glasgow : William Love, St Enoch Square ; and sold by all 
Booksellers. ' 



T. L. AITKEN, PRINTER. GEORGE IV. BRIDGE. EDINBUBOH. 



ilr« %Yh 



No. VI. 



MAY 1858. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

Christ's Tears over Jerusalem. 

Is IT possible to carry out the Principles of the Second Reformation without 

FORMALLY ADOPTING THE DOCUMENTS WHICH EMBODY THESE PRINCIPLES? 



C|nst'5 %tm akx |mtsdeni. 



Luke xix. 41, 42. — "And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it, saying, If 
thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong \mto thy peace ! but 
now they are hid from thine eyes." 



The time when, the place where, and 
the circumstances in which, this sin- 
cere and melting lamentation was 
poured forth, throw around it a pecu- 
liarly deep and solemn interest. Our 
blessed Lord was now riding in 
triumph, amid the loud and ringing 
hosannas of its crowded population, 
into the proud metropoUs of Judea ; 
the time was about five years previous 
to the apprehension, trial, condem- 
nation, crucifixion, and burial of Jesus ; 
and he had now reached the west side 
of Mount Olivet, from which he had a 
full view of the gorgeous city of David, 
the city of God. Any ordinary per- 
son, at such a time, and in such 
jubilant circumstances, would have 
found it no easy task to conceal his 
emotions of exuberant joy ; but, " as 
the heavens are high above the earth, 
so are the Lord's thoughts and ways 
higli above man's." While the pro- 
cession moves along, and on reaching 
the west side of Olivet has attained 
its climax of exultation, Jesus stops, 
fixes his eye on the spread-out " city 
of the mighty king," and, mingling 
his fast-falling tears with their loudest 
rejoicing, exclaims, "If thou hadst 



known, even thou, at least in this thy 
day, the things which belong unto thy 
peace ! but now they are hid from thine 
eyes." His tears and touching lamenta- 
tion over the infatuated city of Jerusa- 
lem suggest to the seriously thoughtful 
mind not a few weighty doctrines and 
solemn practical lessons, to which it 
would do well to take good heed, ere 
the things that belong to its peace be 
for ever hid from the eye. In request- 
ing the attention of the reader to this 
inspired passage, our object is not to 
steal a march upon mere feeling at 
the expense of the judgment, or 
indulge in formal criticism, but to fur- 
nish with a few practical remarks, 
applicable to hearers, and especially 
professors of the gospel. 

Verse 4L "And when he ^vas come 
near, he beheld the city, and wept over 
it." — How deeply afl'ecting this scene ! 
how sudden, unexpected, and contrary 
to the desires of this inflated crowd ! 
As the ringing jubilation increased, 
and the crowd was receiving accessions, 
Jesus stood still, not only looked to- 
wards, but fixed his eyes and heart 
upon the fully-exposed Jerusalem, and 
shed a flood of sincere and burning 



tears over it ! It was a city of renown, 
a city of most distinguished monarchs, 
saints, prophets, patriots, and martyrs ; 
it was the city of the mighty king, 
the city of the temple, so eminent for 
its most holy place, for its sacred and 
symbolic furniture, for the Shekinah, 
emblematic of the gracious presence of j 
" the Holy One of Israel ; " it was pre- 
eminently the city of spiritual and 
eternal blessings. On this city he now 
fixed that eye which was suffused with 
tears. His eye saw what no created 
eye could see ; the eye of the crowd 
could see only the external glory of 
the city that was "compactly built 
together ;" the gorgeous and costly 
structure of the temple. The eye of 
Jesus saw the whole city, the splendid 
edifice of the temple, which took for 
its erection and decoration the labour 
of forty-six years, and which TitUs 
used every entreaty and eff"ort to pre- 
serve, besieged by the sanguinary 
Roman troops, its inhabitants reduced 
by ferocious partizanship, indiscriminate 
slaughter, and its proudest buildings 
reduced to smouldering ashes. Having 
such a scene fully before his eye, it is not 
to be wondered at that the compassionate 
Jesus should show fast-falling tears. 
" He wept over it." 

By these tears of our Lord we are 
taught, that he has no jileasure in the 
death even of the wicked, that judg- 
ment is his strange work and his 
strange act, that he delights in mercy, 
that his mercy rejoiceth over his judg- 
ment, and that the infliction of punish- 
ment upon transgressors is a work of 
reluctance. " How shall I give thee 
up, Ephraim 1 how shall I deliver thee, 
Israel 1 how shall I make thee as 
Admah 1 how shall I set thee as 
Zeboim 1 Mine heart is turned within 
me, my repentings are kindled to- 
gether." These sincere and burning 
tears were valuable as pearl-drops, 
were gathered up by God, were put 
into his bottle, and shall be exhibited 



as the clearest proof that Jesus hates 
putting away, that Jerusalem fell by 
her own hands, and that her blood 
was upon her own head. " How often 
would I have gathered thy children 
together, even as a hen gathereth her 
chickens under her wings, and ye 
would not !" 

But wherefore thus abruptly inter- 
rupt the procession, wherefore put 
such a damper on this public rejoicing, 
wherefore mingle tears and lamenta- 
tions with the hearty hosannas of his 
countrymen and fellow-worshippers 1 
Was he overcome to tears because he 
saw that, on the expiry of five days, 
himself would be maligned, appre- 
hended, and crucified, as a malefactor 
and impostor? Was it because he 
saw his ignominy, and felt already the 
scourge, the nails, the crown of thorns ? 
His tears fell now not for himself, but 
for this infatuated crowd, not for him- 
self but for them. In his lamentation 
which now accompanied his tears we 
have the intelligible explanation of his 
feelings and conduct. 

Verse 42. " Saying, If thou hadst 
known, even thou,' at least in this thy 
day, the things which belong unto thy 
peace I but now they are hid from 
thiyie eyes." 

As Jerusalem's defence and glory 
lay not. in her edifices, her number, 
or her temple, but in her distinguished 
spiritual privileges, and especially now 
in the gospel of the grace of God's 
Son, so her neglect and rejection of 
these exposed her to, and secured her 
ruin. " Righteousness exalteth a 
nation, but sin is a reproach to any 
people." How sig-nificantly and pathe- 
tically abrupt is this his individualiz- 
ing address to the city of Jerusalem ! 
"Saying, if thou hadst known, even 
thou." "0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem." 
And he thus intimates that had it 
been any other city on the face of the 
earth, had it been the capital of Assyria, 
of Egypt, or Chaldea, he might have 



refrained from shedding these tears; 
but for Jerusalem, over -which God had 
hovered for centuries on the wings of 
mercy, how can he remain unaffected ! 
"I am distressed for thee ; how shall 
I give thee up ! how shall I deliver 
thee !" Such an exclamation is equi- 
valent to a warm appeal, whether she 
had any just cause of complaint against 
him, or any plea against the infliction 
of the rending judgment which was 
impending over her. " generation, 
see ye the word of the Lord. Have 
I been a wilderness unto Israel 1 a 
land of darkness ? Wlierefore say 
my people, we are lords ; we will 
come no more unto thee ? " In this 
lamentation over Jerusalem, our Lord 
declares there were things that belonged 
to her peace. These are comprehended 
in what is called the gospel ; and this 
embraces all the doctrines which God 
has been pleased to reveal in the oracles 
of truth, all the duties he has been 
pleased to prescribe, all the ordinances 
he has been pleased to institute, and 
all the means he has appointed. 
" Teaching them to observe all things 
whatsoever I have commanded you." 
It is therefore in contravention of both 
the spirit and the letter of the gospel 
to select some revealed truths to the 
rejection of others ; to signalize some 
as essentials and others as non-essen- 
tials ; or to add to, or take from, what 
he has been pleased to reveal. Such 
reasoning and practice constituted a 
very heavy count in the indictment 
drawn up and read against Jerusalem. 
" These things ye ought to have done, 
and not to leave the others undone." 
" If thou hadst known the things which 
belong unto thy peace." Accordingly, 
not only the rejection or despisal, but 
even the neglect of these things secures 
condemnation. " How shall we escape, 
if we neglect so great salvation 1" 

This lamentation further suggests, 
that the Author of salvation has as- 
signed a certain limited season for 



I its acceptance ; and this season is 
I variously designated in Scripture. 
Hence the phraseology " a day," " this 
day," " their day," " the accepted time," 
"the day of salvation." Hence the 
very marked and intelligible phraseology 
of the text. " If thou hadst known, 
m this thy day ; because thou knewest 
not the time of thy visitation." Such 
language is oft addressed to individuals. 
"As I live, saith the Lord, though 
Coniah, the son of Jehoiakim king of 
Judah, were the signet upon my right 
hand, yet would I pluck thee thence ; " 
and that it is addressed in Scripture 
to communities, ecclesiastical and poli- 
tical, to cities and kingdoms, is mani- 
fest from the recorded instances of the 
old world — Egy]3t, Babylon, Nineveh, 
Rome Pagan and nominally Christian, 
as well as Jerusalem. These have 
their day, their specified time of 
visitation, the season of special privi- 
lege. 

No less obvious and solemnly strik- 
ing is it, that those thus privileged 
may outlive their limited season, the 
day of their visitation. This deeply 
affecting and grievously perverted truth 
is now declared in his tears by Christ. 
" If that hadst known, in this thy day 
the things which belong unto thy peace ! 
but now they are hid from thine eyes." 
Never did Jerusaleiu present so ani- 
mated a scene, never were its thousands 
so hearty in their rejoicings in welcom- 
ing Christ, never were they, formally 
considered, in better spiritual exercise ; 
and yet he declares that they had 
outlived their day of gxace, that the 
time of their visitation had passed 
away, that they had sealed their con- 
demnation as a people. "But they 
are now hid from thine eyes ;" and 
while I still address to you the gospel, 
it is my last sermon, your funeral dis- 
course. 

This culpably-overlooked truth, and 
which has been attempted to be set 
aside by such heretical couplets as, 



*' While the lamp holds on to bum,' 
The greatest sinuer may return," 



is applicable to individual hearers and 
professors of the gospel, as well as to 
societies. In alluding to the case of 
Esau, the apostle says, " For ye know 
how that afterward, when he would 
have inherited the blessing, he was 
rejected : for he found no place of 
repentance, though he sought it care- 
fully with tears." And in the light of 
such passages of the Divine Word we 
may discover the jiopular delusion 
practised uj^on the souls of c\ireless 
hearers and professors of the gospel 
by unskilfully holding up the isolated 
and not ordinary case of the saved 
thief on the cross. Such miserable 
comforters strangely overlook the pre- 
eminent peculiarities of Mount Calvary. 
That was an hour distinguished from 
all the hours of time, distinguished by 
the sufferer, his exquisite sufferings, 
the ends secured, and of which Jesus 
said, " Father, the hour is come." 
Never shall heaven and earth again 
witness such an assemblage of wonders, 
a scene not to be alluded to for the 
purpose of rocking asleep indifferent 
hearers of the things that now belong 
to their peace. 

In fine, these tears and this lamen- 
tation shew, that no means of grace, 
no spiritual privileges, shall be blessed 
to those who have outlived the time 
of their visitation. This is set forth 
with a solemnity fitted and designed 
to arouse many who enjoy a dispensa- 
tion of the gosjiel as an intellectual 
repast, from a respect to the habits of 
their localities, and from any motive 
that excludes an earnest soul desire to 
accept Christ and his freely offered 
salvation. " Because I have called, 
and ye refused ; I have stretched out 
my hand, and no man regarded ; I 
also will laugh at your calamity ; I 
will mock when your fear cometh. 
Then shall they call upon me, but I 
will not answer ; they shall seek me 



early, but they shall not find me." 
This sinking, overwhelming doctrine 
is eminently true of those communities, 
whether civil or religious, that have 
despised the gospel and attainments in 
its defence. How true was this of 
that congregation of Israel which 
" went through the flood on foot, and 
there rejoiced in God." " To-day if ye 
will hear his voice, harden not your 
heart, as in the provocation, as in the 
day of temptation in the wilderness. 
Forty years long was I grieved with 
this generation, and said, it is a people 
that do eiT in their heart, and they have 
not known my ways ; unto whom I 
sware in my wrath that they should 
not enter into my rest." For the 
recovery of such communities, God 
has declared that he will not be moved 
from his purpose against them by the 
pleadings or most fervent supplications 
of prophets, saints, or nearest relations. 
The patriotic and weeping prophet 
was twice commanded not to attempt 
the fmitless work of interceding for 
his apostate country. "Therefore 
pray not thou for this people, neither 
lift up cry nor prayer for them, neither 
make intercession to me : for I will 
not hear thee ;" and Ezekiel is informed, 
that no saint could act as moral salt 
to preserve from corruption the nation 
that despised its spiritual privileges, 
and had outlived its day of gTace. 
"Though these three men, Noah, 
Daniel, and Job, were in it, they 
should deliver but their own souls ; 
they shall deliver neither sons nor 
daughters, but they only shall be de- 
livered themselves." At this time the 
Redeemer of souls, on beholding the 
city, weeping over it, and most affec- 
tionately addressing it, intimated that, 
by her own conduct towards the gospel, 
she had put it beyond even his ability 
to avert that stroke of judgment which 
had long been threatened, and which 
her clamant sins had merited. This 
consideration of the exercise and con- 



THE ARK. 



duct of our Lord suggests very many- 
lessons of great practical importance, 
to one or two of which we may 
advert. 

Not a few cities and nations have 
signalized themselves by extreme in- 
fatuation. Jerusalem was heaven's 
favourite city ; had line upon line, 
here a little and there a little ; had 
holy prophets and righteous rulers 
given her ; was favoured with peculiar 
signs and wonders ; and was long and 
earnestly expostulated with to acknow- 
ledge and honour God by the formal 
adoption of his sacred cause ; yet, in 
the pathetic language of Christ, " she 
would not," and thus drew from his 
lips the sentence of her condemnation, 
" The things that belong to your peace 
are hid from your eyes." 

Professing but degenerate com- 
munities are met with special severity. 
" Unto whom much is given, of them 
also shall much be required : you only 
have I known of all the families of the 
earth, and therefore will I punish you 
for your iniquities." The capitals of 
Egypt, Assyria, and Chaldea, in the 
hour of their extremity, never pre- 
sented so humbling, sanguinary, and 
shocking a scene as did the beloved 
Jerusalem in the day of her siege and 
her sack. Her own internal feuds, 
intercine slaughter, and self-immola- 
tion, left little work for the Koman 
swords and flambeaux. 

If Jemsalem was so severely dealt 
with, what shall be the severity of 
His judgments on those cities and 



kingdoms which have been even more 
distinguished by privilege than the 
Holy city. The reader can be at no 
loss to specify for himself cities and 
nations that have had a fiiUer and 
clearer gospel than ever had Jerusalem, 
tliat have reached higher attainments, 
that have had Jerusalem's speaking 
ruins as a beacon, and have become 
fully as degenerate. And "if such 
things were done in the green tree, 
what shall be done in the dry ? See 
that ye refuse not him that speaketh ; 
for if they escaped not who refused 
him that spake on earth, much more 
shall not we escape, if we turn away 
from him that speaketh from heaven." 
Devoted societies put forth their 
most strenuous efforts immediately 
before their overthrow. Never did 
Jerusalem address herself with so 
much earnestness to public debate, 
public prayer, public exposition of the 
Scriptures ; never was she so crowded 
and so excited, never so zealous for 
the observance of the passover, or so 
enthusiastic in her praises of the Son 
of God. But these same voices that 
rent the heavens with their loudest 
hosannas, were as loudly vociferating, 
only five days hence, " Away with this 
fellow ; crucify him, crucify him." 
How evanescent, how fitful is popular 
applause ! how dubious mere muscular 
eflbrt in religion ? and how vain all 
eftorts and tears after the day of a 
nation's visitation has passed away ! 
" The things which belong to thy peace 
are hid from thine eyes." 



js it pssibk to tmi m\ \\t |iiiuiplcs 0f Wit ^nm)i f ctota- 
\m toit|i)ut f0nnailg ak^ting Wit |0rMmats tol]k^ mMi \\m 



In considering this very important 
question, it is interesting to notice the 
spirit of our age, which delights to 
honour after its own fashion, the 



memoiy of those of our ancestors who 
rendered themselves illustrious in de- 
fending truth and liberty. The most 
distinguished of these patriots have 



appeared on the stage of our national 
history at three successive periods. 
The hero of the first is the renowned 
Wallace, to whom the nation is at 
present bestirring itself to erect a 
worthy monument. John Knox holds 
the chief place in the second period ; 
and our respect for his memory has 
been sliown by repairing, adorning, 
and converting into a relic almost 
sacred the house in which he lived. 
But in regard to the worthy actors of 
the third period, who are commonly 
called Covenanters, there is room for 
enquiring whether they and the prin- 
ciples they held, are remembered with 
that regard which they deserve 1 

It is acknowledged that there is 
among Presbyterians generally, a pro- 
fessed admiration for our covenanting 
ancestors, and the cause for which 
they freely laid down their lives. But 
is this admiration sincere, or is it 
merely the offspring of enthusiasm ? 
On occasion of the recent Disruption,- 
the leaders of that hopeful movement 
addressed the most heart-stirring ap- 
peals to the people, reminding them 
of the faith and devotedness of the 
Covenanters, and withal exhorting 
them to imitate such glorious examples 
that they might prove themselves their 
true successors. 

A kind of sentimental sympathy is 
likewise awakened in the public mind 
by the perusal of pathetic traditions 
of our martyred forefathers, and by 
the celebration of commemoration ser- 
vices around their hoary moorland 
sepulchres. But all such expressions 
of regard must be viewed mei'ely as 
the resvUts of a transitory enthusiasm, 
so long as the covenanted cause itself 
is practically repudiated by the eccle- 
siastical bodies of Scotland, and by 
the public in general, as is too plainly 
manifest at the present day. 

We call it the covenanted cause, for, 
to use the language of the late Dr 
M'Crie, " in no nation has the true 



religion been so solemnly avouched as 
in Scotland. Every important step 
taken in reformation was accompanied 
with confessions, protestations, vows, 
covenants, and oaths, which was made 
and subscribed by all ranks voluntarily, 
cheerfully, and joyfully repeated on 
every new emergency and call, and 
ratified by every author it i/ in the land. 
Hence it has obtained the distinguish- 
ing name of the Covenanted Reforma- 
tion." 

Now, it is our object here to show, 
as briefly as we can, that this Cove- 
nanted Reformation is practically de- 
nied by those who, while they profess 
to carry out its ends, yet refuse to 
acknowledge those Covenants which 
embody, confirm, and preserve these 
ends. 

To give an instance of such an equi- 
vocal profession, we quote part of an 
"Act and Declaration" of the Free 
Church Assembly of 1851, which is 
prefixed to an edition of the Confession 
of Faith : 

"This Church, humbly claiming to be 
identified wath the Church of Scotland which 
solemnly bound herself to the Reformation 
from Po])en', and again similarly pledged 
herself to the Reformation from Prelacy ; and 
deploring past shortcomings from the princi- 
ples and work of these Reformations, as well as 
past secessions from her own communion, 
occasioned by tyranny and corruption in her 
councils, and finally, resolved and determined 
as in the sight and by the help of God, to 
prosecute the ends contemplated from the 
beginning in all the acts and deeds of her 
refoi-ming fathers, until the eiTors which they 
renounced shaU have disappeared from the 
land, and the true system which they upheld 
shall be so universally received, that the whole 
people, rightly instructed in the faith, shall 
unite to glorify God the Father, in the full 
acknowledgment of the kingdom of His Son, 
our blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
to whose name be praise for ever and ever. 
Amen." • 

Now, with such a solemn profession 
as this before us, we ask, is it possible 
to "prosecute the ends contemplated 
by our reforming fathers in all their 
acts and deeds," without formally 



acknowledging the Covenants, which 
are the most important of these acts 
and deeds? We hold this to be 
impossible on the following grounds : 

1. These documents embody the 
ruling principles of the Second Reforma- 
tion, and tlierefore to deny their obli- 
gation is virtually to repudiate those 
principles embodied in them. 

2. Our covenanting fathers, claim- 
ing to be the Visible Church of Christ, 
knew it to be their duty, in obedience 
to His command, to hold fast their 
previous attainments, and to set their 
seal to those truths which Christ had 
already committed to them, and so to 
keep the Word of His patience ; and 
this they did by solemnly vowing " to 
preserve the reform.ed religion in the 
Church of Scotland against our com- 
mon enemies." Those, therefore, who 
renounce these Covenants, display 
their disregard for the attainments 
referred to, and fail to sustain one of 
the most prominent characteristics of 
the Christian Church. \ 

3. Again, in these Covenants, our 
fathers swore to " prosecute the refor- 
mation of religion in the three king- 
doms, in doctrine, worship, disciplii 
and government, according to the 
of God, and the example of the best 
Reformed Churches ; and to endeavour 
to bring the Churches of God in the 
three kingdoms to the nearest conjunc- 
tion and uniformity in religion, con- 
fession of faith, form of Church 
government, directory for worship and 
catechising ; that we and our posterity 
after us may, as brethren, live in faith 
and love, and the Lord may delight to 
dwell in the midst of us." These are 
permanent objects which the Church 
is bound to seek steadfastly while in 
her militant state ; so that those who 
refuse the obligation to seek these ends, 
cannot in consistency claim to be the 
Church of Jesus Christ. 

But we may here ask, Have the 



Church and nation now reached such 
a pitch of perfection as to render these 
bonds no longer of any force 1 Have 
the stipulations of these Covenants 
been fulfilled so as to cancel their 
farther obligation 1 Is there not very 
sad evidence that we are immeasure- 
ably farther from such purity, uni- 
formity, and unanimity as our ances- 
tors attained, and these vows oblige 
us to seek 1 If so, then where, when, 
or how have we slipped out from under 
our solemn engagements to the Most 
High God ? Is it not manifest that 
those who refuse formally to own these 
solemn bonds, do, in effect, repudiate 
the holy ends which God in His Word 
commands us to prosecute 1 

4. Moreover, they deny the con- 
tinued identity of the Church and 
nation ; for these Covenants are " so- 
lemn oaths to the Most High God, 
framed and concluded by the repre- 
sentatives of the three kingdoms, in 
concurrence with those of the Church. 
They were sworn by them in their 
public capacity ; at their call, and by 
their authority, they were afterwards 
sworn by the body of the people in 
their different ranks and orders ; and fi- 
nally they were ratified and pronounced 
valid by laws both civil and ecclesias- 
tical. The public faith was thus 
plighted by all the organs through 
which a nation is accustomed to express 
its mi^ and will " (D?- M'Crie), and 
the nation still retains its identity in 
the sight of God ; therefore the obli- 
gation of the oath remains ; and those 
who refuse to own it, deny their iden- 
tity with those who vowed, they trifle 
with the most solemn engagements 
ever entered into by any people, and 
cut themselves off from all legitimate 
claim to be the Visible Church of 
Christ which He set up in our land at 
the Reformation. How then can they 
expect as a society to be favoured with 
the blessing of Him who is the Faith- 
ful and True WitnesSj and who express- 



ly declares, " He that is not with me 
is against me." 

5. Again, one of the most promi- 
nent principles of the Reformation 
■was, that national covenanting is a 
religious duty, and that such vows are 
of inviolable obligation ; hence the 
whole work of that period is designated 
the Covenanted Reformation. Those, 
then, who set aside these Covenants, 
and determine not to perform this 
religious duty, cannot pretend with 
any reason to carry out the principles 
of the Reformation, seeing they deny 
its most solemn and comprehensive 
characteristic. 

But it is argued by those to whom 
we refer, that they adopt and carry 
out the principles contained in tlie 
Confession of Faith, which is the 
systematic summary of the truths pro- 
fessed at the Reformation. But the 
Confession of Faith declares that 
covenanting is a part of religious wor- 
ship (see chap, xxii.^, theretbre those' 
who demur to this duty do hot adopt 
and carry out the principles of the 
Confession of Faith. 

The principles of the Reformation 
are eminently strict as regards tlie 
distinction between truth and error in 
matters of doctrine, worship, discipline, 
and government in the Church — rigid- 
ly cleaving to ascertained truth on these 
points, and unequivocally testifying 
against error and defection i^ffi^A this 
is essential to the prosperity ' of the 
Church. Now the design of the 
Covenants " was to erect, according to 
divinely-approved example, not a tem- 
poraiy, but a perpfetual barrier of the 
greatest moral strength against back- 
sliding on the part of the Church and 



nation. And in what does the strength 
of the wall consist, as peciUiarly formed 
by the Covenants ? In the deep sense 
that God requires that men should 
have, and which every right-hearted 
man has, of the obligation of Covenants 
in which God is at once appealed to 
as a witness and a party ; the peculiar 
dread which men are required by the 
moral law to have, and in which, in 
as far as conscience is awake, they will 
have of violating an engagement which 
has been entered into with all the 
solemnity of an oath to the Almighty, 
as the Witness, the Supreme Judge, 
and the Terrible Avenger. Now take 
away the sense of this obligation, and 
the barrier is annihilated, the Covenants 
entered into with so much solemnity 
are nugatory, and God is charged with 
foolishness in ordaining such means of 
keeping individuals and societies from 
doing wrong, and in constraining them 
to do right. Do we, then, need tu ask 
if' they are fulfilling this grand end of 
the m«st glorious of all the acts and 
deedgifof our reforming fathers, when 
they are refusing to bear witness for 
the obligation of the Covenants, when 
tlijey are allowing this great moral bul- 
**ark, which our fathers reared with 
W^ liighest divine countenance, and 
the clearest divine sanction, to be over- 
thrown, and its very foundations razed 
in the conscience of national and eccle- 
siastical society 1 . . . Our cove- 
nanting fathers felt the strength of 
this barrier to be so invincible, that 
rather than suffer it to be broken down, 
they braved all dangers, endured all 
tortures, and loved not their lives unto 
•the death." But now, " Tempora mu- 
tantur, el nos mutamur cumitlis." 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by James S. Muir, 60 New Buildings, North 
Bridge (to whom all Communications — prepaid — may be addressed) ; John Menzies, 
61 Princes Street. Glasgow : William Love, St Enoch Square ; and sold by all 
Booksellers. 



L. AITKEN, PRINTER, GEORGE IV. BRIDGE, EDINBURGH. 



i;h^ iiri 



No. VII. 



JUNE 1858. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

"The Christian Ambassador" and the Bible. 

The Breakfast Table of the Elders of the United Presbyterian and 

Free Churches. 
Obedience to the Divine Will the Highest Act of Devotion. 



fk dEIrristian Itmbassiibor " m\^ i\t §iMe. 



The numerous cheap publications of 
a periodical kind issuing from the 
press, form a very marked character- 
istic of our age. And, while the de- 
partments of science and general litera- 
ture, as well as popery, infidelity, and 
others of an injurious tendency, are 
thoroughly occupied, that commonly 
known as the religious department is 
far from being barren. Into this 
latter field another paper has been 
introduced in our own city, under the 
attractive designation of " The Chris- 
tian Ambassador." Its ostensible de- 
sign is expressed in its comprehensive 
promise " to contend for the faith once 
delivered to the saints." But the ful- 
filment of this laudalDle engagement is 
rendered rather problematical by its 
declared resolution " to keep free from 
all denominational bias, and sectarian 
partizanship." If this journal succeed 
in accomplishing both of these specified 
ends, it will prove itself to be a " new 
thing under the sun." For no saint, 
or association of saints, ever yet con- 
tended earnestly for the faith, without 
bringing themselves into hostile col- 
lision with the errors of all other sects 
and denominations. And in this respect 



eveiy faithful servant of God finds 
himself in the same case as the great 
Apostle, who denounced as accursed 
every one who dared to promulgate 
any other gospel than that which he 
himself preached. 

In No. I. of this " Christian Ambas- 
sador" we are favoiu-ed with a sketch 
of the Rev. Dr Guthrie, and, as a 
specimen of his style, a sermon lately 
preached by him is transcribed at con- 
siderable length. The writer of the 
sketch is bold enough to lend a side- 
blow at the scriptural doctrines of 
Election and Predestination, which 
terms, he aflSrms, are prudently ex- 
cluded from the discourses of the rev. 
doctor. It is needless to remark, how 
this treacherous thrust at the words 
of the Holy Spirit quite nullifies the 
promise of contending for the faith, 
which is made in the Prospectus. 

Dr Guthrie's sermon, upon Col. i. 
18, is distinguished by his usual 
variety and richness of illustration, 
and all the other peculiar attractions 
for which his productions are so widely 
admired. But, as our space does not 
admit of animadverting upon the dis- 
course as a whole, we content ourselves 



with a brief consideration of tlie follow- [ 
ing passage. After alluding to the i 
discord jorevailing in society and 
amongst professing Christians, and the j 
impropriety of judging the Head of | 
the Church from a comparison with | 
His discordant body in this world, the 
rev. doctor proceeds : 

"It is very otherwise ; for let me just say, 
in the first place, you neither see in our 
Church, nor do you see in any other Church, 
the real body, the real Church of Jesus 
Christ. One regiment of troops does not 
make the British army, nor does any one set 
of Christians make the Church of Christ. 
Not at all : the Church of Christ, consisting 
of all true believers of every name and de- 
nomination, is scattered over the bounds of 
Christendom ; — never say it is within the 
limits of your narrow sect. . . . Never 
will the true Church of Christ stand up the 
Visible Church till after the labours and 
lapse of hundreds of ages. . . . Then, 
in the second place, while the materials of 
this Church are scattered over the world, the 
body spoken of here is not the body of my 
text. That is not an Episcopalian, or Pres- 
byterian, or Independent body. I say the 
body of that text has its members .spread 
over all the world, in every Church in Chris- 
tendom." 

In a popular discourse like this, it 
is truly painful to meet with such a 
passage. The confusion of ideas is 
but too manifest. The distinction be- 
tween the Church Visible and In- 
visible is utterly lost sight of. Nay, 
the language amounts to an obvious 
denial of the existence of any such 
society as the Visible Church. It is 
declared, "You neither see in our 
Church, nor do you see in any other 
Church, the real body, the real 
Cliurch of Jesus Christ." This surely 
cannot refer to the Church Invisible ; 
for the verb " to see" can have no pos- 
sible application to what cannot he 
seen — to what is invisible. God only 
sees and knows His Church in that 
respect ; and no created eye can dis- 
cover its parts, or define its symme- 
trical proportions. The remarks quoted 
must therefore point at what is ordi- 
narily known by the appellation of the 



Visible Church, and plainly imply that 
such a Church has no earthly existence 
as a distinct body. For, it is not the 
Free Church, nor any other Church. 
Jesus Christ has no real Visible 
Church. If this is not the sense of 
the passage, then it has no sense at 
all. Who, therefore, can forbear ex- 
pressing extraordinary astonishment 
to find Dr Guthrie, at this stage of 
afi'airs, \drtually unchurching himself 
and everybody else — excommunicating 
tlie whole Free Chiu-ch, and every 
other Church ! He denies that any 
of them is the real Church of Jesus 
Christ. What a dark prospect does 
this set before his " wrapt audience " 
and all their fellow-christians, if now 
indeed that name can be applied to 
them ! For it is announced from that 
pulpit of first celebrity, that on this 
earth there is not a real Visible Church 
of Jesus Christ ! Then, we are led to 
inquire, where or what is the Church 
of Christ 1 The rev. doctor replies, 
"It consists of all true believers, of 
every name," &c. But here, it is ap- 
parent to common intelligence, that 
now he alludes to the Invisible Church, 
which is universally admitted to con- 
sist of all true believers, wherever 
they may be found ; but as neither 
angels nor men can certainly know 
who is a "true believer," for they 
cannot know the heart, therefore 
this form of expression brings us 
again to the question, Where is the 
real Church of Christ?' And now we 
are told that it does not exist at pre- 
sent. " Never will the true Church of 
Christ stand up the Visible Church, 
till after the labours and lapse of hun- 
dreds of ages." Verily this is but 
miserable comfort for the members of 
the Free Church, who have made such 
sacrifices, to learn that they have 
adhered to a phantom Church, and 
must wait with laborious patience till 
these hundreds of ages have performed 
their weary revolution before they can 



grasp the substance ! " Have ye suf- 
fered so many things in vain, if it be 
yet in vain ? " 

While thus obviously denying the 
existence of the real Visible Church, 
a kind of heterogeneous, nondescript 
body is introduced to represent it ; and 
this is composed of the various con- 
flicting denominations of Christen- 
dom, spoken of, in popular phrase- 
ology, as sister Churches, and said to 
form in the aggregate what may serve 
to be styled the Church of Christ. 
This reasoning is enforced by the 
following simile : " One regiment does 
not make the British army, nor does 
any one set of Christians make the 
Church of Christ." This illustration 
is rather unhappy ; for while one 
regiment of the British army differs 
from another only in name and dress, 
or it may be in some other insignifi- 
cant matters, yet they are all under 
one sovereign as the supreme head of 
the army, to whom they all swear one 
oath of allegiance ; they are all sub- 
ject to one code of military laws, and 
fight under one national banner ; so 
that the entire army has an essential 
and obvious unity and uniformity in 
all these important respects. Whereas, 
the various denominations claiming to 
belong to the Christian Army — the 
Visible Militant Church — have each a 
different administration, are under dif- 
ferent heads (as, the Romish Church 
under the Pope, the Greek under the 
Patriarch, the Episcopal, Puseyite, and 
Erastian Presbyterian under the Sove- 
reign of the country), and so would 
produce the monstrous figure of a body 
with many and dissimilar heads ; they 
also hold different enemies, and do 
battle under different and hostile flags 
or professions ; yea, many of the de- 
nominations engage in fierce conflict 
against one another; so that they 
cannot, by any sane man, be regarded 
as regiments of the one Christian 
army. Moreover, one or two of 



these denominations consider it their 
duty to swear a solemn oath of alle- 
giance to Christ as their king, and so 
hold the principle of Covenanting ; 
while the majority are openly averse 
to any such engagement, and fancy 
they can be faithful enough to the 
Head of the Church without any oath 
of allegiance at all. 

But we are now called in the sermon 
to consider this substitute for the 
Visible Church under the figure of so 
many gold mines, of which "some 
hold a larger portion of the true metal 
than others ; yet even the best of 
them have a great deal of dross, and 
earth, and refuse in them." It is 
beyond dispute that in regard to the 
individuals comprised in|the Visible 
Church, there are but too many who 
give evidence by their loose walk, that 
they are the dross, the earth, and the 
refuse — the chaff on Christ's floor ; 
and in this respect the figure is appli- 
cable. But who will presume to speak 
in such terms of the Visible Church 
of Christ, in its collective capacity, as 
an organised society, and distinguished 
from every other system by the body 
of heavenly doctrines and ordinances 
which Christ her Head has committed 
to her? The system of truth by 
which this society is characterised as 
the Visible Church of Christ, must be 
distinguished from the individuals 
composing the society. This Church, 
in respect to its system, or divine 
Constitution, can never be spoken 
of as having dross, and earth, and 
refuse in it. Its Constitution, compre- 
hensively expressed by the terms. 
Doctrine, Worship, Discipline, and 
Government, is contained in the 
" Word of God, and the Testimony," 
which its members hold. Rev. vi. 9. 
It is emphatically that " faith once de- 
livered to the saints," and for which 
the Church contends against the world 
lying in wickedness. This constitution 
is from God, and is therefore perfect : 



it is not, in any measure, " of the 
earth earthy." And the Church of 
God, adorned with this heavenly sys- 
tem, is spoken of as " Zion, the per- 
fection of beauty." " Beautiful for 
situation, the joy of the whole earth 
is Mount Zion." " Jerusalem is 
builded as a city that is compact to- 
gether." The clothing of the Church, 
the king's daughter, "is of wrought 
gold." And upon beholding her, it is 
asked, " Who is this that looketh forth 
as the morning, fair as the moon, clear 
as the sun, terrible as an army with 



banners T' Song vi. Our Lord also, 
in accordance with these prophetic 
descriptions, speaks of His Church as 
"a city set on an hill," and "the 
light of the world." " My kingdom 
is not of this world," &c. And nume- 
rous other proofs might be adduced 
from Scriptiu-e to establish the doctrine 
of the purity of the Visible Church in 
respect to its Constitution. But into 
the merits of this question, as set before 
us in the sermon referred to, we shall 
enter more particularly in next number, 
if the Lord permit. 



irn Oi^Inirtlrcs. 



OuE attention has been called to the 
account of the speeches delivered by 
some influential elders of the above 
Churches, as reported in the Witness 
of Saturday, 15th May, at a meeting 
held in Queen Street Hall. 

In point of narrative it is sufficient 
to state, that the meeting was proposed 
by, and intended to be composed of, 
elders of the U. P. Church ; but 
some leading elders of the Free Church, 
among whom are Professor Miller, Sir 
George Sinclair, &c. requested that 
they might be present. To this volun- 
tary request, of course, a favourable 
response was given ; and thus we have 
the composition and character of the 
ecclesiastical breakfast company. 

Whatever may have been the ori- 
ginal design of this friendly meeting, 
certain it is, that the Free Church 
speechifiers succeeded in converting it 
into a manufactory for ecclesiastical 
union, or rather amalgamation. 

Passing over the chairman's com- 
plimentary remarks, and without com- 
menting on the classic but verbose 
eloquence of the northern " habit and 
repute" union maker, we are anxious 
to advert to the remedy proposed by 



the Dr Fell of the Free Church, for 
all our religious maladies. 

In his off-hand and characteristic 
address. Professor MUler declared, that 
"the wall which separated the two 
Churches was in a rickety condition, 
and that an ecclesiastical dean of guild 
would order it to be removed." This 
long- considered and sage medical opi- 
nion of the learned professor, and great 
social reformer, so fairly met the case, 
that the applause which followed 
almost converted his figure into a 
reality by bringing the rickety wall 
about the ears of the company. 

We have no design of animadverting 
upon this most heterogeneous figure, 
or assigning reasons for condemning 
the inversion of established order by 
inferior officers taking upon them the 
work of courts ; but simply to state, 
and that too by way of preliminary, 
that a vegetating process of union, 
sometimes counteracted by disruption 
off-shoots, has been going on for a 
considerable time. 

Without pronouncing, at present, on 
their propriety or impropriety, but 
viewing them as ancillary, if not im- 
pulsive elements, we have had the 



Evangelical Alliance, exchange of pul- 
pits, ordination services, musical socie- 
ties, requisitions signed by lay mem- 
bers of both Churches, and voluntary 
breakfasts. Such fermenting elements 
are apt to intoxicate the feelings, to 
muddle the ecclesiastical brains of even 
the advocates of Teetotalism. " They 
are drunk, but not with wine." We 
have to confess our disappointment, in 
that the learned professor and his 
Free Church coadjutors adduced noth- 
ing new, but repeated the old, stale, 
and oft refuted dogma of essentials 
and non-essentials, and that too with- 
out deigning to advert to the challenge 
so oft given by the most sagacious re- 
formers, to define what is included in 
this vague and hitherto impracticable 
plea. Should Professor Miller judge 
himself adequate to take up and an- 
swer that challenge, we shall be happy 
to give him a place in our humble 
pages, and should he succeed in dis- 
posing of it, then we shall congratu- 
late him on having answered " the un- 
answered, and unanswerable Protest of 
the Free Church." 

Does the Professor mean to insin- 
uate, and in the character too of a 
Free Church elder, that the protest 
and claim of rights do not testify 
equally against Voluntaryism and Eras- 
tianism 1 Does the claim of right not 
declare, that the Free Church solemnly 
professes to be the constitutional and 
veritable Church of Scotland, estab- 
lished in 1690, and secured in 1707 1 
Does not that document refer to Acts 
of Parliament defining the constitution, 
and securing the legal privileges of 
the Church of Scotland, upon which 
the Free Church ministers claim the 
stipends of which they declare they 
were unjustly deprived 1 What has 
Voluntaryism to do with Acts of Par- 
liament, unless to repudiate, ridicule, 
and condemn them, when they are 
brought to bear upon the spiritual 
kinodom of Christ 1 Did the Free 



Church leave the Established Church 
because it was established 'l 

If the wall of separation between 
the two Churches be what the Pro- 
fessor declares, then the Protest and 
Claim of Rights are most absurd 
documents, are a large deception on 
the British Parliament, on the Court 
of Session in Scotland, and on our 
native country ! The grand distin- 
guishing principle of the nation's 
duty and honour to acknowledge 
Christ, his Church, and his sacred 
cause, the main and conservative prin- 
ciple of the Free Chiu'ch, is thus dis- 
reputably ignored, and either unfeel- 
ingly or ignorantly ridiculed by one of 
the most learned and influential elders 
of that Church ! If Professor Miller 
judges that we have injiu-ed him by 
misrepresenting his views, our pages 
are open to him, or should he con- 
ceive himself dishonoured by such a 
descent, let him explain himself in 
some more reputable journal, where 
we shall be allowed to follow him, 
and hold debate with him. And that 
there may be no misunderstanding, we 
would suggest that, in conducting his 
cause he shovdd state what is meant 
by essentials and non-essentials, the 
difterence betwixt such a creed and 
the duty of the Chiu-ch to revealed 
doctrines and divine institutions, and 
to reconcile his position and character 
as a Free Chiu-ch elder with his state- 
ment, that between his Church and 
that of the U. P.'s, the wall is rickety 
and should be removed. This is a 
subject worthy the talents and patriot- 
ism of Professor Miller, and that would 
not dishonour the generous pen of the 
knight-erraji^ of Ulbster. 

Apart from all reasoning upon the 
great principle put in jeopardy by 
Professor Miller & Co. , we would crave 
attention to the practical effect of such 
voluntary speechification on the part 
of Free Church ministers and elders. 
Are the members of the Free Church 



to be expected to take a deep interest 
in, or make hard struggle for, prin- 
ciples designated as an old, rickety, and 
condemned wall? Are they by such 
speeches to be supposed to regard 
principles and a distinctive profession 
of them with more affection than good 
men 1 And how can the Free As- 
sembly expect that those under her 
authority will continue to make pecu- 
niary sacrifices to keep up her Susten- 
tation Fund, when their cause and 
ministry are in no better position or 
odour than those of the U. P. Synod ? 
If the wall between them be so rick- 
ety, such Free Church orators have 
neither seen, nor appreciated, nor 
firmly hold constitutional ecclesiastical 
ground. Their views of principle are 
such, that mere locality and suchlike 
conveniences, would lead them at any 
hour to assume ofiice in the U. P. 
Church ; and if mere convenience, or 
generous feelings, or aesthetics be the 



nde of Christian duty to God, the 
Church, or the nation, then adieu to 
Confessions of Faith, Protests and 
Claims of Rights, a distinctive pro- 
fession, ordination vows, and the na- 
tional conscience. Verbum est satis 
sapienti — " We speak to wise men ; 
judge ye what we say." 

A word to the Free Church, minis- 
ters and elders. How can the courts, 
by the neglect of discipline, be free 
from the guilt incurred by these ar- 
dent and ambulatory orators ? How 
can those in her communion remain 
quiet and satisfy their consciences, 
when such expounders of her leading 
principles are esteemed and honoured 
as the valiant in Israel ? If such are 
the right men, are they in the right 
place ? and especially in a time when 
clearly-revealed and long-tried princi- 
ples, that were successfully securitive 
of liberty and religion, are at a dis- 
count ? 



(Dbtliicntc to t!)c JiiDine Mill % f igkst Jrt nf §Mm. 



When God created man, the sole 
command imposed upon him was one 
which respected obedience. In the 
first covenant we find no stipulation 
whatsoever regarding any great work 
of body or soul to be done by our 
great progenitor, in order to .secure for 
him the continuance of the Divine 
favour ; nor is it therein specified how 
much time was to be taken up in the 
direct worship of the Deity ; or, how 
often the shady groves of Paradise 
should be made vocal by the songs of 
praise, welling from the tuneful lips 
of the creature to the glorious Creator. 
All such duties were secured by obe- 
dience to the one command respecting 
the forbidden tree. Do this, and you 
and your posterity shall live — trans- 
gress it, and you and yours shall die. 
This sole command man did trans- 
gress, and by so doing met his de- 



served punishment. And here we see 
his otherwise perfect life availed him 
nothing ; not even his higli extrac- 
tion, for he was the oftspring of God. 
This one act of disobedience polluted 
the source of human nature, in whose 
once pure streams may now be found 
every foul and hatefvU thing. 

When God in his unspeakable mercy 
sent the glorious Restorer into the 
world. His work was a work of obedi- 
ence. No doubt He had, in addition, 
to suffer the punishment due to the 
sinner, but His whole life on earth 
may be characterised as one continuous 
act of obedience. 

If such was the life of the Captain 
of our Salvation, of Him who, in his 
marvellous love, did not disdain to 
call himself our elder Brother, what 
then is the duty of those who profess 
to be his followers 1 Let us hear his 



own words — lie says, "If ye love me, 
keep my commandments." 

In proof of the assertion that obe- 
dience to the Divine wiU (irrespective 
of our own notions as to doing good, 
whether it be in God's way or not), is 
our first and highest duty, we might 
adduce many arguments both from 
nature and revelation. However, we 
deem it more pertinent and profitable 
to illustrate this important subject by 
looking for a little at one of the 
numerous instances given us in Scrip- 
ture of the trial which God makes of 
the faith of his children, by their re- 
quired obedience to one particular 
command. By thus looking at the truth 
in God's own setting, we shall have 
" apples of gold in pictures of silver." 

For this purpose we now select the 
touching story of Abraham's off'ering 
up his son Isaac, and principally be- 
cause we believe that no other human 
being ever had, or ever can have, a 
more searching or painfid trial of his 
faith, than the Patriarch had on this 
occasion. For the command to off"er 
up his son was opposed to every law 
of his nature ; seemed to stand in the 
way of the promises that God had 
made to him ; and must have ap- 
peared to his mental vision as alto- 
gether inconsistent with the pure wor- 
ship of Jehovah. 

Of this remarkable man we have 
no mention in Scripture until he had 
attained his sixtieth year, when he 
was called upon to make his first pub- 
lic stand for God, by leaving his 
native Chaldea for a land of which he 
had seen and knew nothing. Along 
with his father's household he quitted 
Ur for Haran, where he remained 
until the death of the aged Terah. 
Here a new test of his obedience is 
demanded of him ; he is now required 
to leave not only his land, but his 
kindred and his father's house. Un- 
hesitatingly he obeys, bids farewell to 
his relations, and taking with him his 



wife and nephew, he sets out for the 
land which God had promised to him. 

With the exception of his parting 
with Ishmael, in obedience to the 
Divine command, for more than 
twenty years we meet with no new 
trial of Abraham's faith, who, now 
increased in years, in wealth, and in 
the respect of the surrounding tribes, 
no doubt thought his greatest trials 
were over, and very probably occupied 
himself in the training of his beloved 
Isaac, by this time about twenty-five 
years of age. 

But the severest test of his obedience 
was about to be put to him, one 
which was to enter the core of his 
being, and reveal if that God, to 
whom he had erected a visible altar, 
dwelt there supreme, or if an earthly 
idol had usurped the shrine. And 
God said to Abraham, "Take now 
thy son, tliine only son Isaac, whom 
thou lovest, and get thee into the land 
of Moriah, and ofi'er him there for a 
burnt-ofi"ering upon one of the moun- 
tains which I will tell thee of." A 
veil is here drawn by the sacred writer 
over the emotions of the Patriarch on 
receiving this extraordinary command. 
And who dare withdi'aw it to look 
upon the agony of woe which it must 
have produced '? Before this new 
trial all his former trials sunk into in- 
significance. He had for God cheer- 
fully given up his first belief ; for love 
of that adorable name had left his 
native land, and forgotten his father's 
house ; and at the Almighty behest, 
had not refused to sever a strong 
human tie by casting out the Hagarene. 
But he is now called upon to give up 
his beloved Isaac, a gift from heaven 
so lovingly bestowed, and so hard to 
part with ; to give up Isaac, the chosen 
of God ; to give up Isaac, the heir of 
his vast wealth ; yea, to give up Isaac, 
from whom was to spring a people 
many as the myriad stars of the night, 
and on whose life depended the fulfil- 



ment of the mightiest promise that 
God ever made to man, a promise 
which involved the temporal and eter- 
nal interests of the nations of the 
world ! 

From this fiery baptism Abraham 
emerged a purified soul. By the grace 
of God he was enabled to slay the last 
remnant of self within him, and stood a 
greater conqueror than on that day 
when his sword was red with the blood 
of the smitten Elamite ; a victory 
which won for him the blessing of the 
Priest-king of Salem. 

Abraham now proved himself to be 
a true child of God by obedience to 
the Divine command. Rising up eai"ly 
in the morning, saddling his ass, tak- 
ing with him two of his young men 
and Isaac his son, he sets out for the 
place of which God told him. 

On the third day the peaks 
of Zion, Acra, Moriah, and Bezetha 
appear in sight, and Abraham tells his 
young men to remain there, until he 
and Isaac should ascend the hill to 
worship. Taking in his hand a light 
and the sacrificial knife, and laying 
upon his son the prepared wood, 
Abraham and Isaac ascend in company 
the shaggy sides of Moriah. At last 
the son breaks silence, "My father," 
said the youth, addressing his parent 
in the respectful style of the children 
of the East. " Here am I, my son," 
replies the heart-stricken father. With 
beautiful modesty Isaac now mentions 
the seeming omission. " Behold," he 
says, "the fire and the wood; but 
where is the lamb for the burnt-ofter- 
ing"?" Abraham dare not yet reveal 
their terrible errand to that lonely 
mountain-top ; but his faith dictates 
the reply : " My son, God will pro- 



vide himself a lamb for a burnt-oflfer- 
ing." With this answer the youth 
was satisfied, for he dwelt in a land 
where the young stood in the pre- 
sence of the aged ; and where it was 
not forgotten that " days should speak, 
and multitude of years should teach 
wisdom." 

At last the appointed spot is revealed, 
and A.braham now makes known to 
Isaac the dreadful command. With- 
out a struggle the son yields his obedi- 
ence to his father and to God. The 
altar is raised, the wood placed in order 
upon it, and Isaac is laid thereon : the 
lithe young limbs are tightly bound, 
the neck unbared, and the knife glitters 
above the half-closed eyes of the trem- 
bling victim — when the descending 
arm of the Patriarch is arrested by a 
voice from heaven. " Abraham, Abra- 
ham," exclaimed the angel of the Lord. 
That awful trial was now over, and with 
the sacrifice God was well-pleased. 
" And He said, lay not thine hand upon 
the lad, neither do thou anything unto 
him, for now I know that thou 
fearest God, seeing that thou hast not 
withheld thy son, thine only son, from 
me." 

And now the Patriarch is not only 
rewarded by the Lord's renewing with 
solemn oath the gracious promises con- 
cerning him, but he receives that day 
a glorious light, to which he had never 
before attained. While the substi- 
tuted ram smokes where the devoted 
Isaac lay, Abraham is rapt in vision of 
future times, when that same peak, sur- 
mounted by the visible temple of God, 
should look down on the bleeding sac- 
rifice of the Only-begotten of the 
Father, of whom Isaac was but a dim 
figure and a type. 



Edmburgh : Published for the Proprietors by James S. Muir, 60 New Buildings, North 
Bridge (to whom all Communications — prepaid— may be addressed) ; John Menzies, 
61 Princes Street. Glasgow : William Love, St Enoch Square ; and sold by all 
Booksellers. 



AITKEN, PRINTER, GEORGE IV. BRIDGE, EDINBtTRQH. 



i^it^ ^yI 



No. VIII. 



JULY 1858. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

"The Christian Ambassador" and the Bible. 
" Can ye not discern the Signs of the Times ?"' 
The Masonic Procession. 



f I]^ '' Ckistiiin fntesakr " anb t|e giblt. 



In resuming our remarks upon the 
Sermon of Dr Guthrie, published in 
the "Christian Ambassador," we do 
not intend to enter into the discussion 
of the Visible Church in all its 
characteristics. The subject is very- 
extensive, and, especially at this stage 
of the world's history, of vast impor- 
tance. It is not too much to aiiirm 
that all the strife, division, and much 
of the error prevalent in the religious 
world are clearly traceable to indistinct 
views of the history and character of 
the Church of the Living God. And, 
in particular, we do not scruple to say 
that the modern and popular theory of 
the Church of Christ as composed 
of numerous and dissimilar sections, is 
a heresy that has ruined, and is ruin- 
ing its tens of thousands. It is a heresy 
of the darkest kind ; for it saps the 
whole system of revelation : it loosens 
the foundations of eternal Truth. Its 
simplest definition is, that there are 
more faiths than one pleasing to 
God, and bringing salvation to man. 
Or, it gives room to infer that we can 
love Christ without keeping His com- 
mandments. For many of those so- 
cieties called sections of the Church, 
are avowedly opposed to certain clearly 
revealed and well-tried tniths and in- 
stitutions of the Lord Jesus. And 
yet the modern heresy of denomina- 
tioualism, with its smooth tongue, bids 
us look with a charitable eye, upon 



these peculiar opinions of the various 
bodies ; and thus many of the precious 
truths of God's Word are ignomin- 
iously thrown into the category of noji- 
essentials, and said to be well out of 
the way for the sake of peace. But 
the Lord hath said, " Love the tntth 
and peace." The truth is first. Such 
as seek peace in the manner adverted 
to are certainly charitable enough to 
erring men, but they are sadly unchari- 
table to the Tnith of God, which is of 
more value than a world of men. 
Denominationalism fiu'ther supposes 
that there are some doctrinal truths in 
the Word of God, the belief and pro- 
fession of which, is a matter of in- 
difference — and that forbearance and 
charity are to be exercised towards 
those who professedly deny and oppose 
these truths. We may instance the 
doctrines of Church Government and 
Worship, the nature and administration 
of the sacraments, the doctrine of 
election, &c. &c. Upon such matters 
a distinct profession is held to be not 
only unnecessary, but even impossible, 
upon the ground of common infirmity. 
This popular heresy implies further 
that God is the Author of confusion ; 
that while Moses was faithful in all 
His house, and made all things accord- 
ing to the pattern shown him in the 
Mount, yet Christ has left Efcis house 
in utter confusion as to its govern- 
ment ; that he lias left no definite rule 



to guide His servauts in this most 
importaut matter, but that every man 
is left at liberty to adopt that plan 
which is right in his own eyes, as if 
there were no king in Israel. 

But without enlarging upon the 
features of this popular error regard- 
ing the Visible Church, we shall 
merely throw out a few hints for the 
consideration of those whose minds 
are in a state of inquiry upon the 
subject. 

1. In the Scriptures we never read 
of unions of different sections in the 
Church, but we read of accessions ; 
the Church lifts up a standard and 
the people flow to it. 

2. We demand proof from the 
Word of (rod that the Visible Church 
ever was, or can be composed of dif- 
ferent sections, holding conflicting pro- 
fessions. On the other hand, there 
are numerous passages to prove its 
unity and uniformity. 

3. Is there a certain form of Church 
Government, &c. revealed ? Or is it 
so loose and indefinite that various 
and very dissimilar forms may have 
equal claims to be of divine autho- 
rity ? Why should the Head of the 
Church leave so importaut a matter 
in such obscurity, as it is said to be, 
as if on jDurpose to produce division 
and discord ? 

4. Is it not manifest that the advo- 
cates of denominationalism are afraid 
lest the Visible Church should be pure, 
when they are always pleading for 
human imperfection, and common in- 
firmity 1 Must we conclude that the 
pure truth of God is affected by our 
imperfection '? " The Law of the Lord 
is perfect." 

In order to furnish enquiring minds 
with a few waymarks to facilitate the 
prosecution of this interesting subject, 
we shall now indicate some of the 
Scripture evidences of the unity of 
the Visible Church. In the Word of 
God we never meet with any such 



thing as sections, or denominational 
parts of the Church. The idea of a 
society so composed is utterly at vari- 
ance with all that God has revealed 
concerning the character of His Visi- 
ble Church. Unity is its leading 
characteristic in every age, and under 
eveiy dispensation. From the dis- 
tinction first made in the case of Cain 
and Abel, onward through the Patri- 
archal and Mosiac dispensations, we 
discover a well-defined broad line of 
demarcation cutting ofi" the Church of 
God clean and clear from all other so- 
cieties, whatever might be their claims 
in point of piety, number, and in- 
fluence. Enoch testified for the tnith 
against a whole opposing world, who 
railed against his bigotry with their 
hard speeches. -Jude 14. In like man- 
ner Noah condemned the world, and 
kept the faith in the midst of universal 
disapprobation. The time would fail 
to speak particularly of Abraham, 
Melchisedec, and all the patriarchs, 
who were ihefeiv against the many, and 
yet overcame by the word of God and 
the testimony which they held. " For 
He established a testimony in Jacob, 
and appointed a law in Israel, which 
He commanded our fathers that they 
should make them known to their 
children." Throughout the Old Testa- 
ment the Church is spoken of under 
a variety of figures which in every 
case imply oneness. It is called " Thy 
congregation which thou hast pur- 
chased of old ; the rod of thine in- 
heritance, which thou hast redeemed ; 
this Mount Zion wherein thou hast 
dwelt." "Thy turtle dove." "The 
congregation of thy poor." " For the 
Lord hath chosen Zion ; He hath de- 
sired it for His habitation." He saith, 
" This is my rest for ever ; here will I 
dwell ; for I have desired it." " He 
sheweth His Word unto Jacob, His 
statutes and judgments unto Israel ; 
He bath dealt not so with any nation." 
Is there any shadow of denomina- 



tionalism in these passages ? Or how 
can that theory consist with the fol- 
lowing inspired descriptions of the 
Church 1 She is spoken of as "a gar- 
den enclosed, a spring shut up, a foun- 
tain sealed." "My dove, my un- 
defiled is but one ; she is the only one 
of her mother, and the choice one of her 
that bare her. A lily among the thorns." 
" Mine heritage is unto me as a speck- 
led bird." " Sing ye unto her, A 
vineyard of red wine. I the Lord do 
keep it ; I will water it every mo- 
ment ; lest any hurt it, I will keep it 
night and day." And our Lord him- 
self calls it a " little flock," to whom 
it is His Father's good pleasure to give 
the kingdom. When He ascended on 
high, and sat down on the right hand 
of God, He gave gifts unto His 
Church, the individual members of 
which were, by one Spirit, baptised 
into one body. To this body He gave 
laws and institutions and officers " for 
the perfecting of the saints, for the 
work of ministry, for the edifying of 
the body of Christ," which, as a dis- 
tinct and organised society, is one 
body, and one spirit — having " one 
Lord, one faith, one baptism," Eph. iv. 
This Visible Church is " the house of 
God, the Church of the living God, 
the pillar and ground of the Truth." 
All these phrases intelligibly show 
that unity, identity, and uniformity, 
are the characteristics of the Church. 
The New Testament Zion is therefore 
still " the pei'fection of beauty.'" 
Christ left His house in peace and 
unity, " and they continued steadfastly 
in the Apostles' doctrine and felloiv- 
ship, and in breaking of bread, and in 
prayers." Acts ii. 42. And since that 
period there has never been wanting a 
remnant to " keep His Word, and not 
to deny His name." " Here are they 
that keep the commandments of God, 
and the faith of Jesus." In fine, the 
doctrine of the Visible Church of 
Christ, as a distinct society, shewing a 



continuous identity, and uniform sys- 
tem of doctrine, worship, discipline 
and government, is infallibly estab- 
lished by the Holy Spirit in the his- 
tory of the " Two Witnesses." Rev. xi. 
1 — 12, to which we merely refer our 
readers, in the firm persuasion that no 
one possessing ordinary intellect can 
fail to discover in these Witnesses, the 
representatives of one distinct visible 
society continuing throughout the 1260 
years of popish domination, — testify- 
ing by a real and tangible profession 
to the truths of Christ, and, in their 
character of Witnesses, confirming 
their testimony by a solemn oath ; 
and that, nevertheless, it is but a 
small, despised, and persecuted society, 
and can be discovered and iden- 
tified only by its unwavering attach- 
ment to " the Word of God, and the 
Testimony which they hold." 

In concluding our notice of this 
Sermon, we confess no small degree of 
astonishment that such theories should 
be propounded from the pidpit of one 
who is esteemed a prince and a great 
man in the Free Church Israel, espec- 
ially when it is remembered that, as a 
minister of that Church, he has so- 
lemnly avowed his belief in, and ad- 
herence to her ostensible Standards. 
But the existence and pure government 
of the Visible Church is plainly 
afiirmed in these Standards. See 
Con. of Faith, xxv. 2. " The Visible 
Church, which is also Catholic or uni- 
versal under the the Gospel, (not con- 
fined to one nation as before under the 
law), consists of all those throughout 
the world who profess the true reli- 
gion, together with their children ; 
and is the kingdom of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, the house and family of God, 
out of which there is no ordinary 
possibility of salvation." Here the 
society in question is designated a 
'■^kingdom" a '■'■house,'' a "family," 
which terms are taken form the Scrip- 
tures cited in the Confession, and can 



by no means consist wtih deuomina- 
tional sections ; for a kingdom or house 
so divided would, in our Lord's words, 
"come to destruction." A. family so 
composed of antagonistic elements 
would be an active volcano of discord 
and confusion. What a Church ! 
Moreover we are not left in doubt as 
to the force of the phraseology "all 
who profess the true religion," as this 
is beautifully explained in the National 
Covenant, which fixes the true sense 
of the Confession beyond misconcep- 
tion. It declares, 

' ' We all, and every one of us underwritten, 
protest, That after long and due examination 
of our own consciences in matters of true 
and false religion, we are now thorougLly 
resolved in the truth by the Word and Spirit 
of God ; and therefore we believe with our 
hearts, confess with our mouths, subscribe 
with our hands, and constantly affirm before 
God, and the whole world, that this only is 
the true Christian faith, and religion ; pleas- 
ing God, and bringing salvation to man, 
whicli now is, by the mercy of God, revealed 
to the world by the preaching of the blessed 
Evangel ; and is received, believed, and de- 
fended by many and sundiy notable kirks 
and realms, but chiefly by the Kirk of Scot- 
land To the which Confession 

and Form of religion, we willingly agree in 
our conscience in all points, as unto God's 
undoubted truth and verity, grounded only 
upon His Written Word ; and therefore we 
abhor and detest all contrary religion and 
doctrine" &c. 

This is a certain sound, and very 
unlike the smooth and shifting terms 
of jirofession now so common, by 
which it is too manifest that those who 
employ them are not sure whether 
themselves or the contraiy party are 
in the right, and so they cannot wor- 
ship God with that faith without 
which it is impossible to please Him. 

Mucli to the same effect are the 
vows taken by every Free Church 
minister at his entrance upon office. 
" Do you sincerely own the purity of 
worship presently authorised and prac- 
tised in this Church, and also own the 
Presbyterian Government and Discip- 
line ; and are you persuaded that the 



said Doctrine, Worship, and Discip- 
line, and Church Government are 
founded upon the Holy Scriptures, 
and agreeable thereto T 

Under such vows we ask. Is it con- 
sistent to deny the existence of the 
Visible Church, or to declare that it is 
made up of numerous conflicting deno- 
minations '\ 

It was in defence of this very doc- 
trine contained in the Confession and 
Covenants that our Reformers and 
Martyrs testified and suffered. It is 
therefore glaring inconsistency to find 
these men alluded to in this Sermon 
thus : "In obedience to the Head, the 
hands of our good forefathers, in yon 
churchyard near by this, signed the 
deed they knew would condemn them 
to death. Ah brethren ! how happy, 
happy we should be if we could render 
the same obedience to our blessed 
Head in heaven !" 

This is a worthy eulogium upon 
dead Covenanters, while their immor- 
tal principles are consigned to basest 
oblivion, and the living men who yet 
plead for these principles are stigma- 
tised as morose schismatics, and nar- 
row-minded bigots. The rev. doctor 
surely knows that these "good fore- 
fathers " adhered stiffly to the doctrine 
of the Visible Church, which yet he 
repudiates. Instead of thus raising 
monuments of eloquence to the men, 
how much more Christian and noble 
would it be to take up the Standard 
which they laid down only with their 
lives. It would seem now, however, 
that besides our modern incapacity to 
exercise their obedience to the Head, 
we are also too liberal to relish and 
adopt their distinctive principles. 
Truly, a calm meditation in the Grey- 
friars' Churcliyard upon the scenes it 
has witnessed in past and better times, 
is fitted to pierce the conscience of 
their apostate presbyterian offspring 
with more than one pang of salutary 
compunction. " How is the fine gold 



THE ARK. 



become dim !" Let the hearts of the 
children tiu-n to the fathers, lest our 
British earth be smitten with the curse 
due to perjury against the Lord God. 

But to conclude, it is not from any 
desu-e or design to be censorious that 
we have ventured these few remarks 
upon the published discourse of one 
who is so eminently and widely re- 
spected. On the contrary it is with 
unfeigned grief that we have thus to 
plead for truth against those who jjro- 
fess to be its fastest friends. But 
there is too much reason to fear that 



now the time predicted has come when 
men cannot endure sound doctrine. 
And it is likely that these few remarks 
may be censured as sectarian and un- 
charitable. Yet this does not harm 
the divine stability and piuity of the 
truths we have here contended for. 
And in order to our persuasion of their 
accuracy and scriptural authority, we 
demand something of greater force 
than mere rhetoric and figiues of 
speech, which are the only adjuncts 
employed in support of the views set 
forth in the discourse referred to. 



" €m DC not Mstmt tlic <^ips of tlic Cimcs ? 



The observation, that nations, as well , 
as individuals, have their grand climac- 
terics, is equally trite and instractive. 
Although this hitherto demonstrated 
historic fact is readily admitted, yet it 
is somewhat striking and strange, that 
all nations, as all individuals, make 
an exception by way of personal ap- 
plication. " All men think all men 
mortal but themselves." This excep- 
tion, certainly more natural than 
gracious, and which has been found 
characteristic of devoted communities, 
accords with the well-known aphorism, 
" Quern deus vult perdere, pi'ins de- 
mentat " — whom God designs to over- i 
throw, he first leaves to infatuation. 
And it is no less worthy calm con- 
sideration, that those who, in all pre- 
ceding ages, have made the exception 
adverted to the capital article of their 
creed, have occupied the front ranks 
of science and literature, and gained a 
damaging popularity by grafting their 
scepticism upon the stock of a reli- 
gious profession. 

It was to the Pharisees and Sadduc- 
cees of his day, the literary sceptics 
of the Jewish Church, that our Lord 
said, " O ye hypocrites, ye can discern 
the face of the sky ; but can ye not 
discern the signs of the times ? " And 



what has been the creed, the fetid 
breath, and the pragmatic scepticism 
of such would-be philosophers of pre- 
vious eras, shall form the ruling cha- 
racteristics of their successors dov/n to 
the latest times. " Knowing this first, 
that there shall come in the last days 
scofl'ers, walking after their own lusts, 
and saying, Where is the promise of 
his coming 1 for since the fathers fell 
asleep, all things continue as they 
were from the beginning of the crea- 
tion." 

Those who have addressed them- 
selves to the study of the signs of their 
times, and have calmly consulted the 
horoscope of their country and the 
world in the light of history and re- 
velation, have hitherto formed the 
very small minority, and been requited 
for their pious and patriotic labours 
with the harsh appellatives of bigots, 
and imbecile alarmists, who, like 
Micaiah, "never prophesy good but 
evil." And such a poor requital has 
fallen to the lot of not only ecclesias- 
tics, but of the most cultivated minds 
of the English literati. 

Cowper, at the close of his Expos- 
tulation with his beloved England, 
utters the complaint, — 



' ' My soul shall sigh in secret, and lament 
A nation scourg'd, yet tardy to repent. 
I know the warning song is sung in vain, 
That few will hear, and fewer heed the 
strain. " 

With a view to reconcile our readers 
to the study of this deeply interest- 
ing, patriotic, and God-honouring sub- 
ject, we would, previously to classify- 
ing a few of the startling and concur- 
rent governing signs in the heavens of 
our country and of Europe, kindly 
address ourselves to the removal of the 
preliminary aud extremely popular 
objection of our owu day, which has 
acquired a force and respectability 
from public journalism and religious 
speechification. 

The iireliminary objection to which 
we allude, and of which you are ap- 
prised, is to the effect that notwith- 
standing acknowledged troubles, wars 
and rumours of wars, political crises 
and ecclesiastical changes and divi- 
sions, as well as clamant immoralities ; 
yet such ominous stars have ever and 
anon been appearing in our sky ; that 
the predictions of former alarmists 
have been falsified ; and that we shall 
tide over our present crises, as we 
have done those that preceded them. 
In short, this is virtually the creed of 
those who say, " Where is the promise 
of his coming? for since the fathers 
fell asleep, all things continue as they 
were from the beginning of the crea- 
tion." 

In kindly disarming this sentinel, 
whose delusive cry is " All's well," we 
woiUd submit the following considera- 
tions : — 

1. A calm aud serious inquiry into 
the predictions of the Divine Word is 
insei^arable from the enjoined duty of 
"searching the Scriptures." How is 
it possible to do homage to him " who 
declares the end from the beginning, 
and from ancient times the things that 
are not yet done," unless we study to 
discern the signs of the times 1 Aud 



is it possible to adopt the popular 
creed without incurring the righteous- 
ly-severe rebuke of our Lord to the 
Pharisees and Sadduccees, " O ye 
hypocrites, ye can discern the face of 
the sky ; but can ye not discern the 
signs of the times V 

2. Although the judgments which 
the former signs prognosticated have 
not yet overtaken the country, is delay 
to be confounded with reversal '? We 
submit that this has been the popular 
and delusive creed of every hitherto de- 
voted community, a creed that hastened 
and secured the very judgment which it 
held up to ridicule. And we entertain 
too high an opinion of the judgment of 
sceptics to imagine that they require the 
outstanding facts of the history of ruined 
empires to confirm our position. We 
might invite their attention to the 
fact, that God delayed to visit with 
the declared judgment of the deluge 
for one hundred and twenty years, 
during which Noah preached ; to the 
fact, that Egypt's overthrow was de- 
layed for centuries ; and, without mul- 
tiplying familiar instances, we might 
appeal to this as the ordinary \:>to- 
cedure of the God of nations towards 
all hitherto smitten countries. This 
article of the scofter's creed is convert- 
ing the patience of God into a reason 
for continuing to resist him. " Because 
sentence against an evil work is not 
executed speedily, therefore the heart 
of the sons of men is fully set in 
them to do evil." 

3. In close connection with, and 
clear illustration of the above, devoted 
countries have been visited with deso- 
lating judgments at a time when these 
scoffers were taken by surprise. " The 
sinners in Zion are afraid ; fearfulness 
hath surprised the hypocrites." It 
will not be an easy task for the intel- 
ligent reader of sacred or profane his- 
tory to specify many, if indeed any, 
countries that were prepared for their 
revolutions. Nor should this unde- 



niable and startling fact be held as 
difficult to account for, provided we 
fix our eye on the fact, that the scep- 
tic's creed, on which we are now anim- 
adverting, has always been the most 
popular. The faithful and and almost 
solitary warning voice has been drowned 
among the confident vociferations of 
" Peace, peace." In exemplification 
of this, the reader will readily remem- 
ber the well-authenticated cases of 
Enoch, Noah, Elijah, Micaiah, Isaiah, 
Jeremiah, and Christ himself 

4. It should encourage the sober 
and serious inquirer into the signs of 
his times, that the popular creed has 
in all previous national crises broken 
down, and that its surviving adherents 
have been compelled to acknowledge 
their folly. Pharaoh's last exclama- 
tion, and while amid the returning 
and engulfing surges of the Red Sea, 
was, "Let us flee from the face of 
Israel ; for the Lord fighteth for them 
against the Egyptians." On the re- 
storation of the Jewish captivity, 
"They among the heathen said. The 
Lord hath done great things for them." 
The issue in every such case has been 
a painfully practical commentary on 
the inspired language, " Our rock is 
not as their rock, the enemy them- 



selves being judges." Faith and pa- 
tience will furnish themselves with 
sustenance in the Divine assurance, 
" For the vision is yet for an appoint- 
ed time, but at the end it shall speak, 
and not lie ; though it tarry, wait for 
it ; because it will surely come, it will 
not tarry." 

To the above we might add, in repre- 
hension of the stigmatisers of the study 
commended by Christ, and prosecuted 
by the pious and patriotic of every former 
age, and for imposing a salutary check on 
rash speculation as to definite years of 
revolutionising kingdoms, that although 
we err in clearly reading and accurate- 
ly defining the signs of our times, 
still the study remains a duty, its pro- 
secution identifies with the best of 
every age, and should the result prove 
a failure, the alarm wiU not prove 
disastrous, — at the worst, it can only 
shew extreme anxiety for the best 
interests of our country and our kind- 
red. In our next we propose specify- 
ing and arranging the ruling signs of 
our times, with a view to furnish data 
for coming to a generally accurate 
conclusion in regard to present duty. 
" Coming events cast their shadows 
before them." 



f I]e llasonit ^xmmii 



On Thursday, 24th June, 1858, our metro- 
polis poured forth its thousands to enjoy a 
very splendid demonstration of Masonic gran- 
deur and imposing ceremonies. We leave to 
journalists, as their province, to describe the 
happiness of the 50, 000 spectators that lined 
only one street, and the imposing procession 
of the representatives of more than 100 lodges 
of the brethren. Passing over the description 
of the reception of the deputations from the 
Grand Lodge of England and Ireland, our 
object is to submit a few remarks on the 
speech of Sir A. Alison, delivered at the ban- 
quet held in the Music Hall ; and this we 
propose doing, inasmuch as that speech was 
delivered by a man of mark, and was design- 
ed to explain the nature and illustrate the 
philanthropic character of Free Masonry. 



The learned gentleman said, — "In the 
American war one of the British officers was 
wounded with a bayonet while stoiTuing an 
intrenchment. The bayonet was at his 
breast, when he caught hold of the hand of a 
young American officer, and gave him the 
Free Masons' grip. The latter instantly 
struck up the bayonet from the breast of the 
British officer, thus saving his life, and the 
American afterwards took him to his home 
for some months, where he was treated like 
a brother. The officer came home to Scot- 
land, married a young lady related to the 
noble family of Erskine, and the issue of 
that marriage was his wife, Lady Alison." 

This interesting stoiy, well told and well 
timed, is of the nature of Rome's logic, that 
"the end sanctifies the means," and is, in 



legal phrase, "Free Masonry vet-sm Chris- 
tianity." Or if this be too strong, it certain- 
ly amounts to Free Masonry as equivalent to, 
if not superseding, "that grace of God 
which is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, 
and easy to be entreated, full of mercy and 
good fruits, without partiality and without 
hypocrisy." We therefoi-e demur to this 
pathetic commendation of the mystic order, 
at the expense of the high claims and felt 
efficiency of the gospel of Christ, to humanize 
human nature ; especially as the spread of 
the gospel would remove the dark occasion of 
this providential incident. " And they shall 
beat their svvords into ploughshares, and 
their spears into pruning hooks ; nation 
shall not lift up sword against nation, neither 
shall they learn war any more." 

We are sure that a mind so discriminating 
and philosophical in its cast and exercise as 
Sir A. Alison's, but for his special interest 
in his touching story, must have led him to 
smile at the babyhood of a full-dressed Free 
Mason, and to repudiate those symbolic em- 
blazonments which scandalize the mysteries 
of our holy religion, — symbols that are so 
closely and obviously allied to the witcheries 
of the successful enchantress of Rome. Al- 
though the vulgar are amused with such 
mummery, yet we feel ashamed to find such 
an intellect as that of Sir Archibald Alison 
engaged in the recommendation of a system 
that demands an oath of secrecy from every 
candidate ere informed of its character, that 
accompanies the oath with most profane cere- 
monies, and that, unlike open-faced and 
open-breasted Christianity, solemnly binds 
every brother to conceal what is for the good 
of his fellow from the Church and the State, 
from the wife of his bosom, and every Chris- 
tian without the pale of the Masonic order. 

Sir Archibald's reading is too extensive 
and accurate to allow him to be unacquainted 
with, not such rare incidents which he has 
cited, and many similar to which have graced 
adherents of heathenism and popery, but the 
general fruits of the mystic Tree, on the Con- 
tinent of Europe, in France, especially in our 
own country. 

We have merely to advert to the well 
authenticated facts with which Sir A. Alison 



must be familiar, that Mason Lodges, by 
means of their secrecy, were the societies 
worked by the Jesuits and despotic Continen- 
tal, aye, and British powers, for re-erecting 
the fabric of Popery on the ruins of the 
Reformation ; that they were the societies to 
which Charles I., and his two royal brothers 
resorted, as the most powerful engines of 
supporting Popery and absolutism ; and that 
the Lodges of Free Masons were the dens 
wherein was concocted the terrific Plot to over- 
throw all the governments and religions of 
Europe, and which was acted out in the san- 
guinary revolution of France by the infidel 
and bloody literati of that country. 

Upon this historic field of Free Masonry, 
our space forbids us to enter ; but we cannot 
conclude these suggestive remarks without 
illustrating Sir Archibald's story by the reply 
of Lord Macaulay to the defences set up for 
the martyr king, Charles I. 

" We charge him with having broken his 
coronation oath ; and we are told that he 
kept his marriage vow ! We accuse him of 
having given up his people to the merciless 
inflictions of the most hot-headed and hard- 
hearted of prelates ; and the defence is, that 
he took his little son on his knees and kissed 
him ! We censure him for having violated the 
articles of the Petition of Right, after having, 
for good and valuable consideration promised 
to observe them ; and we are informed he was 
accustomed to hear prayers at six o'clock in the 
morning." In like manner, when we accuse 
Free Masonry as guilty of having afforded 
facilities for plotting in favour of Absolutism 
and Popery, and against the Reformation 
and liberty ; we are told a touching story 
of the truly generous conduct of a young 
American to a British officer ; the gist of 
which is, that the Masons' grip had a virtue 
which supersedes the love that Christianity 
commands to be extended to our enemies. 
We hope we do not offend by recommending 
to the attention of even Sir A. Alison ' ' Proofs 
of a Conspiracy against all the Religions 
and Governments of Europe, carried on in 
the secret meetings of Free Masons, &c. By 
John Robison, A.M. Professor of Natural 
Philosophy, and Secretary to the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh." 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by James S. Muir, 60 New Buildings, North 
Bridge (to whom all Communications — prepaid — may be addressed) ; John Menzies, 
61 Princes Street. Glasgow : William Love, St Enoch Square ; and sold by all 
Booksellers. 



T. U AITKEN. PRINTER, OEOKOF. IV. BRIDGE, EDINBtTROH. 



Skt g^rL 



No. IX. 



AUGUST 1858. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

" Can te not discern the Signs of the Times ?" 

Admission of Jews into Parliament. 

The Sabbath-day. 

British Morality now, contrasted with what it once was. 



" (jLait |e not Vmm tl]e Sips nf tlit %ms 



In our former number, we addressed 
ourselves to the task of specifying 
and obviating a few of the popular 
objections to a calm and scriptural 
study of the ruling signs of the times ; 
and we shall now, in accordance with 
our proposed method, direct the atten- 
tion of the reader to these signs, and 
almost allow him to draw his own 
inferences. 

We are not unaware of the lament- 
able fact, that society are divided in 
their conclusions upon these univer- 
sally acknowledged signs, and are in 
the predicament of the old and young 
men, at the time when the foundations 
of the second temple were laid, some 
weeping, and some rejoicing. While, 
on the one hand, Daniel's exclamation, 
" my Lord, what shall be the end 
of these things ? " is the genuine 
characteristic of sanctified earnestness 
and sobriety of exercise ; on the other, 
the privilege of the men of " Issachar, 
who had the understanding of the 
times, to know what Israel ought to 
do," is as happy, as it is a rare attain- 
ment. To enumerate, and especially 
to comment upon, all the signs of the 
times, would be as presumptuous as it 
would be unprofitable ; and our dis- 
tinctive object, therefore, is to specify 
a few of those that are regnant in the 



commercial, political, ecclesiastical, 
and social sky ; leaving the thoughtful 
and reflecting reader to make his own 
and best use of them. 

In the commercial firmament, the 
signs, especially of late, are of a glary, 
a comet kind, and threaten the bank- 
ruptcy of moral character throughout 
the commercial world. The late and 
the present disclosures by legal exami- 
nations, are most startling, as showing 
not merely Mammon worship, but a 
heartless disregard of truth and up- 
right dealing. The inference from 
these public disclosures is, that it is 
barely possible for honest men to 
transact commercial business in the 
day in which our lot is cast ; while 
the damaging fact presents itself to 
the commonest observer, that those 
most deeply implicated in the specula- 
tions are not the uneducated vulgar, 
or irreligious, but high professors, 
ecclesiastical office-bearers, and large 
contributors to religious schemes. 
Such a sign has fiillen with blighting 
influence on thousands of widows and 
helpless orphans, and shaken public 
confidence to its foundation. 

How troubled is the political 
heaven ! Principle is flagrantly sac- 
rificed to ever-shifting expediency ; 
tests of the most necessary and solemn 



kind are ignored, ^yhile the Crown for 
whose defence they were instituted is 
denied the alleged benefit conferred on 
Papists, Jews, Unitarians, and the 
meanest of the subjects ; laws enacted, 
as the Relief and Ecclesiastical Titles 
Bills, cannot be put into execution ; 
alliances of a most equivocal kind, 
which ever and anon indicate smother- 
ed grudges, are corapulsorily resorted 
to ; and wars, and rumours of wars, 
prevail in every land. Constitutional 
protestantism in nominally protestant 
kingdoms is a nullity, while the mot- 
tled denominationalism of the com- 
munity is represented by equally mot- 
tled parliaments, whose guiding star 
is a liberalism which ignores society in 
name and reality. Having lost the old 
pole-star of constitutional principle in 
intelligible accordance with the moral 
law, we are, with crowded sails and 
no ballast, and a faithless rudder, 
scudding before the storm that is 
reaching the character and gathering 
the strength of a hurricane. Should 
the political bark survive the tempest 
and the tide, she will form the only 
exception in the history of the world. 
" For the nation and kingdom that 
will not serve thee shall perish ; yea, 
those nations shall be utterly wasted." 
No less startling are the signs of the 
social heavens. The public journals 
are full of revolting accounts of what 
is fitted to shock every well-regulated 
mind. Juvenile delinquency, arising 
out of insubordination in families, is 
proverbial ; the staggering amount of 
illegitimate births in the rural districts 
of our country, one in eleven, is alto- 
gether a new phase of Scottish mora- 
lity ; while science and novel crime 
travel in company, as the trials of the 
Palmers, Smiths, and others of the 
same character, painfully indicate. An 
accurate index of the licentious mora- 
lity of the age appears in the vast 
preponderance of sceptical and obscene 
publications over those of even a 



generally religious character. This 
last and sickening fact is set beyond 
contradiction in the late Bill of Lord 
Campbell for suppressing the publica- 
tion of obscene productions. While 
moral and religious works require 
highest patronage to secure readers, 
the millions must have their daily 
penny pabulum of novels, romances, 
political feuds, and ecclesiastical bick- 
erings, not to mention cases of crim. 
con. and savage murders ! 

But what shall we say of the 
ecclesiastical sky ? Herein the com- 
monest eye may discern "confusion 
more confounded," cloud upon cloud, 
and all the old guiding constellations 
completely hid. If our political re- 
jjresentatives are to be taken as a 
faithfully-reflecting mirror of the reli- 
gion of the country, who shall under- 
take a definition of the national creed ? 
and who shall assign a solid argument 
to shew that there can be a national 
establishment of any one distinctive 
profession 'I If the liberal political 
and ecclesiastical policy be the accu- 
rate guage, then most undoubtedly a 
distinct national creed is an impossi- 
bility, and voluntaryism has already 
carried the palm. And it is not the 
least alarming sign of the time, that 
the rampant liberalism which laughs 
to scorn all tests, shews its illiberal 
fangs in drawing deep as blood on the 
character of those who cannot bow in 
this new and popular house of Rim- 
mon. The persecution which the libe- 
ral creed disdainfully repudiates, it 
ricklessly practises against those who 
cannot subscribe its anomalous dogiuas. 
To the ruling and erratic signs of the 
ecclesiastical heavens are clearly trace- 
able our endless and conflicting deno- 
minationalism, our advances to Pusey- 
ism and Popery, our political gambling, 
our commercial embarrassment, and 
our thousand and one popular obscene 
publications. 

These remarks of a merely suggest- 



ive kind are thrown out with a view 
to aid the calmly reflecting mind in 
calculating upon the highly probable, 
if not certain upshot of the near future 
of a country, once so honoured and 
blessed, and every one of whose ante- 
cedents is so recklessly ignored. And, 
in conclusion, we would invite earnest 
attention to the fact, that the signs 



specified are not to be viewed as iso- 
lated, but as concuiTent ; not as 
incidental, but as essential ; not as 
lamented, but as gloried in ; and not 
as observable in any age, but as char- 
acteristic invariably of the times that 
have immediately preceded national 
convulsions. 



|i^niis$i0u af l^tus mta farliammt. 



It is not our design, in considering 
this question which has now become 
a fact, to animadvert upon the anoma- 
lous conduct of the House of Peers 
in contravention of their declared 
principle, . or on the unconstitutional 
predicament into which the two Houses 
have placed themselves by their anta- 
gonistic position ; nor have we any 
intention of arguing the question 
abstractly, in the light of the acknow- 
ledged Christian constitution of the 
country, the supreme head of which 
is styled " the defender of the faith ; " 
nor are we 'anxious to shew, that those 
who object not to the admission of 
Papists and Unitarians to the honours 
of legislation, may find it difficult to 
exclude Jews. Our object, in the sub- 
sequent remarks, is to inquire. Whether 
a conscientious Jew can honestly ad- 
dress himself to the functions of a 
legislator for this country ; and whether 
his very conscientiousness, which he 
has demonstrated by persistently re- 
fusing to take the former oath, does 
not disqualify him for dealing with 
the essentially constitutional cj[uestions 
of Great Britian and Ireland I View- 
ing the question in this practical 
phase of it, we would submit the few 
following considerations : — 

I. Assimiing that the Christian 
Sabbath is recognized as the statutory 
law of the land, how is it possible 
that a conscientious Jew could legislate 



in its defence ? We confess our ina- 
bility to discover any way of escape 
from this dilemma, in which the 
honest Jew must necessarily find 
himself, when occupying his place in 
the British House of Commons. If, 
on the one hand, in the case supposed, 
he remain silent, then where is his 
conscience as to his Jewish Sabbath 1 
and, if, on the other hand, he is resolv- 
ed to legislate, as in duty bound, then 
how could he conscientiously speak 
and vote in defence of the Christian 
Sabbath, which is the law of the 
land 1 If, on the one hand, he choose 
to be silent, he is a traitor to his creed, 
and not to be trasted in subordinate 
matters ; and if, on the other, he 
speak and vote, then his Jewish con- 
science morally compels him to act 
against the Christian Sabbath, the 
statutory law of the land. The 
remaining alternative, that he speak 
and vote in behalf of the Christian 
Sabbath, demonstrates his hypocrisy, 
and proclaims him to be thoroughly 
inadequate to guard our liberties. 
We shall willingly give space in our 
periodical to any of the defenders of 
the BiU, who may conclude that they 
are able to solve this interesting pro- 
blem. 

II. The conscientious Jew cannot, 
and, in point of fact, does not, observe 
the law of the land in regard to the 
Christian Sabbath. He not only ob- 



THE AEK. 



serves the Jewish Sabbath, but repu- 
' diates, and, according to his oppor- 
tunity and ability, violates the Chris- 
tian Sabbath. His Jewish conscience 
compels him to oppose the Christian 
Sabbath, which declares the abrogation 
of the seventh-day Sabbath. We are 
not reasoning at present on the scrip- 
turalness or unscripturalness of the 
Jewish or Christian Sabbath, but re- 
stricting our remarks to the statutory 
law of the land, to the outstanding 
constitutionalism of the kingdom. Ou 
this ground we affirm, that a conscien- 
tious few does not, and -cannot observe 
this law ; and the inference is inevit- 
able, that "law breakers should not 
be law makers." Whatever external 
observance of the Christian Sabbath is 
rendered by the Jew, arises not from 
principle, but lowest policy, and policy 
at the expense of his religious creed, — 
a sorry qualification of a safe legisla- 
tor ! It accords not with sound reason 
to suppose, that a conscientious Jew 
will, or can do otherwise than violate, 
repudiate, and, if possible, repeal the 
statutory law of the Christian Sab- 
bath. To the compassing of the aboli- 
tion of the Christian Sabbath, both 
legally and practically, the conscien- 
tious, the honest Jew must necessarily 
and heartily address himself with most 
strenuous effort. 

III. The conscientious Jew is dis- 
qualified for the exercise of legislative 
functions at certain hours and days. 
According to Jewish computation, 
their Sabbath commences at sunset on 
our Friday, while our Saturday is 
their Sabbath. Is it not possible, is 
it improbable, that a great con- 
stitutional question is hazarded in the 
House of Commons on the speeches 
and votes of its Members on a Friday 
evening, or on a Saturday 1 Where, 
in such a case, are the Jews? In 
their private houses, or in the syna- 
gogue, condemning the Christianity of 
the British Constitution, and suppli- 



cating the Cod of Moses for its abro- 
gation ! If present, on the occasions 
adverted to, the Jewish conscience is 
seriously at fault ; and if absent, in 
the celebration of their religious ordi- 
nances which the law of the land 
virtually declares to be insulting to 
" Him who is the prince of the kings 
of the earth,"- — a question of war or 
I peace, vital to our country, is left 
without the judgment of intelligent 
and patriotic Christian legislators ! 

IV. It is, if not the law, the usual 
custom, that, as preparatoiy to legis- 
lative business, the House join in sup- 
plicating the God of Christ for direc- 
tion in their deliberations. The Cjues- 
tion is, How is it possible that the 
conscientious Jew can unite with the 
supplicant, as the mouth of the Assem- 
bly? This was the objection urged 
in the Upper House by tliose Peers 
that opposed the Bill ; and we do 
think, that none but infidel journalists, 
not only in England, but in the metro- 
polis of Scotland, can treat it with 
unintellectual levity. Such Scotsmen 
nmst, in their attempts to cover the 
objection with ridicule, deny that 
prayer is accepted unless in the name, 
and on the footing of the atoning sac- 
rifice of the Son of God, crucified on 
Calvary. Their bi-weekly and daily 
lucubrations must be styled thoroughly 
infidel, and as proceeding from a brain 
either muddled, or Antichristian, or 
both. According to their transparent 
creed, prayer in the name of the cruci- 
fied, and now exalted Emmanuel, is a 
matter of mere indifference in the 
management of our national affairs. 

From the above considerations, to 
which the thoughtful will have no 
difliculty in adding others of a cognate 
character, the following corollaries are 
equally interesting and instructive : — 

1. If the liberal principle on which 
the Jews are now admitted into the 
House of Commons, the principle that 
religion is no disqualification for the 



THE AEK. 



legislator, be sound, then it does follow 
that there cannot, or should not be, 
any national religion, any civil estab- 
lishment of a profession of revealed 
truth ; the Queen should be freed 
from her coronation oath, binding her 
to be a Protestant ; and the Christi- 
anity of the British Crown and Consti- 
tution ought to be not only ignored, 
but formally repealed. Consistency 
demands this sacrifice. 

2. Where is the conscience of the 
Jew that can take upon him the high- 
est office of a British legislator, when 
he cannot speak or vote, in support 
of its highest statutory law regarding 



the Christian Sabbath? Consistency 
requires that he labour for its repeal. 

3. Where is the conscience of our 
nominally Protestant liberals, that 
would require conscientious Jews to 
legislate in behalf of the ruling Chris- 
tian law of our country 1 

4. Is it possible that the observance 
of the Christian Sabbath can be se- 
cured, or common respect be paid 
to it, when our popular Russells, 
and other liberals, should treat it with 
such dishonour? Our Sabbath has 
been wounded severely in the Com- 
mons House of Parliament. 



n SabljatJ: gag. 



There are few questions, if indeed 
any, of more pressing and national 
importance than that of the Sabbath 
day. Popular opinion and practice 
has, within the last quarter of a cen- 
tury, undergone a very marked and 
serious change for the worse; for 
whereas the cry was loud and success- 
ful against its desecration by railway 
travelling, that cry has become feebler 
in proportion to the increase of such 
desecration. And it is worthy serious 
attention, that notwithstanding all the 
appliances put in requisition with a 
view to inform the public on the na- 
ture, character, and blessings of this 
sacred and benign institution, as asso- 
ciations, tracts, and prize essays, the 
desecrators have waxed bolder, and 
achieved some disreputable triumphs. 

It augurs ill for the public morality 
when petitions to the legislature for 
relaxing the alleged austerities of this 
eminent boon to man and beast, are 
signed by some of the first names in 
literature and science, and names 
associated with reformation of the na- 
tional seminaries. How true, "the 
world by wisdom knew not God." 



And it is not assuredly an encouraging 
sign of the times, that to these peti- 
tions are appended the signatures of 
some of the aristocracy, members of 
parliament, and even the clergy ; 
while the leading liberal journalists 
that assume the task of instructing 
the public mind, pour the most con- 
temptuous ribaldry on the defenders 
of the Christian Sabbath and statutory 
law of the laud, as a set of fanatics, 
Pharisees, and hypocrites ! This is 
liberalism. It is a practically inter- 
esting problem, to the solution of 
which we do not propose now to ad- 
dress ourselves, — To what may we 
trace the extraordinary change of the 
English, and especially the Scottish 
mind, in regard- to the institution of 
the Sabbath 1 Are we to trace it to 
our aristocratic and literary excursion- 
ists to the Continent of Europe, and 
especially to France 1 to the advances 
of Romish tenets and practices 1 to 
the inglorious but un-Scottish indolence 
of professors of religion, coupled with 
the lack of ecclesiastical discipline 1 or 
to all these in combination 1 What- 
ever may be the cause or causes that 



have operated iu effecting this moral 
revolution, we have now to do and 
grapple with the astounding and jeer- 
ing scepticism of the age in regard to 
the Christian Sabbath. 

Those who have been observant of 
the progress of the change must have 
been stnick with the conflicting de- 
fences of those who have adopted the 
new views. Not a few reiterate their 
demand for a clear and specific com- 
mand for the observance of the Sab- 
bath on the first day of the week ; 
many insist that the Sabbath is but a 
Jewish institution, and must be num- 
bered among the abrogated ceremonies 
of that dispen-sation ; while the major- 
ity reason, that even the Christian 
Sabbath has as its principal end the 
mental and corporeal recreation of our 
toiling population. While these vari- 
ous views obviously conflict, yet they 
agree in representing the Christian 
Sabbath as not a specific divine insti- 
tution, and that a contemplation and 
study of the creative works of God, 
and intellectual achievements of human 
genius, constitute its due sanctification. 
This is the popular creed. 

Our object in the subsequent few 
remarks is not so mucli to hold debate 
with the new views adverted to, as to 
confirm those who tremble for the ark 
of God, when they feel their inade- 
quacy to arrest and stem the increasing 
torrent of Sabbath desecration. 

1. The Decalogue, which contains 
the moral law, is common to every 
age, country, and dispensation. That 
it is peculiar to the Jewish dispensa- 
tion is destructive of its nature, its 
character, and Christ's exposition and 
practice. The fourth precept of this 
law, is the last of the first of the two 
tables, and respects man's duty to God, 
as distinguished from the second table, 
which respects his duty to himself and 
his feUow. This undeniable fact shakes 
the foundation-stone of the modern 
theory, which restricts the observance 



of the Sabbath to man's gi-atification, 
thereby inverting its position, by put- 
ting it among the precepts of the 
second, instead of those of the first 
table ; and which limits the duration 
of the seventh day by a fictitious 
measuring rod that will not apply to 
the other six days of the week. We 
fail to discover any of these liberals 
who employ servants acting towards 
them with that liberality which charac- 
terizes the liberty they take in measur- 
ing the duration of the Lord's day. 
Such austere masters exact service to 
tlie last moment from the toiling em- 
ployed, but prate about two hours as 
exhausting the service we owe to God 
on the day which he mercifully claims 
for the celebration of divine worship. 
2. The modern theory is exposed 
and condemned by our Lord's exposi- 
tion of the Sabbath-day. It is not an 
easy, if indeed a possible task, to give 
a plausible explanation of the Sabbath 
as a mere Jewish ordinance, in the 
light of Christ's declaration, " The 
Sabbath was made for man." Why 
not employ the language, the Sabbath 
was made for the Jewisli nation and 
church 1 This would have been not 
only intelligible, especially as He was 
addressing Jews, but the necessities of 
the modei-n creed absolutely required 
such phraseology. The language, " for 
man," obviously excludes all such dis- 
tinctions as age, clime, and dispensation 
suppose, while it obviously embraces 
mankind. Any attempts to break 
down this simple and natural exposi- 
tion must resolve themselves into mean 
and disreputable quibbling. 

3. Under the Mosaic economy, 
ample provision was made for the 
change of the Sabbath from the sev- 
enth to the first day of the week. It 
is striking, that the Old Testament 
Scriptures to which our modern Sabba- 
tarians so confidently appeal, should 
so formally condemn their position ! 
Who so ignorant of the Mosaic eco- 



nomy, as to require to be told, that 
the eighth day holds a promiiieut place 
in the public worship of the Jews 1 
Levit. xxiii. 39, — "On the first day 
shall be a Sabbath, and on the eighth 
day shall be a Sabbath." Let the 
Sabbatarian try his expository powers 
on Ezekiel's intelligible language. 
Chap, xliii. 26 — "Seven days shall 
they purge the altar and purify it ; 
and they shall consecrate themselves. 
27. And when these days are expired, 
it shall be, that upon the eighth day, 
and so forward, your priests shall 
make your burnt-offerings upon the 
altar." It might also be a curiosity 
of its kind to have his exposition of 
Ps. cxviii. 22. " The stone which the 
builders refused is become the head 
stone of the corner." When was 
Christ the head stone of the corner, if 
not on the morning of his resurrection, 
the eighth day, the Cliristian Sabbath "? 
of which we hear in v. 24, " This is 
the day which the Lord hath made ; 
we will rejoice and be glad in it." If 
but a tithe of the time expended in 
talking of puritanical, pharisaical, and 
hypocritical observers of the Scotch 
Sabbath, was devoted to a calm in- 
vestigation of these, and numerous 
similarly phrased passages of the Old 
Testament Scriptures, some effectual 
work might be done in regard to the 
settlement of the Sabbath question. 

4. What modern Sabbatarian can 
deny that Christ, and his apostles, and 
the Church for centuries, met for 
religious worship and converse on the 
first day of the week, which was de- 
signated the Lord's-day, and the Sab- 
bath-day 1 How dispose of this fact 
that occupies so prominent a place in 
New Testament scripture, and the his- 
tory of the ecclesiastical world 1 We 



are not aware that any one of our 
journalizing instructors has ever made 
a fair, or honourable attempt to meet 
it ; but it is no uncommon trick, 
when reminded of it, to dash away 
among the jingling vocables of recrea- 
tion for the toiling millions, the sweet- 
ness of rural scenery, and the intellec- 
tual feast of visiting crystal palaces 
and museums. Is this honest, is it 
honourable, is it reasoning the ques- 
tion 1 Does it not betray scepticism 
of the first water, and the determina- 
tion to steal a march in the discussion 
of the question, by an appeal to the 
mere animal, rather than to the ra- 
tional and moral part of man's nature '? 
As we happen to be a little acquainted 
with what is going on behind a por- 
tion of the journalizing scenes, we 
would advise more caution in the use 
of such perverse vocables as fanaticism, 
and hypocrisy, lest we feel compelled 
to shew cause for returning the 
compliment, and adduce a few facts to 
prove, that such advocates of the 
working-man's Sabbath are not en- 
titled to the honour which thay so 
chivalrously assume. 

Confessing ourselves alarmists in re- 
gard to the Sabbath, the nationality 
of which is repudiated by the admis- 
sion of Jews to the Commons House 
of Parliament, we shall resume con- 
sideration of it in an early number 
of our publication ; and meantime con- 
clude with the words of Edmund Burke 
in his Letter to a Member of the Na- 
tional Assembly of France, — "They 
who always labour can have no true 
judgment. You never give yourselves 
time to cool, and when men are thus 
engaged in unremitting labour, they 
exhaust their attention, burn out their 
candles, and are left in the dark." 



THE ARK. 



§nti4 P^nlitg nato, tontrasteb toitlj tol]at it ma toas. 



In a former number of "The Ark" we in- 
stituted a comparison between the moral 
condition of Scotland now with what it was 
in the times of our covenanting ancestors. 
In addition to the authentic testimonies then 
adduced, we have now to offer another, fur- 
nished by a modern Episcopalian clergyman, 
who cannot be suspected of favouring Cove- 
nanters or their principles. Speaking of the 
period immediately following the subscrip- 
tion of the Solemn League and Covenant in 
England, he presents us with a picture that 
strikingly contrasts with the present apostate 
times : — 

"During the troubles of the times, on 
account of the differences between Charles I. 
and the Parliament, Puritanism was in one 
sense productive of much good. The refor- 
mation of manners was then very remarkable. 
The laws against vice and profaneness were 
so strict, and so vigorously put in execution, 
that vice was forced to hide itself in comers. 
The magistrates did their duty in suppressing 
all kinds of games, stage-plays, and abuses in 
public-houses. There was not a play acted 
on any theatre in England for almost twenty 
years. Profane swearing, drunkenness, or 
debauchery, were not to be heard or seen on 
the streets. The Lord's day was observed 
with unusual reverence. The churches were 
crowded with numerous and attentive wor- 
shippers three or four times in the day. The 
peace-officers patrolled the streets of London, 
and all the public-houses were shut up. 
There was no travelling on the road, or walk- 
ing in the fields, except in cases of absolute 
necessity. Religious exercises were set up in 
private families — as reading the Scriptures, 
family prayer, repeating sermons, and sing- 



ing of psalms. This was so general a custom 
that we are told a person might walk through 
the city of London on the evening of the 
Lord's-day without seeing an idle person, or 
hearing anything but the voice of prayer or 
praise from churches and private houses. It 
is also said that ^here was hardly a single 
bankruptcy to be heard of in a year ; and 
that even in such a case the bankrupt had a 
mark of infamy set upon him that he could 
never wipe off." Life and Times of Bishop 
Hall, hy Rev. J. Jones, 1826 (pp. 455,456). 
This, considered with the testimonies we 
formerly quoted in reference to Scotland at 
the same period, should excite every patriotic 
soul candidly to enquire. What is the cause 
of our obvious and deplorable degeneracy from 
the attainments of former days ? Why is the 
Divine blessing withheld, so that all efforts at 
reformation prove abortive ? We desire to 
suggest, in all kindness, by way of reply to such 
enquiries, that as a nation we have aban- 
doned the cause then adopted and sworn to, 
and have contemned the attainments then 
reached, and now we are left like Samson, 
bereft of the divinely approved instrumental- 
ity, whereby in former times we foiled the 
enemies of God and man, and secured to our 
native land that civil and religious liberty 
which our perjury has chased from our 
shores. The righteous Lord, in consistency 
with His glorious character, will assuredly 
avenge the quarrel of His Covenant. And 
it is time for every one who knows truth and 
duty to submit by formally adopting that 
Sacred Cause, and take his place in the ranks 
of those, who though few and feeble, and 
sore exhausted, are yet honoured to hold aloft 
the Banner of our Glorious Immanuel. 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by James S. Muir, 60 New Buildings, North 
Bridge (to whom all Communications — prepaid — may be addressed) ; John Menzies, 
61 Princes Street. Glasgow : William Love, St Enoch Square ; and sold by all 
Booksellers. 



T. U AITKEN. PKINTEK, OEOBOE IV. BKIDOE, EDINBtTlOH. 



§h^ girfe 



No. X. 



SEPTEMBER 1858. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

What is Principle ? 
The Cherbourg Fetes. 
On Lay Preaching. 



miiut h Irinn^k ? 



The almost universal use of the term 
principle, demands something like, at 
least, a practical definition of it. In 
turning up any of the dictionaries in 
common use, we find it defined as " a 
prmordial substance ; constituent 
part ; original cause ; motive ; opi- 
nion," &c. Such definitions, especially 
to minds not accustomed to analysis, 
are of too abstruse and vague a 
character to be practically useful. The. 
scientific mind attaches a definite, a 
tangible idea to the term principle 
when applied to mechanics, astronomy, 
botany, arithmetic, and the other 
sciences ; and the politician and mora- 
list is intelligible to himself and others 
when he speaks of a rium of principle. 
In the natural world, a principle may 
be viewed as equivalent to a law 
which is invariable, and which cir- 
cumstances develop, but never change 
nor annihilate. Hence the accuracy 
with which the astronomer can calcu- 
late eclipses. In the moral world, a 
principle is a divine truth in necessary 
accordance with the nature of God, 
which is unaffected by any circum- 
stances of time, place, or persons. 
From this definition, without introduc- 
ing the element of the distinction 
betwixt the nature and the will of 
God, the inference is equally obvious 



and instructiye, that the moral law, 
surtimarily comprehended in the ten 
commandments, .is the complete and 
only sufficient set, or system of princi- 
ples for the morak world, embracing 
politics, commerce, and religion. Upon 
this definition did Charles James Fox 
found his high-toned maxim, that 
"whatever was morally right could 
not be politically wrong." Assuming 
then that moral principle is contained 
in the moral law, that its dimensions 
have been brought out in the doctrines 
taught by Christ, and that it has been 
illustrated in the divinely-^pprovetl 
mental exercise, conversation,' and 
conduct of the man of God, we reach 
the conclusion, that the law of God is 
as unchangeable as the law of nature, 
is the rule and reason of duty in all 
localities, in all ages, and in all cir- 
cumstances ; and that he is a man of 
principle who delights in this holy law 
of God, and makes it his study all the 
day. 

This definition of principle suggests 
the subsequent remarks, which we 
shall merely state, trusting that the 
candid reader shall make his own prac- 
tical use of them'* in his conclusions 
upon the spirit of the age. 

1. It is a primary an*d essential 
duty to God and our fellows to make 



an open and public profession of these 
divine principles. Revelation and 
sound reason conspire in declaring this 
explicit profession before the world. 
" Zion, thy God confess ; " "a banner 
hast thou given to be displayed, 
because of the truth ;" "him tliat con- 
fesseth me before men, will I confess 
before my Father who is in heaven ; 
but whom do ye say that I am," &c. 
Such an explicit profession serves the 
purpose of a standard for an army, a 
constitution for a country, a test to 
distinguish betwixt the loyalist and 
the rebel. And although not a few 
may act the part of the hypocrite, yet 
such a test detected the hypocrisy, and 
put society on its guard. It requires 
no formal reasoning to shew, that if it 
is a duty to make, it is no less a duty 
to keep the profession of principle 
made ; while the former is a potent 
mean for securing the latter. " Let us 
hold fast the profession of our faith 
without wavering." 

2. A love of the truths, of the 
principles, of the moral law, is securi- 
tive of uniformly upright conduct in 
the legislative and executive function- 
aries of a kingdom. Under the in- 
fluence of a heart regard to the pre- 
cepts of the decalogue, and a studious 
desire to realize the eye of the divine 
Lawgiver, we have a security that the 
civil constitution, the fundamental 
laws of a nation, will be based upon 
the eternal law of God. All such 
flippant reasoning, or rather popular 
declamation, as change of locality and 
circumstances, out of which self-inter- 
ested adventurers make political capi- 
tal, and because of which they address 
themselves to a defence of their incon- 
sistency and tergiversation, is excluded 
by a recognition of, and adherence to, 
the precepts of the moral law. The 
facile plea of circumstances, the favour- 
ite and last resort of every political 
changeling, is vulnerable at every 
point, and especially does it break 



down where it is held to be impreg- 
nable. The plea of altered circum- 
stances is irrational and immoral when 
urged in defence of the violation of the 
moral law. Such was the plea of the 
late Sir Robert Peel in regard to the 
Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829. 
And all breaches of the divine law are 
attempted to be vindicated, or extenu- 
ated, on the same plea of circum- 
stances. To this resorted our first 
parents in palliating the breach of the 
covenant of works ; and this was the 
plea of Pontius Pilate in deliveriug up 
the Son of God to be crucified. 
Moreover, every concession to circum- 
stances forms a dangerous precedent 
for another, and another, until any- 
thing like constitutional law becomes 
an impossibility, and man's mere opi- 
nion with all its tormenting oscilla- 
tions takes the place of the fixed and 
divinely directive j^rinciples of the 
decalogue. Of what practical use are 
tests, or platform declarations of poli- 
tical principles by candidates for legis- 
lative honours, if the plea of circum- 
stances is allowed 1 

3. A love of, and adherence to, the 
principles of the moral law secure 
honesty in the commercial world. 
The natural love of gold, hasting to 
be rich, which is declared to be the 
root of all evil, and which has pre- 
eminently stood in the way of the 
reception of the Gospel, is not to be 
weakened or overcome by mere civil 
law or political arrangements, or secu- 
lar education. And this painful fact 
has received a startling illustration in 
our late commercial crisis, which set 
honesty and the common dictates of 
humanity at defiance. Unless the 
eye and heart are fixed on the pre- 
cepts, and recognise the divine sanc- 
tion of the decalogue, mere political 
tarifi"s will be felt to be feeble barriers 
against the strong impulses of covet- 
ousness. But when the divine law, 
its spirituality and authority, are re- 



cognised and felt, commercial enter- 
prise wiU be kept within proper 
bounds, and eschew temptations to 
acquire wealth at the expense of the 
honour of God, the property of our fel- 
low, and the morality of our own char- 
acter. Whereas mere tariffs are com- 
plicated and, in many instances, equivo- 
cal, because of which the disreputably 
ingenious find large margins for gamb- 
ling speculation — the law of God is 
simple in its phraseology, intelligible 
by ordinary intellect, and preventive 
of evasion by the natural and unin- 
itiated conscience. WTaen the moral 
excellency of its precepts is perceived, 
and its divine sanction is felt, even 
the hitherto successful speculator is 
alarmed lest his gains should have 
been dishonestly acquired, and offers 
to make fourfold restoration. This 
remark is painfully expository of the 
popular animus that leads to acquire 
territory by political speculation, whUe 
a disregard to the principles of the 
moral law, illustrated and enforced by 
Gospel doctrine, is proved to be sowing 
dragons' teeth, and the harvest even- 
tually is that of armed men, of san- 
guinary insurrectionists. In every 
case eventually, sooner or later, especi- 
ally in regard to nations, the moral 
law will vindicate its own prerogatives 
by punishing its successful violator, 
and by amply rewarding him who 
recognised its authority and practically 
observed its intelligible injunctions. 

4. The truths, the precepts, of the 
moral law are the best and only secu- 
rity for the best interests of the social 
world. As the four precepts which 
respect the first of the two tables of 
the decalogue instruct in the know- 
ledge of God, his appointed form of 
worship, the reverend use of his name, 
titles, and word, and the manner of 
sanctifying his Sabbath ; so the re- 
maining six respect the comprehensive 
duties we owe to ourselves and fellows 
in every relation in which we stand to 



one another. How brief, how parti- 
cular, and how intelligible these ten 
precepts delivered by God from Sinai's 
burning peak, and recognised and ex- 
pounded by Christ, when compared 
with the huge, the ponderous, the 
jargonized tomes of the laws of any 
one of the nations of Europe ! The 
most gigantic efforts of human intel- 
lect have been put forth to simplify 
human laws, and yet the toast of the 
interested, " the glorious uncertainty 
of the law," has lost none of its raci- 
ness, and none of its wretched signifi- 
cance. By the order of the two tables 
of the moral law, the first which re- 
spects our duty to God, and the second 
which respects our duty to oiu'selves 
and our fellows, we discover the sage 
and practically valuable maxim, that 
What a man is to God, he is to his 
neighbour, or What a man is reaUy, 
he is relatively. How comprehensive 
and intelligible om- duty, as divinely 
prescribed, in regard to our own life 
and that of our neighbour ; in regard 
to our own and our neighbour's chas- 
tity ; oiu" own and our neighbour's 
property ; our own and our neigh- 
bour's word and oath ; and the ex- 
plicit, and not to be misunderstood 
condemnation of covetousness ! When 
these precepts fail to enlighten and 
convince of real and relative duty, in 
vain shall we look for the practice of 
duty by the elaborated lumber of civil 
laws, and the matter for obscuring the 
luminous precepts of the law of God. 
In this divine code of laws we learn 
at a glance the relative duties of prince 
and subjects, parents and children, 
masters and servants, and all the other 
real or imaginable relations of life. 

5. The truths, the principles, of the 
moral law, constitute the rule and 
reason of duty to the religious world. 
As the tniths of the moral law are in 
accordance with, are the written image 
of the nature of God ; so they are 
eternal, and not to be subjected in their 



operation to varying circumstances. 
Accordingly, the rule of duty to God 
and his Churcb is, " To the law and 
the testimony ;" while Christ's work, 
even in dying, is described as one of 
obedience to the law. " Although he 
were a son, yet learned he obedience 
by the things which he suffered ; he 
was obedient unto the death." His 
exclamation, explanatory of his work, 
was, " I delight to do thy will, my 
God ; yea, thy law is within my 
heart." In the light of this ruling 
principle we may readily read the con- 
demnation of all such ecclesiastical 
maxims and practices as the follow- 
ing : — That any of the principles of 



revealed truth are non-essential, that 
any of the divine laws may be disre- 
garded because of mere circumstances, 
that what was truth in one age may 
be heresy in another, that principles 
applicable to one country are inappli- 
cable to another, and that a scrupu- 
lously exact regard to the least of the 
divine commandments can possibly be 
designated bigotry. " These things 
ye ought to have done, and not to 
leave the others undone ; whoso of- 
fendeth in the least is guilty of all." 
" To the law and to the testimony : if 
they speak not according to this word, 
it is because there is no light in 
them." 



f k Clj^rbflttrg gtUL 



There ar& not a few circumstances 
and associations connected with the 
Cherbourg fetes which point them 
out as the ruling sign in the political 
heavens. In consideration of the time 
when, the locality where, the chief 
actors, and the gigantic character of 
the works, the celebration of the com- 
pletion of this chiefest policy of 
France demands, especially from our 
country, calmest consideration. With 
a view to aid in accurately concluding 
upon the ulterior designs of France in 
inaugurating her Sebastopol, we would 
solicit attention to the few following 
very general observations, as elements 
essential to a right solution of the 
question of our real and relative posi- 
tion in regard to " the grand nation." 

I. The Cherbourg fetes have crea- 
ted an immense sensation. They con- 
stitute the engrossing topic of journal- 
izing, epistolary correspondence, and 
talking throughout Europe, especially 
in France and our own country. They 
have constituted food for every intel- 
lect, and given occasion for all kinds 
of conjecture. The meeting of the 



Queen of England and the Emperor 
of France, the announcement of the 
successful completion of the Atlantic 
cable, and many other striking coinci- 
dences, have arrested the Continental 
mind and forced it to action. 

II. These fetes have been made the 
occasion of seriously conflicting opi- 
nion. Exposition of a strongly con- 
flicting character, and that too by lead- 
ing statesmen and journalists, and 
whose capabilities for soundly reason- 
ing such topics admit not of being 
despised, is somewhat startling and 
perplexing. Were the subject of aij 
ordinary or common character, were it 
not vital as to the two nations, and 
through them to Europe, this antagon- 
ism of mind of a high order would be 
of comparatively small significance. 
Not a few are strongly convinced that 
the ulterior object is the humiliation 
of England ; while others labour to 
show that these fetes demonstrate 
purest friendship between the sove- 
reigns, and the confirmation of the 
Alliance. Such a conflict of opinion 
on such a subject, and by ruling minds 



in both countries, is a formal and 
dangerous " war of opinions." 

III. This antagonistic reasoning is 
so ably conducted that ordinary minds 
are thrown into dubiety, or are driven 
to take, and to take firmly, their re- 
spective sides. If the imperial object 
has been to unite the two nations, 
that object has been already not only 
frustrated, but has become a bone of 
most serious and not easily put down 
contention. French pamphlets, the 
Thunderer's strong articles, Persigny's 
speeches, and imperial and royal de- 
clarations, constitute serious elements 
of discord in the political cauldron. 

Without undertaking to decide this 
modern gravest of questions, we shall 
merely specify a few of those figures 
which may contribute to a generally 
satisfactory working out of the ac- 
count. 

1. It is in human nature not to 
submit to be second if we can by any 
means be first. The saying ascribed 
to Csesar,. " I would rather be the first 
in a village than the second in Rome," 
is applicable equally to emperors and 
peasants. The English poet has put 
the same sentiment in the mouth of 
Satan, — " Better far to reign in hell 
than serve in heaven." Why should 
France, and especially with such a 
spirit as Napoleon III., be thought so 
fond of self-humiliation as to contra- 
vene this first and ruling dictate of 
our common nature. AH observation, 
aU historic fact, every principle within 
our own bosoms, not to mention the 
self-styled " grand nation," force to one 
conclusion — that France will labour 
to be first. 

2. France has reasons peculiar to 
herself why she should put forth her 
most strenuous eff'orts to be the ruling- 
power in Europe. This was the one, 
the grand idea of the first Napoleon, 
the following out of which is the 
boasted mission of his imperial 
nephew. Her soil is larger in extent. 



richer in production ; her army more 
numerous, more enthusiastic, the whole 
nation military, and inferior to Eng- 
land only in maritime power and 
glory. Is not the conclusion natural, 
that Cherbourg, with its own line of 
rail for military and not commercial 
purposes, is designed as the French 
rendezvous against her who sings, 
"Britannia rules the waves." We 
have not found in the nimierous and 
various conjectures as to the imperial 
object in completing the Oherbourgh 
arsenal any more natural exposition of 
the fetes. 

3. French reminiscences urge to put 
forth their energies to rival and humble 
England. The two countries have, 
from time immemorial, struggled for 
the mastery ; while France was com- 
pelled to acknowledge her inferiority 
to England's " wooden walls." Oher- 
boiu-g's foundations were laid a cen- 
tury and a half ago to meet her felt 
weakness ; and this one French idea 
has got a realization in the late fetes. 
Napoleon I. addressed himself to the 
task ; but his policy was frustrated by 
" perfidious Albion ;" Waterloo fol- 
lowed, and St. Helena, rooted French 
hatred, which has got some relief by 
unveiling the Napoleon statue at Cher- 
bourg. Do we require to add to 
these French reminiscences the late 
attempt on the Emperor's life, his bold 
request to try and punish the accom- 
plices, the strong remarks of their 
advocates, the London burst against 
the compliance of the ministry with 
the imperial request, and the conse- 
quent fall of the British ministry. Is 
it possible to conceive of the imperial 
spirit as equable at the exhibitions of 
this country on the " Refugee Ques- 
tion," as displeased with the burning 
petitions of the influential of his army, 
that he would let them loose with 
drawn sv/ords upon Victoria's capital ? 

4. To a right solution of this grave 
problem, we must add the present 



Emperor's antecedents. This is a 
subject full of strange and darkest 
incident, marked by insatiably ambi- 
tious enterprise, a recklessness of 
consequences, and the employment of 
sanguinary means to compass the one 
and engrossing object. Friendship's 
sweetest bands have been rudely burst 
asundei', the word of honour has 
been readily broken, and the most 
solemn and public oaths have been 
wantonly violated ! Popish proba- 
bilisra, the plea of necessity, and the 
public good of " the grand nation," 
have been resorted to in vindication 
of the breach of the last hold that 
man has upon his fellow. His first 
expedition, on the failure of which 
followed his imprisonment, his violation 
of his public oath as President of the 
Republic, the slaughter of some, and 
the banishment of others, of the 
friends of liberty, his wanton breach 
of the Sabbath on every occasion — 
these, these are the antecedents of the 
man whom we delight to honour as 
our ally, and whose cheek at Cher- 
bourg England's Queen delights to 
kiss ! What other bond, human or 
divine, remains to secure the fidelity 
of him, who, like the man among the 
tombs, has plucked asunder all chains 
to bind him 1 

5. To the above we must add those 
influences to which the Emperor is 
subjected. The will of the French 
army, which has now and again ex- 
hibited hostile ebullitions against Eng- 
land, has an imperious power over 
Napoleon, which he is too crafty to 
formally resist ; no less patent is the 
influence of the Vatican through the 
Jesuits, whose hostility to nominally 
protestant Britain is equally subtle 



and deep ; and above all, he is spell- 
bound with the conviction that he is 
missioned by God to complete the 
grand design of his uncle, which can- 
not be eff"ected save through our coun- 
try's overthrow. So powerfully is he 
under the influence of the idea of des- 
tiny, that he has oft been thrown off 
his guard to make a public avowal of 
it, and that too to a British Premier. 
And we may rest assured, that this 
deep-seated and long-cherished regnant 
idea shall not be allowed to wax cold 
in the imperial bosom, while Jesuits 
have ready access to the court. 

Tlie above considerations, if not 
when viewed individually, at least 
when taken cumulatively, do give 
feasibility to the well and strongly ex- 
I^ressed fears of the Times ; and are 
fitted to create more than ordinary 
uneasiness about the future of our 
beloved country, especially when so 
many of its aristocracy are looking 
Rome-ward, and its military, strength 
is at so great a distance from our 
shores. Without being incurable 
alarmists, yet we cannot shut our eyes 
to the fact, that, were the imperial 
eagle to attempt to fly across the chan- 
nel, the English lion might feel his 
self-defence seriously crippled by im- 
perial abettors in Ireland, and the 
Pope's numerous adherents in the 
manufacturing towns of England and 
Scotland. Above «,11, our country, 
because of increasing immorality and 
crime, not to speak of its shameless 
resilement from the cause of truth, has 
laid itself open to the assault of a 
more formidable foe than the Emperor 
of the French, and the despots of the 
Continent of Europe. 



in fag Ir^ircpng, 



As the Cliristian religion consisted of a 
variety of doctrines necessary to be known 
and believed, as well as moral duties and 
worship to be performed, and did not consist 
in rites and ceremonies as the Jewish, this 
made a number of teachers absolutely neces- 
sary, in order to inculcate it by frequent in- 
structions on the minds of men. And indeed 
the ministry appointed in the Christian 
Church, very different from that of the Priests 
and Levites, did chiefly consist of teachers 
bearing different names, and in the beginning 
distinguished into different classes ; but who 
were all subservient to the great design of 
making disciples of all nations. Though the 
heavenly gifts bestowed on the extraordinary 
teachers, supplied abundantly the want of 
human learning, yet these did not render 
altogether useless what any of them had 
previously acquired, nor yet totally supersede 
the use of study, and ordinary human means ; 
much less could they furnish a pretext for 
the exclusion or neglect of these as to their 
successors in public office, or the continued 
use of them in the subsequent and ordinaiy 
state of the Church. But it doth not appear 
that, during the apostolic age, there were any 
distinct societies constituted for the purpose 
of training up those who were from time to 
time appointed to office in the several rising 
Churches. The congregations, or religious 
assemblies of the saints were the common 
nurseries wherein they were foi-med : for 
therein, gifts differing one from another, as 
weU as graces, were conferred for the dis- 
charge of every needful function ; and accord- 
ing as any appeared to excel in the knowledge 
of divine things, or in the gifts rendering 
them ^apt to teach,' either throiigh the con- 
tinued use of the means of improvement they 
ordinarily enjoyed, or by the special influence 
of the Holy Spirit, they were, according to 



occui-ring necessities and call of God, either 
sent abroad to preach the Gospel at large, or 
settled in the pastoral charge of particidar 
Churches, either solely, or jointly with 
others ; and that under the direction of the 
apostles, evangelists, or prophets, after proof 
taken of them by these, or a presbytery 
superintending the affairs of these Churches. 
It could be no difficult matter to find a com- 
petent number thus qualified, in a period 
wherein extraordinary spiritual gifts abound- 
ed in most, if not aU of the Churches. . . 
The first apostolic Churches, particularly those 
in Judea, may therefore be considered as so 
many public seminaries, or University 
Churches, if we may use the expression, 
from whence the Christian world at large 
were to draw a principal part of their first 
supply of pastors and teachers. The Church 
of Jerusalem in particular is exhibited in 
this light, not only in the prophecies which 
went before of it, as the place from whence 
the laws of the Redeemer, and the messengers 
who were to proclaim them, were to go forth ; 
as the fountain whence the living waters were 
to arise and flow on every side ; but also 
from the historical account in the New 
Testament of the great numbers that were 
there endued with power from on high, and 
that successively emigrated thence, imparting 
the blessing of the Gospel, not only to the 
different parts of Judea, but to the regions 
of the Gentiles. And this may account for 
what is said as to the disciples who were 
dispersed upon the persecution that arose 
after the death of Stephen ; ' ' They that 
were scattered abroad went everywhere 
preaching the Word." Acts viii. 4., which 
some, in modem times, have absurdly ad- 
duced as a proof of the right of all the faith- 
ful to act as public instructors, and as an 
instance of what is called Lay-preaching ; 



not adverting to the extraordinary era, the 
peculiar state of the primitive Church thus 
dispersed, and the different characters of its 
members. But not even then, or in any of 
these primitive Churches, where all the gifts 
of the Holy Ghost were most plenteously dis- 
were all Church members either 
possessed of a right to be public 
teachers ; nor can such a thing ever be in 
any Church that has the least affinity to the 
constitution settled by Christ, or that retains 
any pretension to order, edification, or com- 
mon sense. To name a society in which all 
are teachers or rulers by office, is to name a 
palpable absurdity ; for if all were shepherds, 
where would be the flock ? If all were rulers, 
where would be the ruled ? But there is 
sufficient reason to believe, that a greater 
number in proportion to these primary 
Churches, were not only furnished with 
office-gifts, but were by the excitement of the 
Holy Ghost, and by the consent of its rulers, 
frequently called to the exercise of these gifts 
in their assemblies, as of old in the schools 
of the prophets, and many of them after- 
wards selected, and statedly employed in the 
sacred ministrations, than was either needful, 
or suitable to the ordinary state of the 
Church when it came to be regularly settled. 
To this peculiar state of things, and manner 



of preparing persons for public service in the 
Church, the Apostle perhaps may allude, — 
when he says to the Hebrews, v. 12: "For 
when for the time you ought to be teachers, 
ye have need that one teach you again, which 
be the first principles of the oracles of God." 
He neither supposes that all had a right to be 
teachers, or a fitness for it, nor yet that it is 
the duty of all Church members directly to 
propose or to prosecute such an intention ; 
but it might have been expected of those who 
had for so long a time enjoyed such means, 
to have made at least much more proficiency, 
so as to have been capable of instructing 
others, and even to equal the attainments of 
those who might have been employed as 
public instructors, or to be in case themselves 
to discharge such an employ, if called thereto : 
perhaps also intimating, that it was the duty 
of many among them in these times, to desire 
and to be, in readiness to undertake such a 
vocation. — Professor Bruce. 

We have given the above extract 
as the subject of Lay-preaching de- 
serves a consideration, especially at this 
time when so many loose notions and 
practices prevail in regard to tlie office 
of the ministry. We intend (d.v.) to 
return to the subject in an early issue 
of our Periodical. 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by James S. MtriE, 60 New Buildings, North 
Bridge (to whom all Communications — prepaid — may be addressed) ; John Menzies, 
61 Princes Street. Glasgow : William Love, St Enoch Square ; and sold by all 
Booksellers. 



T. L, AITKES, PRINTER, GEORGE IV. BRIDGE, EDINBURGH. 



^ht girfe 



No. XI. 



OCTOBER 1858. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

The Sabbath-Day. 

"Example is better than Precept.' 

Rome and Britain. 

Toleration. 



%\t Salatl-gim. 



The divine and benevolent Institution 

of the Sabbath has been, especially of 
late, subjected to rather rough handling 
by not a few of those who have volun- 
tarily undertaken the journalizing 
tutorage of the public mind. In 
conducting the controversy, the spirit 
that manifests itself in bandying about 
mutually criminatoiy epithets, and 
instituting contrasts betwixt Continen- 
tal, English, and Scottish Sabbaths, 
promises little for the rational con- 
sideration and scriptural settlement of 
this question of paramount interest to 
society. It is obvious that the popular 
mode of discussing the question by 
contrasting the observance of the 
Sabbath in different countries ignores 
the divine authority of the institution, 
steals a march on the threshold of the 
argumentation, and eventually resolves 
itself into infidelity. 

Although it might not be an easy 
matter to undertake a specification of 
all the elements that have originated 
this general assault on the hitherto 
decent observance of the Sabbath, yet 
we fear the Christian poet, Cowper, 
told much of the truth when he 
ascribed an anticipated flood of its 
desecration to the low morality and 
questionable practices of the clergy : 

" If apostolic gi-avity be free 
To play the fool on Sundays, why not we ? 
If he the tinkling harpsichord regards 
As inoffensive, what offence in cards ? 
Strike up the fiddles, let us all be gay, 
Laymen have leave to dance, if parsons play." 



This poetic prophet saw, and with 
warning voice proclaimed, the national 
Sabbath desecration which was setting 
strongly in upon his beloved England, 
and would not spare Scotland. 

' ' Oh Italy ! — thy Sabbaths will be soon 
Our Sabbaths, clos'd with mumm'iy and 

buffoon. 
Preaching and pranks will share the motley 

scene, 
Our's parcell'd out, as thine have ever been, 
God's worship and the mountebank between." 

Our object in the subsequent remarks 
is not to argue the scriptural origin, 
permanent obligation, and spiritual 
benefits of this ordinance ; but to 
specify a few of those social and poli- 
tical advantages which even the external 
observance of the Sabbath is fitted 
more effectually to secure than any 
other mean hitherto suggested and 
tried. 

I. It has been demonstrated upon 
physiological principles, and ascertained 
beyond dispute by actual experiment, 
that the rest of one day in seven is 
necessary for corporeal health and 
labour. The results obtained in 
establishing this position apply equally 
to man and to beast ; and from the 
intimate connexion betwixt mind and 
organized matter, and their mutually 
reactionary influence, the inference is 
equally obvious and instructive, that 
the weekly Sabbath, as a mere cessa- 
tion from physical toil, is necessary 
for the healthy exercise of the intellect. 



The celebrated Burke, in his letter to 
a member of tlie National Assembly 
of France, ascribes much of their 
sanguinary work to their sittings on 
the Sabbath-day. " They who always 
labour can have no true judgment. 
You never give yourselves time to cool, 
and when men are thus engaged in 
unremitting labour, they exhaust their 
attention, burn out their candles, and 
are left in the dark." 

II. The external observance of the 
Sabbath by public worship conduces 
to the acquisition of proper self- 
respect. It requires no reasoning to 
shew, that few, if indeed any, can 
muster courage to appear in a religious 
assembly unless in clean and decent 
apparel. Accordingly, those who have 
acquired church-going habits have also 
acquired the habit of neatness and 
cleanliness in their dress. This fact 
has been pioverbially ascribed to our 
countrymen, who have, on shortest 
notice, been ready to take their places 
in funeral processions. Nor is it 
difficult to shew, that the cultivation 
of this self-respect makes inroads upon 
the field of sloth and intemperance, 
which soon tell favourably on the 
appearance of the home, wife, and 
children of the industrious mechanic. 
Assuming the truth of this remark, 
the scheme of "ragged churches" is 
highly problematical, while projects 
for erecting houses for the labouring 
portion of the community lacks the 
impulsive motive that the public 
religious assembly naturally supplies. 
Is not this to invert the natural order? 

III. The external observance of the 
Sabbath by public worship conduces 
to good manners. We naturally 
associate decency of garb with good 
manners, and strongly express our 
disappointment on discovering rude- 
ness in the neatly-habited. This 
remark, founded on observation, applies 
with peculiar force to the well-dressed 
among the industrious classes, and is 



not affected by the few exceptions 
which shock the general sense of the 
community. Such are not the persons 
who frequent taverns, are convicted of 
rioting and brawling on our streets, or 
are indifferent to the preservation of 
public order. Irrespectively of the 
authoritative declaration in the religious 
assembly of the apostolic injunction, 
" Be ye courteous," the very cir- 
cumstances essential to a well-con- 
ducted congregation are favourable to 
the culture of those virtues, if not 
graces, which constitute softness of 
manners. 

IV. The external observance of the 
Sabbath by public worship is the best 
mean to preserve political order. The 
solemnity which we naturally associate 
with public worship, the supreme 
object addressed in supplication and 
praise, and the authoritative declara- 
tions of his read word, even apart from 
ministerial exposition, place the whole 
assembly on the same level before the 
Highest of true "fraternity, liberty, 
and ecj,uality." In the words of 
Solomon, " The rich and the poor meet 
together ; the Lord is the Maker of 
them all." Side by side are placed 
before God the prince and the subject, 
the master and the servant ; while 
their respective rights and duties are 
declared in the intelligible language of 
God himself. Where is the salutary 
solemnity so fitted to impress even the 
natural mind with lofty and regulating 
conceptions of duty, and accurate views 
of political duties, to be had, if not 
in the house of God on the first day 
of the week ? Compare this with the I 
modern scheme of elevating the toiling i 
masses by railway excursions on the 
Sabbath, and what is the natural 
upshot 1 When the excursionists have 
sui"V'eyed the verdant lawns and princely 
mansions of the aristocracy, it will 
require no ordinary efibrt to suppress 
troublesome communings about the 
imj^roper division of the sod, to ques- 



tion the rights of the few, to speak 
evil of dignities, and to feel a strong 
aversion to labour at the anvU and 
live in the mean cabin. 

Although this line of reasoning 
professes not to overtake the higher 
duties and purer enjoyment of the 
Sabbath, yet it goes to shew, that 
modern reformers do their best to 
deprive the working-classes of physical 



relaxation, rational enjoyment, the 
acquisition of honourable self-respect, 
well-regulated civility, and national 
order. Their scheme of reform leads 
to foster discontent among the toiling 
masses, to widen the breach betwixt 
them and the higher classes, and to 
seek means and ways to revolutionize 
the country. 



€mmi^k n better t\}m |tea^t." 



Were it possible for us to take a sur- 
vey of the progress of religion from 
Bible days to those of our own, we 
would certainly find, that she has re- 
ceived more deadly wounds from her 
professed adherents, than ever her 
avowed enemies have inflicted upon 
her. The fact is a mournful one, but 
not to be wondered at, when we ob- 
serve the conduct of those who, pro- 
fessing to be the children of light, 
yet love the deeds of darkness ; and 
are guilty of crimes, which the sceptic 
and heathen would blush to perpe- 
trate. David, " the man according to 
God's own heart," was most severely 
visited when he committed that foul 
trespass which gave occasion to the 
enemies of the Lord to blaspheme ; 
and Israel, the chosen people, were 
uprooted from the nations, because they 
had profaned the Holy Name in the 
midst of the heathen. Religion can 
be evidenced to the finite mind only 
by its fruits ; and when those who, 
by profession, outwardly embrace its 
truths, and yet think, speak and act 
contrary to them, who shall prevent 
the ignorant and unbelieving from ex- 
claiming. Depart from us. for we desire 
not the knowledge of thy ways. What 
is the Almighty that we should serve 
Him'? And what profit should we 
have if we pray unto Him 1 

On the other hand, the cause of 
religion was never so largely and pro- 



sperously advanced, as in the days 
when a prosecuted remnant of faithful 
adherents gave attestation to the truths 
which they embraced, not only by a 
life becoming the doctrine of godliness, 
but by yielding up that life, and often 
to the most exquisite tortures, 
rather tlian break the least of God's 
commandments. Then it was when 
men were true to their fellows and to 
God ; instead of the deceitftil and 
lying lip, there was heart aus\\'er- 
ing to heart ; they were not ha,te- 
ful and hating one another, but proved 
their disci pleship by loving the bre- 
thren ; and instead of assembling for 
sinful pleasure, they joined themselves 
together by holy bonds to be the 
Lord's, in a covenant that should never 
be forgotten. 

As man in his numerous relations is 
intimately linked with man, and is 
ever influencing and being influenced 
by his neighbour, we find that no one 
can divest himself of the trust reposed 
in him by his Creator, viz. that of 
being his brother's keeper. Now, 
there is one way, in especial, in which 
we may discharge this trust, and that 
is in commending religion to one an- 
other by a life conformable to its doc- 
trines. This is a duty which every one 
is called upon to perform, and for 
which the meanest of God's rational 
creatures is not incapacitated, but, by 
the blessing of His Spirit, may honor- 



THE ARK. 



ably fulfil. All do not share equally 
the gifts of God : it is but to the few 
to whom He has given the sanctified 
intellect to unfold his highest truths, 
and with ardent soul and eloquent lip 
to enchain the rapt listener ; — but 
certainly, there is no one who may not, 
by God's grace, teach his fellow by a 
holy and inoffensive hfe before God. 
All men have been endowed with so- 
cial qualities which they are bound 
mutually to exercise ; and if they do 
not so, they are then guilty of neglect- 
ing to improve the gifts of God, for 
" Heaven doth with us as we torches 
do ; not light them for themselves ; 
for, if our virtues did not go forth of 
us, 'twere all alike as if we had them 
not." 

That men are more influenced by 
what othere do than by what they 
teach, has long since become a proverb. 
Do we not find the Divine Teacher 
himself, in his Word, holding up for 
our virtuous emulation the deeds of 
holy men, and especially His own pure 
and spotless life. When God said 
" Remember the Sabbath day, to keep 
it holy," He gave us a principle reason 
for its observance, His own example ; 
and certainly it is a convincing proof 
of the unholy character of the age, 
when men manifest in this respect a 
determined hatred of being like God. 

Most of the Scriptures is made up 
of inspired historical details of the 



Lord's dealing with his Church, and 
the children of men, that we may be 
deterred from commiting their sins, 
and be induced to copy their deeds of 
faith and righteousness. 

If man, the adult, be thus drawn 
towards good and evil, (and to the 
latter much more readily than to the 
former) by example, how strong nmst 
the influence be in the impossible age 
of childhood ! Can those parents be 
aware of this fact, who show them- 
selves utterly regardless of their speech 
and behaviour in presence of their 
children ; who inculcate uj^on them 
the performance of duties which they 
themselves neglect ; and who, as is too 
often the case, transfer the charge in- 
trusted to them by God, to others 
often incompetent for the task ? Can 
such parents expect the blessing of 
God upon their famiUes ? And if His 
grace do not interpose, what must the 
issue be 1 

And what, we may also ask, must 
become of that land, whose rulers and 
people were once an example to the 
nations, by being banded together to 
make the Word of God the nde and 
the reason of their duty ; but who, by 
a continued departure from high moral 
and religious principle, and by a mis- 
judged indulgence to the man of sin, 
now occupy a place in the front rank 
of sceptical, free-thinking, and undis- 
guised immorality ? 



gome u)i gntaiit. 



The late ovation of Cardinal Wiseman 
on his visit to "the sister isle" 
has furnished pabulum for the 
journalizing maw of pohtical and 
ecclesiastical protestantism. These 
lucubrations are likely to be the last 
efforts of the Press of Britain against 
the steady and rapid success of what 
our fathers designated " the enemy of 
liberty." Accordingly, we have the 



lugubrious waU of a writer of the 
leading article of a Scottish bi-weekly 
newspaper, which is the public organ 
of a once popular ecclesiastical associar 
tion, in these emphatic words, " We do 
not think that the country will permit 
itself to be disturbed by these facts. 
Its sleep is too sound at this moment : 
it is too complacently sure of its 
safety." And is such a journal tf) 



THE ARK. 



pour forth this wail, while so many- 
appliances of a spiritual kind are at 
work ? If such be our country's posi- 
tion and temper, whither has fled the 
boasted success of the Evangelical 
Alliance, missionary enterprize, open- 
air preaching, and modern revivalism 1 

" What a fall was there, my country- 
men r What a confession from the 
mouth of the ThLrd Reformation 1 
How humbling for our Presbyterian 
Scotland that fought to be Free f and 
how refreshing to thirsty Rome ! 
Why expose the nakedness of the 
land of the Covenant, and rejoice the 
heart of the foe with the sight of 
Hector's dead body 1 " Quantum 
mutatus ab iUo Hectore !" Why " tell 
this in Gath ? and publish it in the 
streets of Askelon?" 

The newspaper to which we have 
adverted, and in the leading article 
referred to, gives the public the statis- 
tics of " more Popish facts," bearing 
on the menacing attitude of Rome by 
the rapid, steady, and alarming increase 
of "Popish chaplains for the army," 
and the hazard to which by a popified 
army our country would be exposed in 
the event of France making a spring 
on the British soil. 

Now, we by no means question the 
acciu'acy of the statistical account 
given, or the inference that the army 
will have its loyalty to Victoria's Crown 
shaken by Popish tuition ; but we 
demur to the soundness of the accom- 
panying commentary on those astound- 
ing facts. 

The writer of the article in question 
sets out with a flat denial of the long 
reputed axiom, " that Popery cannot 
succeed in a Free country." Now 
without reasoning on the nature of 
Popery as necessarily the foe to liberty, 
civil and sacred, and without demon- 
strating from the page of European 
history that Popery and serfdom of 
the most degrading kind have ever 
been found in company, we have to 



ask of the writer of that article, what 
is his definition of liberty, and his 
distinction betwixt liberty and licenti- 
ousness 1 One would be apt to conclude 
that by liberty he means a right to be 
drunk, to spout any treason against 
the crown, or run riot in the desecra- 
tion of the Sabbath. If this be not 
the sense he attaches to the term 
liberty, if he limit the meaning of the 
term in any manner, his argument is not 
worth a rush, it is mere declamation. 

But what is his illustration 1 — 
" Popery takes advantage of the forms 
of liberty to undermine liberty. It 
can do a hundred things in a free 
country which it dare not do in a 
despotic one. Were Archbishop 
M'Hale living in France, under the 
regime of his friend Louis Napoleon, 
would he rail at the same rate which 
he does in Ireland?" Is this reason- 
ing ! How is it possible to conceive 
of the Archbishop railing against his 
French and Popish friend I It is 
simply because Napoleon, although a 
despot, is his friend that the Arch- 
bishop succeeds without "the liberty" 
of railing. In despotic. Popish France, 
M'Hale has the liberty for which he 
labours by hook or crook in Ireland. 

To the same purpose we hear this 
writer saying of Popery, " it cunningly 
avails itself of the forms of our free 
constitution." And does it not avail 
itself of the very spirit of our free 
constitution, as defined by the Relief 
Bill of 1829, the Ecclesiastical Titles 
BiU of 1851, and the government 
appointments of Popish chaplains, 
judges, and military oflicials 1 Wherein 
has Popery offended in the late Irish 
ovation to the cardinal against either 
the forms or the substance of our free 
constitution 1 Have the papists not 
exercised that liberty which " a hum- 
ble presbyterian minister" lately glori- 
ed in telling Lord Derby was readily 
conceded to them 1 Have they trans- 
gressed the undefined toleration of 



tlieir religious worship, and the free 
propagation of theii' peculiar dogmas 1 
Wherefore so bitterly complain of the 
progress of that Popery which such 
writers glory in tolerating by formal 
laws of the land ? To plead for the 
toleration of the religion, and to com- 
plain of its adherents working it out, 
is not the voice of a humble presby- 
terian, but the mutterings of the 
ghost of some traitor to Britain's 
former and freer constitution. 

To put a stick into Eome's hand, 
and to insist on her free use of it 
against protestantism as a crime to be 
punished, betrays a lack of cajjacity 
for reasoning such questions, and is 
allied to the stupidity of " locking the 
stable-door when the steed is stolen." 

But without further animadverting 
on the many vulnerable parts of the 
article referred to, we have a right to 
ask an explanation of the true cause 
of Rome's rapid and alarming in- 
crease in our country? Are we to 
discover the cause in the liberalism of 
statesmen, who are always blamed, or 
in the liberalism of the country, which 
they faithfully represent ? And how 
are we to explain the liberalism of the 
country, save in the liberalism of its 
clergy, who undertake the tuition of 
the country 1 Let the the writer of 
the article name those clergy who 
were, and still are, the magnates of 
that Church, of which his paper is the 



• organ, and who lent their eloquence 
and influence to carry the Emancipa- 
tion Bill of 1829. Let him name 
that would-be Eeformation Society 
that even now makes that an open 
question, from a dread of an explosion. 
On that eventful occasion, the staunch 
and sagacious friends of our then com- 
paratively " free constitution" reasoned, 
that the adherents of Rome could not 
be loyal to a protestant prince, and 
that especially because Rome could 
dispense with the obligation of an 
oath. Now we should like to be par- 
ticularly informed by the writer of that 
article, Wliether Rome stands alone in 
dispensing with the obligations of a 
solemn national oath ? Whether this 
dreadful charge may not be brought 
against this country itself? And it 
might be instructive to be told by this 
writer, whether he ever heard of any 
clergymen in this country, be they 
humble presbyterians or not, who have 
actually sworn the Solemn League and 
Covenant, and yet became ministers of 
an ecclesiastical body that formally 
declares she will not be committed to 
any such views or practices ? If such 
there be, it might be important to ad- 
dress themselves to the divine ques- 
tion, " Shall they break the covenant 
and escape ?" We have a number of 
such questions on this subject to put, 
as explanatory of the progress of 
Popery, but must forbear at present. 



iflkratiait. 



Conceiving that the modern view of 
the question of Toleration throws a 
flood of light on the present tangled 
state of the political and ecclesiastical 
character of our country, we have it 
as our object, in this brief article, to 
say a few things, with a view to pro- 
voke some of our correspondents to 
try their hand at a brief, accurate, and 
intelligible definition of this perjilex- 
ingly equivocal term. That the view 



of it adopted and practically followed 
out by our fathers, two centuries ago, 
is, in many respects diff'erent from, and 
opjiosed to that now so i^opular, 
appears not only from the modern 
hard vocables of " popery and persecu- 
tion," but especially from the political 
concessions granted to the adherents 
of Rome. As each of these conces- 
sions required the dismantling of some 
integral parts of tlie political constitu- 



tion, so the gradual work of demolition 
leads to infer, that the original build- 
ing had been reared by bigots, by those 
who had not duly examined the prin- 
ciples of liberty. That the question 
is not without difficulties, especially 
when viewed in the light of the duty 
of the civil state to the Church, has 
been readily admitted by those specu- 
lative minds of the highest order, who 
have formally studied it, and appears 
from the conflicting results which their 
disquisitions have thrown up. This 
patent fact should have been improved 
by more temperate language when 
speaking of the Reformers, who have 
given substantial proof of their men- 
tal capacity to narrowly investigate 
the most abstruse questions of political 
science, and of their courage practically 
to work them out. 

The history of the speculations on 
this question also demonstrates, that 
the most profound thinkers and writers 
are agreed, that Toleration must have 
its limits, that the plea of " liberty of 
conscience," in its widest sense, could 
not consist with the due administration 
of the secular affairs of kingdoms. 
Were such an unlimited toleration to 
be conceded, and such an undefined 
plea of conscience to be allowed, society 
could not possibly exist, — it would be 
necessarily reduced to its individual 
elements. The advocates of extreme 
toleration are agreed on excluding from 
its alleged privileges all those whose 
professed principles or practices are at 
variance with the safety of the com- 
monwealth. All such they admit may, 
and ought to be, subjected to legal 
incapacities and penalties whatever 
plea of religion or conscience may be 
uj'ged to the contrary. Legal incapaci- 
ties and penalties for such have not 
been viewed by these enlightened 
reasoners as persecution for conscience- 
sake, but as means of self-defence, not 
as formal penalties, but as salutary 
jjreventives. 



The modern theory of toleration, 
however, runs its engine on the line 
of "no restriction," and glories in 
indiscriminately tolerating all religions, 
on the plea of liberty of conscience, 
or that every man has a right to have 
his own creed, and worship God 
according to the dictates of his consci- 
ence. Need we state, that this unde- 
fined, unrestricted toleration, is point- 
blank against the theory of it held by 
the Reformers, both on the Continent 
and in our own country, and which is 
professedly adhered to by thousands 
who practically oppose it. 

Without addressing ourselves to the 
nicer and abstruser parts of the ques- 
tion, we are certainly entitled to ask, 
whether Popery forms an exception to 
the specified restriction, "a system 
whose i^riuciples and practices are at 
variance with the safety of the com- 
monwealth 1" And as this is the 
pivot on which the controversy turns, 
it does not require elaborate reasoning 
to shew to a generally well informed 
Protestant, that Popery must use its 
every efi'ort and art to overthrow the 
British constitution. Its ruling prin- 
ciples, and its hitherto invariable 
practice, set this fact beyond the possi- 
bility of contradiction. 

We are not unacquainted with the 
modern distinction betwixt the reli- 
gious and political creed of the Church 
of Rome, and of the perverse use made 
of it on this question, as if the reli- 
gious papist were a safe member in a 
protestant country. Who requires to 
be told that the Pope's political supre- 
macy is a leading article of Rome's 
religious creed, an article which his 
holiness has not only enjoined by his 
authority, but fought for with the 
literal sword 1 This explains such 
ominous facts as drinking the health 
of the Pope in precedence of the 
health of the Queen. What is the 
history of Popery, but one continuous 
efi'ort to ride roughshod over the pre- 



rogatives of the prince, and the liber- 
ties of the subject ? The religious 
creed is the spirit, the papal political 
supremacy is the body which that spirit 
animates, and whose every movement 
it directs and controls. But there is 
no country on the earth which Rome 
so ardently covets, whose influence it 
so much envies, whose even nominal 
protestantism it so heartily hates, and 
whose conversion to Mother Church it 
so assiduously labours to effect, as our 
own. Our country, then, has many 
and strong reasons peculiar to itself, 
reasons because of its protestantism, 
its political liberty, and numerous san- 
guinary recollections, not yet confessed 
or repented of, for carefully watching 
those who hate the Saxon, and prefer 
their ghostly prince to the Queen of 
England. 

These remarks being designed merely 
as provocative of a formal discussion 
of the grave question of Toleration, we 
shall, in conclusion, throw out a few 
hints suggestive of a line of thought 
for any who may favour us with their 
matured views. 

1. Does not the term toleration im- 
ply the sufferance of a confessed evil, 
of something antagonistic to what is 
conceived to be proper, and is estab- 
lished as such 1 As we cannot with 
any propriety be said to tolerate what 
is good, or what we conceive to be so, 
does not toleration suppose something, 
or some persons, we feel to be contrary 
to the public interests of the nation, 
and which cannot with safety be ad- 
mitted among the integrals of the con- 
stitution ? And if this reasoning be 
accurate, does it not follow, that tolera- 
tion is a kind of compulsion, something 
we would far rather be without ? 

2. How reconcile the national duty 



of formally recognising and supporting 
the Christian religion, and at the same 
time legally tolerating the antagonistic 
religion of Rome, whose creed and 
policy compel to overthrow the nation 
establishing, and the thing established 1 
We put this question not to those 
called Voluntaries, but to those who 
profess their faith in the duty of 
nations to recognize the religion of 
Him "by whom kings reign, and 
princes decree justice." 

3. How comes it that the adver- 
saries of Christianity have invariably 
employed toleration as a mean to over- 
throw it ? The decree of Julian the 
apostate to tolerate all religions was 
followed by the restoration of the 
Pagan temples and sacrifices, by the 
resurrection of Judism, and by the 
persecution of the followers of Christ. 
What the sanguinary sword of Charles 
I. and his son Charles II. could not 
eflFect in dividing and crushing the re- 
formers in Scotland, the Act of Tolera- 
tion by the Duke of York succeeded 
in accomplishing. Scarcely was the 
Toleration proclaimed, when the 
Papists were honoured, the Reformers 
were reduced, the constitution was 
overthrown, and England and Scot- 
land were brought to ruin. 

To the subdolous policy of Queen 
Anne's Tory ministry in granting toler- 
ation to the Episcopalian Jacobites, 
and in disabling the laws against 
Papists, are clearly traceable the rebel- 
lions of 1715 and 1745. And what 
has been the result of the 1829 Relief 
Bill 1 Popish orators in Parliament, 
judges on the bench, chajjlains in the 
army, large grants for education ? 
Important is the aphorism, 

' ' Obsta principiis : sero mediciua paratiir, 
Cum mala per longas invaluire moras." 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by James S. Muir, 60 New Buildings, North 
Bridge (to whom all Communications — prepaid — may be adilressed) ; John Menzies, 
61 Princes Street. Glasgow : William Love, St Enoch Square ; and sold by all 
Booksellers. 

T. L. AITKEN, PRINTER, OEOROE IV. BRIDGE, EDINBURGH. 



ffillU %Yk. 



No. XII. 



NOVEMBER 1858. 



Price Id. 



inmmm ^t^^ws Ot&nstianitg. 



OuE July number, to which we refer 
the reader, contained a few strictures 
on the speech of Sir A. Alison, de- 
livered at the banquet held in the 
Music Hall, on the evening of the 
grand Masonic turn-out of the 24th 
June last. When penning that epheme- 
ral eifusion, we never dreamed that 
such honours awaited us, and for 
which we take this earliest opportunity 
of making due acknowledgment, as 
to be dragged into notoriety by a 
bulky pamphlet of last month, be- 
spangled with mystic emblazonry, and 
bearing the formidable title, "A Vindi- 
cation of Free Masonry from the 
cliarges recently brought against it by 
Medicus, the Rev. James Wright, 
Edinburgh, and the Editor of the 
Edinburgh News. By severat Free- 
masons, Edinburgh." 

On reading this "Vindication of 
Free Masonry," we were gratified to 
learn that we had succeeded in bring- 
ing out the ancient cry, " The craft is 
in danger." And now, as Medicus and 
the Editor of the News are giving no 
signs of self-defence, we must attempt 
to grapple, as we best may, with our 
formidable antagonist, Lapicida — the 
stone-cutter ; premising, however, that 
we have not the slightest intention of 
parrying his lapicidal strokes of 
Masonic humour. 

The position assumed in our July 
number, and which has been made the 
subject of so keen animadversion by 
Lapicida, was stated thus : — " This 
interesting story (Sir A. AUson's), so 
well-told and well-timed, is of the 
nature of Rome's logic, that ' the end 
sanctifies the means,' and is, in legal 
phrase, ' Freemasonry versus Chris- 
tianity.' Or if this be too strong, it 
certainly amounts to Freemasonry as 



equivalent to, if not superseding, * that 
grace of God which is first pure, peace- 
able, gentle, and easy to be entreated, 
full of mercy and good fruits, without 
partiality and without hypocrisy.'" 
We farther said of Sir A. Alison's story, 
" We are told a touching story of the 
truly generous conduct of a young 
American to a British oflacer ; the gist 
of which is, that the masons' grip had 
a virtue which supersedes the love 
that Christianity commands to be 
extended to our enemies." And we 
wound up by saying : — " We hope we 
do not ofi'end by recommending to the 
attention of even Sir A. Alison, 
' Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the 
Religions and Governments of Europe, 
carried on in the Secret Meetings of 
Freemasons, &c. By John Robison, 
A.M., Professor of Natural Philosophy, 
and Secretary to the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh." 

Side by side with the above, we 
shall here place the definition of the 
Masonic principles as given by Lapicida 
himself. " No intelligent mason be- 
lieves that his system is intended to 
oppose or supersede the grace of God, 
or the influence of the gospel of Christ. 
All that he asserts is that, based as it 
is on the purest principles, and de- 
manding the practice of the noblest 
virtues, it is fitted to be a valuable 
AUXILIARY to the Christian Church." 
Lapicida will excuse us for prefemng 
the definition of the masonic system, 
and of the objects which it professes 
to compass, given by the Rev. James 
Wright, minister of Maybole (rather 
a good hit this), and homologated by 
himself " Here the virulence and 
implacability of theological contro- 
versy are unknown ; here the Papist 
and the Protestant wish for the salva- 



Second Edition. 



tion of one another ; here the Chris- 
tian and the Mohammedan treat the 
religious opinions of each other ivith 
respect; here the orthodox sit peace- 
ably by the side of heretics, &c." 

We apprehend we have fairly stated 
the salient points of the controversy, 
and are now in condition to state the 
question in the following intelligible 
form. Is fi-eemasonry a legitimate 
mean for reaching the philanthropic 
objects it professes ? 

Lapicida, in taking the affirmative 
side of the question, opens his battery 
against the statement, " that the 
masons' giip had a virtue which super- 
sedes tlie love that Christianity com- 
mands to be extended to our enemies." 
If this was not the gist of Sir A. 
Alison's story, gist it has none. 
V/herefore did Sir Archibald tell 
the stoiy, if not to impress his audi- 
ence with the belief, that the grip had 
achieved what nothing else could ? 
Surely ratiocination is not necessaiy 
to shew, that the charm of the story, 
the secret of the success, lay in the 
cabalistic grip of the British officer. 
And what is the amount of all this, if 
not that the deliverance of the officer 
is to be ascribed to the peculiar magic, 
the jieculiar virtue of the grip 1 

How is this position attempted to 
be shaken by Lapicida ? He says, 
" Now, the question to be decided, in 
this case, is, can it be correctly said 
tliat a friendly grasp of the hand is in 
itself vicious and immoral 1 " Does 
not Lapicida see that we are not 
speaking of a friendly grasp of the 
hand, but of the masons' grip ! We 
could wish, for its own sake, that the 
masonic order would intrust its defence 
to some such brother as Sir Archibald 
himself especially as impolitic friends 
are liable to expose it without "the 
apron." 

We feel confident that such a de- 
fender as we desiderate, would not be- 
labour himself to prove, that "a friend- 
ly grasp of the hand is neither vicious 
nor immoral," not by referring us to 



such antiquated and mean authori- 
ties as Moses and the prophets, 
Christ and his apostles, but to 
such venercAles as Homer, Virgil, Ovid, 
Seneca, Cicero, and the other heathen 
"brethren of the mystic tie !" And 
these are the authorities upon which 
the doughty defenders of the masonic 
order rest in demonstrating that " it is 
based on the purest principles, de- 
mands the practice of the noblest 
virtues, and is a valuable auxiliary to 
the Christian Church !" Does Lapicida 
complain that we do him injustice in 
designedly concealing his main posi- 
tion, viz. : "that freemasonry is only 
a valuable auxiliarg to the Christian 
Church?" 

Let us briefly, but calmly, attend 
to this suicidal concession. Although 
it is a very tempting subject of dis- 
cussion, and a rational as well as 
scriptural deliverance on which would 
cut deep into many human devices be- 
sides freemasomy ; yet to save our space, 
and spare the patience of our readers, 
we must consider its bearing on the 
case as stated by Lapicida. 

" FreeiQasonry a valuable auxiliary to 
the Christian Church" ! What views of 
the Christian Church, wliether we con- 
template it as a Divine Institution, or 
as composed of Office-Bearers and mem- 
bers, or both, this Lapicida entertains, 
we cannot divine. Of one thing we are 
siu-e, that as it is a Divine Institution, 
it must be perfect ; and if honestly 
worked by its professed friends, it 
must be adequate for securing " glory 
to God in the highest, on earth peace, 
and good will toward men." What 
pure principle or noble virtue is that 
which freemasonry professes to culti- 
vate which the Christian Church ex- 
cludes, and which it does not enjoin 
upon its professed adherents from 
strongest motives, and with the 
solemnity of an appeal to God? If 
such be the constitution of the Chris- 
tian Church, as revealed in the divine 
Word, let Lapicida tell us whether it is 
rational to say that she needs, or 



would accept an auxiliary? And as 
our friend liberally quotes Latin, he 
will excuse us for reminding him of 
the phrase, " non egd tali auxilio". 
The Christian Church, God's chief in- 
stitution, Christ as her King, requiring 
help, and especially the help of free- 
masonry ! What a conception ! Let the 
Christian Church alone ; let her stand 
on her own legs ; she is able for her 
own work ; she disdains the meretri- 
cious attire of Rome, " and seeks not 
unto them that have familiar spirits, 
and wizards, that peep and that mut- 
ter." As Lapicida seeks not the assis- 
tance of others for the work for which 
himself is both able and willing ; so to 
speak of an auxiliaiy to the Christian 
Church is a formal libel on her divine 
character, adequacy, and willingness. 

Is the talismanic exclamation "free- 
masonry a valuable auxiliary to the 
Christian Church," still kept up 1 Then 
we reply, it is surely time to shew 
generosity in proffering the Church 
help when she asks it. But has she 
not sought and received help from 
such masonic chaplains as Rev. 
Charles Brockwell, the very reverend 
Principal of the LFniversity of Edin- 
burgh, and even from Rev. James 
Wright of Maybole? Not to speak 
evil of dignities, surely Lapicida re- 
quires not to be told, that the above 
ecclesiastical magnates do not consti- 
tute the Christian Church ; they may 
be all viewed as " honourable men," 
but still they are not the Christian 
Church. We are not aware that any 
church, " always," as lawyers would 
say, " saving and excepting" her of 
Rome, ever gave a judicial deliver- 
ance, or mouthed a hint in favour of 
this " valuable auxiliary to the Chris- 
tian Church." And what is still more 
confounding, we are not aware that any 
free government, although some of its 
princes were members of the craft, ever 
went forther in legislation than to 
grant some immunities to freemasonry; 
while we can point to some that pro- 



scribed their meetings, and sent an 
armed force to suppress their lodges. 
Suchwasthe command of Elizabeth, the 
Protestant Queen of England, which 
lets injight upon the character of free- 
masonry in regard to Protestantism. 

It is readily admitted that the 
name of the very reverend Principal 
of our University is deservedly re- 
putable ; but it is a question whether 
his mere antiquarian and compilation 
cast of mind is the best fitted to 
reason on abstract principles, and to 
trace out their operation to their legi- 
timate results. We are not aware that 
the learned Priuciioal has in any pro- 
duction ftimished proof that he pos- 
sesses a mind of such an order. If we 
mistake not, there is one, and that 
a memorable one too, of his public 
appearances in the Metropolitan Pres- 
bytery, that may shew his exact, 
although awkward position as a free- 
mason and a stern defender of the 
established church of Scotland. We 
refer to the time when he moved, or 
seconded, or defended the motion, that 
Roman Catholics should not be ad- 
mitted as members of the British legis- 
lature, because their religious creed 
bound them to seek the overthrow of 
the i)rerogatives of the Crown, and the 
liberties of this Protestant country. 
How could Dr John Lee reconcile his 
" Sermon preached in the High Church 
of Edinburgh, before the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland, December 1817," and his 
strong Anti-catholic Speech before his 
Presbytery in 1829? In the Sermon 
the Rev. Dr says, " While the ties of 
brotherhood are drawn closer by the 
decent hilarity which pervades your 
assemblies, the bond, which unites you 
to the Universal Father, is strength- 
ened and confirmed by those whole- 
some regulations which remind you of 
your obligation to aim at the distinc- 
tion of being fellow-wokkers with 
God, in distributing blessings among 
his off"spring." In the Speech, it is 
solenmly declared that no Catholic 



could possibly be a safe member of the 
Commons' House of Parliament, and 
that no oath of loyalty to the Crown 
and constitution taken by him could 
secure his allegiance. In the Sermon 
it is preached, that the masonic breth- 
ren are "fellow workers with God," 
liberal souls devising deeds of utility 
and philanthropy, and dwelling toge- 
ther as brethren in unity, while enjoy- 
ing their convivialities and festivities ; 
but when the lodge is dismissed, and 
the procession is over, or when absent 
from " their cups," the Speech declares 
the Catholic masons as sworn enemies 
to Victoria's crown, and her Protestant 
subjects. Dr Lee must be held as 
homologating the definition of the 
principles and composition of the 
lodges of freemasons given by Rev. 
Mr Wright of Maybole, and cited with 
a flourish by this Lapicida. " Here 
the Papist and the Protestant wish for 
the salvation of one another ; here the 
Christian and the Mohammedan treat 
the religious opinions of each other 
with respect \ here the subjects of con- 
tending princes (Victoria and the 
Pope T) forgetful of their national ani- 
mosities (only in the lodge, and during 
their decent convivialities ?) are kind to 
one another." These masonic chaplains 
describe the heterogeneous and antago- 
nistic moral elements of the lodge as 
an actual realization of the delightfid 
prediction, " the wolf also shall dwell 
with the lamb, and the leopard shall 
lie down with the kid ; and the calf 
and the young lion and the fatling to- 
gether ; and a little child shall lead 
them." When however, the lodge is dis- 
solved, and when — for we must never 
forget them — " the decent festivities" 
(English : whisky-bottles) are over, 
Papist and Protestant take their re- 
spective hostile ranks, — Christians in 
the masonic temjyle, but enemies in the 
forum ! 

This definition of the ruling princi- 
ples, and description of the composition 
aud practices of Freemasonry and Free- 



mason lodges, fixruished not by us, but 
by its chaplains and defenders, force 
upon the uninitiated the consideration 
of many grave questions aifecting the 
character and functions of both Church 
and State. Although the subject is 
extremely tempting, and also provoca- 
tive of discussion; yet the few following 
hints of a rather suggestive kind may 
serve our present purpose. 

Tlie rationally uninitiated, and espe- 
cially those who have a faith's confi- 
dence in the adequacy of promised 
divine grace to meet aU human neces- 
sities, temporal as well as spiritual, will 
pause ere they throw themselves and 
the guardianship of their interests, tem- 
poral and 23olitical, into the keeping of 
such a motley and antagonistic asso- 
ciation. Sound reason, we apprehend, 
if calmly exercised, would lead to 
seek a safer investment, and might 
whisper in the ear, that Mohammedan 
disciples would not be extremely at- 
tached to " Christian dogs," and that 
Rome's adherents might forget the 
Mason oath, and not feel the Mason 
grip, in the hour of the Protes- 
tant's necessity. Such is the soul and 
body ofDr John Lee's Anticatholic 
speech ! And we are entitled to ask, 
whether such an obliviousness of the 
Masonic oath, in the circumstances 
specified, would be at aU wonderful ? 
But we are not left to mere ratiocination 
on this subject; we have staring us in 
the face, as Sir A. Alison knows well, 
numberless European sanguinary facts, 
painfully but truly illustrative, of Mo- 
hammedan massacres of Papist and Pro- 
testant, not from the impulse of the 
moment, or in one engagement or coun- 
try ; but by a systematic and continuous 
following out the eminent dogmas of 
the Koran. And was this, in the lan- 
guage of Rev. Mr Wright of JMaybole, 
the Christian and the Mohammedan 
treating the religious opinions of each 
other with respect ? Let the sanguinary 
history of Islamism throw up the true 
portraiture side by side with this Ma- 



THE ARK. 



sonic Chaplain's ridiculous caricature ! 
But is the history of Popery, either on 
the Coutiuent, or in our native land, so 
barren of sanguinary deeds against 
Christians, against Protestants, as to 
warrant reverend limners to take its 
amiable likeness, its smiling counte- 
nance, and philanthropic bearing when 
seated in the Masonic Lodge, and en- 
joying "its decent festivities;" but 
when in Presbytery to exhibit its 
picture with the red eyes of Persecution, 
putting the Protestant victim on the 
wheel, trying the red pincers on his 
protestant flesh, or lighting up the fires 
of Smithfield and the Grassmarket !!! 
Our learned friend Lapicida, whose 
propria persona, because of a super- 
abundance of mystic drapery, we cannot 
discover, will pardon us for calling his 
attention to the following couplet, so 
graphically descriptive of these ex- 
quisite ecclesiastical painters : — 
" Nee melius natura queat variasse colores : 
En tibi vera rosa est, en tibi ficta rosa !" 

But if freemasonry have the charm, 
the all-potent virtue, ascribed to it by 
these its reverend and very learned 
friends and defenders, how comes it, 
that the hostile animus of the Popish 
and Protestant masonic brethren has 
not been perceptibly abated by such a 
moral chemical society 1 Why should 
the Churches in this country labour 
so hard by Anti-poi^ish Committees to 
watch the progress of, and use their 
most sti'enuous efforts to stem, the so- 
called alarming advances of her of 
Rome 1 As these Churches have con- 
fessedly failed, why labour in vain by 
driving their inadequate ecclesiastical 
machinery, when not only " a valuable 
auxiliary to the Christian Church " is 
so kindly and confidently proposed by 
Lapicida ; but when, as masonic chap- 
lains preach, there is a proved " more 
excellent" and eflectual way by the 
Mason Lodge, which has succeeded in 
making its members " treat with re- 
spect " the most incongruous and con- 
flicting religions, and has converted 



them into " fellow-workers with God V 
We cannot comprehend how freema- 
sons, lay or clerical, that are convinced 
of the potent eff"ects of such a frater- 
nity in reconciling such irreconcilable 
moral elements, and achieving such 
moral feats, can honestly discharge 
their first and comprehensive duty to 
either "the Lodge" or the Church, by 
not proposing an Evangelico-Masonic 
Alliance. We would suggest that 
some learned and reverend breather of 
the fraternity should exercise "the 
craft" of solemnly moving in the 
General Assembly, that although the 
Church of Christ is a divine institu- 
tion, and her ministers are paid from 
the public purse to work her divine 
machinery ; yet the said Church has 
miserably failed, and should now adopt 
the order of freemasonry, which 
has succeeded as a fellow-worker with 
God in terminating all feuds betwixt 
Papists and Protestants. 

Moreover, the description of free- 
masonry, so complacently adduced by 
Lapicida, throws up a very serious 
question on the very solemn duty of 
appealing to the Searcher of hearts by 
an oath. If, on the one hand, the 
Popish freemason is faithful to the 
terrific mason-oath that binds him to 
love, aid, and defend his protestant 
brother, how reconcile this with his 
solemn oath to his ghostly chief " to 
keep no faith with the heretic ? " 
Which of these two oaths is the more 
imperative, the more conscience-bind- 
ing, with the hona-fide adherent of 
Rome ? And we would propose the 
solution of this equation to the most 
expert masonic algebraists, whether 
lay or clerical. But this is a two- 
edged sword ; it is as liable to cut 
into Protestant as into Popish flesh. 
How can the masonic Protestant, 
especially when sustaining the clerical 
character, reconcile his solemn ordina- 
tion vows, which bind him not only 
to uncompromising defence of Pro- 
testant truth, but to a plain and in- 



telligible condemnation of the opposite, 
especially of Popery, with treating 
with respect the religious opinions of 
Mohammedans, Papists, Unitarians, 
&c. ? We do submit that such a 
defence of the fraternity throws so- 
lemn swearing by God into disrepute, 
if indeed it does not convert it into 
solemn mockery and a pious fraud. • 

But this description of masonic 
swearing is liable to other and serious 
objections Does not the clerical 
Protestant, at his ordination, swear, 
and does not the lay Protestant, espe- 
cially at the ordinance of the Supper, 
vow, that he will make a full, free, 
and formal surrender of himself, soul, 
body, intellect, and substance, to the 
Lord and his service in connection 
with the Church ? This the Head of 
the Church demands ; this, right rea- 
son concedes as necessary ; and this 
the well-exercised believer voluntarily 
undertakes, as not simply a duty, but 
as a very distinguished privilege. 
Within the arms of this vow is 
embraced every duty to God and to 
man, to the Church and to the world ; if 
not, supernatural religion has been 
weighed in the freemason balances, 
and confidently pronounced wanting ! 

But as we are on the subject of 
swearing, to which the freemason at- 
taches so much solemn weight, al- 
though, strange to tell, he glories in 
ridiculing it as a duty incumbent on, 
and practised by the Church, we may 
here advert to what was, and probably 
still is, the oath sworn by every free- 
mason, even before he is made ac- 
quainted with its matter : — 

"I, A.B., of my own free will and 
accord, and in the presence of Almighty 
God, and this Right Worshipful Lodge 
dedicated to St. John, do hereby and 
herein most solemnly and sincerely 
swear, that, &c. All this I swear, 
with a strong and steady resolution to 
perform the same, without any hesita- 
tion, mental reservation, or self-evasion 
of mind in me whatsoever ; under no 



less a penalty than to have my throat 
cut across, my tongue torn out by the 
root, and that it be buried in the sands 
of the sea, at low water mark, a cable's 
length from the shore, where the tide 
ebbs and flows twice in twenty-four 
hours. So help me God, and keep me 
steadfast in this my obligation." (He 
then kisses the book.) The solemn 
obligation of the brother who has re- 
ceived a higher degree in the Art, was, 
and most probably still is, the follow- 
ing : — " . . . All this I swear, 
with a firm resolution to perform the 
same, without any equivocation or 
hesitation in me whatsoever, under no 
less a penalty than to have my heart 
torn from my naked left breast, and 
given to the vultures of the air as a 
prey. So help me God, and keep me 
steadfast in this my obligation." (He 
kisses the book). 

As we have entered upon these aw- 
ful solemnities of mason-making, it 
might not be out of place to give the 
profanum vidgus a specimen of the 
master's masonic prayer in behalf of 
the sworn-in brother. " Brethren, let 
us pray. Lord God, thou gi-eat and 
universal Mason of the world, and 
first Builder of man, as it were a 
Temple ; be with us, Lord, as thou 
hast promised, when two or three are 
gathered together in thy name, thou 
wilt be in the midst of them." — 
Lapicida will do his best to excuse us 
proceeding with this — what shall we 
call it 1 Would Lapicida do us the 
favour to listen to the characteristic 
peroration, the sublime and holy climax 
to this solemn address to God " the 
great Mason." " The Master calls 
upon one of the brethren for the 
foEowing song, which is always read- 
ily complied with : — 

Come let us prepare, 

We brothers that are, 
Assembled on every occasion ; 

Let us drink, laugh, and sing, 

Our wine has a spring ; 
Here's a health to an Accepted Mason. 
Chorus, Let us drink, &c. {decent, featirities). 



We're true and sincere, 

And just to the fair, {Tell them no secrets). 
Who will trust us on ev'ry occasion ; (?) 

No mortal can more 

The Ladies adore, (indeed /) 
Than a Free and Accepted Mason, &c. 

Does Lapicida, does Sir A. Alison, 
or do any of the reverend, or right 
reverend chaplains of the Grand 
Lodge, expect that we shall degrade 
criticism, or break the back of intel- 
lect, not to say affront Christianity 
and the Christian Church, by formally 
and logically debating on — not the 
nonsense, but the profane and anti- 
christian ceremonies of mason-making 1 
If such be their expectation, we must, 
in all kindness, tell them, that we have 
more respect for the common-sense, the 
remanent Christianity of Scotland, the 
character of the church, and, let not 
Lapicida be offended, for ourselves, 
than to " raise a storm in a tea-kettle." 
As illustrative of what we mean by 
treating so cavalierly the overwhelming 
solemnities of the Grand Lodge, we 
may introduce au anecdote of a kind 
friend, who shall now read it, as told 
by himself Having occasion to call, 
in the way of business, on an estated 
gentleman, and an eminent engineer, 
about nine miles from Edinburgh, he 
found him in a most violent passion 
with some of his labourers, and vomit- 
ing red-hot volleys of scorching blas- 
phemy. On finishing this ordinary 
piece of business, he turned round to 
our friend exclaiming, " God forgive 
me. Sir ; I am sorry for this, and have 
to beg your pardon. — Don't put 
yourself about. Sir, said our friend ; for 
I like your cursing far better than 
your 2^raying. — Dear me ! how comes 
that ? — Because you are more awkward 
in praying." I hope that Lapicida's 
good sense will enable him to put a 
kindly construction on this designedly 
illustrative anecdote; and in taking 
leave of this phase of the masonic 
question, we feel confident that the 
very reverend Principal will not think 
that our free use of his name and posi- 



tion is a breach of personal friendship. 
In our remarks in the July number, 
we happened to say, " we are sure that 
a mind so discriminating and philoso- 
phical in its cast and exercise as Sir 
A. Alison's, but for his special interest 
in his touching story, must have led 
him to smUe at the babyhood of a full- 
dressed freemason, and to repudiate 
those symbolic emblazonments which 
scandalize the mysteries of our holy 
religion, symbols that are so closely 
and obviously allied to the witcheries 
of the successful enchantress of Rome." 
In meeting the above, we are treated 
to a kind of disquisition on the various 
symbols in use among the leading 
members of political, civil, and ecclesi- 
astical associations. Accordingly 
Lapicida says, " the apron serves the 
same purpose to the mason as the gir- 
dle, mitre, and ephod did to the Jew- 
ish priests, as the ribbons, collars, and 
mantles do to knights of the garter or 
the thistle, as surplices, cloaks, and 
bands to ministers of the gospel, or as 
gowns, cravats, and wigs to the judges 
of our supreme courts." His authori- 
ties for the use of these symbols are 
numerous, various, learned, and what 
is rather formidable in the controversy, 
obviously scriptural. " This symbo- 
lical mode of instruction, as every one 
knows, is as old as the earliest traces 
of human thought. It is to be seen on 
the ancient temples of Egypt and 
Greece, in the whole religious ritual 
of the Jews, in the ceremonies of the 
ancient mysteries, and in fact, in every 
religious system that has ever been prac- 
tised on earth, whether true or false." 
These are Lapicida's redoubtable au- 
thorities for the symbolic wardrobe of 
Protestant and even Presbyterian fi-ee- 
masonry! We little thought, when 
shewing that the symbols of free- 
masonry partook of the witcheries of 
Rome, that we would have found so 
accurate an expositor of its tmth as 
Lapicida himself It is somewhat re- 
markable, yea, very striking, that he 



THE AEK, 



should in his defence of masonic sym- 
bols have not only adopted Rome's 
line of argumentation, but have em- 
ployed her identical arguments, and 
adduced her identical authorities. And 
really, we do not know that we could 
have more clearly demonstrated, that 
freemasonry was "obviously and 
closely allied to the enchantress of 
Rome," than by employing Lapicida's 
line of reasoning. Lapicida has 
ploughed with the Pope's heifer, and 
found out her secrets. Both the sys- 
tems have written on their foreheads, 
" MYSTERY." 

Have we to explain to Lapicida, that the 
crown and sceptre of the prince ; the ribbons, 
collars, and mantles of knights of the garter ; 
and the gowns, cravats, and wigs of the 
judges, are not designed for dark secrets, the 
revelation of which to wives, children, the 
prince, and the Christian Church, subjects to 
have " the throat cut across, the heart torn 
out, and the tongue cut out and buried in the 
sands of the. sea." But what shall we make 
of "the surplices, cloaks, and bands of the 
ministers of the gospel ?" Why, we would 
make a present of them all to Lapicida, who 
would very likely put them in their appro- 
priate place, — the Grand Lodge ! They have 
a value ; they attract the vulgar, they gar- 
nish weak argumentation, and — is Lapicida 
going to faint ? — they are allied to Rome ! 
Were we reasoning with the gentlemen of the 
surplice, the gown, and the bands, we would 
probably put the question. Are these things 
symbols ? If they are not, then, wherefore 
connect them with the clerical office ! If, on 
the other hand, they are symbols, then Rome 
has gained the plea. We feel under some 
obligation to Lapicida for sticking his sur- 
pliced and gowned clerical friends on one or 
other of these interesting horns of a dilemma. 

But we have a severer task to undertake ; 
for ' ' the apron of the mason serves the same 
purpose to him as the girdle, ephod, and 
mitre did to the Jewish priests." So says 
Rome's Summus Pontifex, — the modern 
Grandmaster ; and if Lapicida's argument be 
worth a rush, why should not his holiness 
sustain the official character, and discharge 
the functions, of the Jewish high priest ? 
Does not Lapicida's ratiocination entitle the 
Pope to assume the designation of high priest. 



to rear his literal altars, to offer his literal 
sacrifice, to adopt the Levitical ritualism, 
and array himself with the mitre, ephod, and 
other "beggarly elements" of a mercifully 
abrogated, because "carnal," dispensation? 
This last view of Lapicida's jkwish argumen- 
tation explains his culpable omission of any 
reference to, or hint about, ' ' Christ the high 
priest and apostle' of our profession," about 
the doctrines and practices of the apostles, 
and about the spiritual constitution of the 
New Testament Church, "Christ's kingdom 
that Cometh not with observation," — the 
flaunting observation of symbolic freema- 
sonry. Let this master at ratiocination leave 
his Jewish ritualism, and address himself to 
the distinguished glory of the spiritual dis- 
pensation, the Christian Church ; let him 
throw aside his Jewish mallet, and request 
Sir A. Alison to u.se a christian pen in de- 
fence of a dead and buried Jewish Freema- 
sonry. As illustrative of our reasoning, we 
beg to say, that we could enjoy a procession 
of jirinces, judges, and even carters, with 
their symbolic ensignia ; but we feel some- 
thing repulsive on witnessing ' ' the valuable 
auxiliary of the Christian Church" strutting 
through the streets with the symbols of the 
Jewish high priest, and the All-seeing EYE 
of God t 

Were it placarded, that on such a day of 
such a month the metropolis were to be 
favoured with a procession of the Christian 
Church (and ecclesiastical processions are not 
rarities); and that " her valuable auxiliary" 
would join the ranks ; can Lapicida make a 
mental effort to conceive of the effect ? — First, 
we have the attractive military ; then, the 
surpliced, gowned, and cravatted ministers of 
the gospel ; next, the masonic order, with 
stars, open Bibles, white aprons, sashes, fan- 
tastic attire, and jewels ; but where is the 
Christian Church ? She should be the prin- 
cipal figure ; but she cannot be seen, because 
of banners, wigs, gowns, surplices, gilt mal- 
lets, dazzling jewels, &c. &c. &c. 

Freemasonary the auxiliary is in every 
mouth, bulks in every eye, occupies evei-y 
tongue, and is the " valuable auxiliary, " not of 
the Christian, but of the Romish Church. 

We had designed making a few remarks on 
the production of Professor Robison ; but as 
our space forbids, we are at ease in leaving 
the learned professor, not of music, but of 
Natural Pliilosophy, in our Metropolitan Uni- 
versity, as a contrast with this anonymous, 
anomalous, or anilish, but very learned Lapi- 
cida. " We pause for a reply." 



Ediubiirgh : Published for the Proprietors by James S. Mum, 60 New Buildings, North Bridge (to 
whom .all Communications— prepaid — may be addressed); John Menzies, 61 Princes Street; 
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AITKEN, PRINTER, GEOROB IV. BRIDGE. EDINBtTRr. 



C^t %xk. 



Vol. II-Ko. 1. DECEMBER 1858. Price Id 

CONTENTS. 

Prefatory Remarks. 

Chambers's Journal versus the Reformation. 

Resiarks on the "Fastor-vl Address" of the Free Church. 

Has Popery any Claim to Toleration ? 



^rtfatflrg Scmarlis. 



In commencing our Second Volume, we congratulate our Correspondents, 
Subscribers, and Readers, on The Ark having survived the engulfing bil- 
lows of the last twelve months, and that we are prepared to steer her to 
the haven of rest on the same principles, and under brighter auspices. 
Although the storm is not abated, and the waters are not assuaged — 
altliough questions that affect the main pillars of the Constitution are loom- 
ing in the near distance, and shew breakers ahead — yet we still see the 
polar star of the Second Reformation, and have confidence in the firm build 
and sagacious pilotage of our bark. She has weathered severe hurricanes 
in former eras of British history ; and should her timbers be separated in 
the coming and near storm, we doubt not her crew shall find, out of her 
wreck, planks or broken pieces on which to reach in safety some hospitable 
Melita. As we carry no slaves, and decidedly condemn every species of 
pirac}', whether political, ecclesiastical, or literar}', so we disdain to sail 
under false colours, and rejoice to hoist the Union Jack. Our standard, 
then, which "has braved the battle and the breeze," is the Politico- eccle- 
siastical Second Reformation — that cause which the three kingdoms for- 
mally adopted — which gave substantial proof, " in troublous times," of its 
capability to conserve the accurately-defined prerogatives of the Crown, 
and intelligibly specified rights and duties of the subject. 

As clearly indicative of our specific object, we take leave to say, that our 
most strenuous efforts shall be directed to the defence of Tests, as in accord- 
ance with Scripture, sound reason, and the best policy of professedly Chris- 
tian nations. In addressing ourselves to our task, we are fully alive to the 
fact that we shall have to face storms of no ordinary severity ; but should 
our facts and authorities be questioned, our reasoning be thought incoherent, 
or our phraseology intemperate, then our pages shall be open to those who 
may conceive themselves to be wronged. 

Might we, in conclusion, remind the friends of Thk Ark, that by using 
their influence to give it wide circulation, and contributing to keep it afloat 
by donations or otherwise, they will be discharging a duty to themselves, 
and shew their regard for the remanent liberty of their country. 



OEIrambers's lournal kxm i\t %timm\m. 



We should be sorry to think that our 
countrymen have become so deeply 
degenerate as to accept as " Popular 
Literature," or " Information for the 
People," any rude St'Ottish diatribes 
against the Reiorniation, and its in- 
telligent and venerable Reformers. 
While we are willing to make large 
allowance for temporary imprudence. 



sorship in mitigating the mulct, and 
in shortening the period of incar- 
ceration. 

In order to form an accurate estimate 
of the character of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, it is requisite that we keep our 
eye firmly fixed on the previous con- 
stitution of the country in favour of 
the intelligibly defined Reformation 



or hasty effusions, in conducting the | cause, and view, in the liglit of it, 



cause of political absolutism and cle- 
rical domination, yet we do not feel 
at liberty to spare those novi homines 
of Scotland's metropolis who take 
advantage of the freedom which the 
Reformation achieved to strike a 
deadly blow at its heart, and misre- 



the regnant policy of its royal, aris- 
tocratic, and surpliced antagonists. 
This is surely a more candid and 
sober way of going to work in judg- 
ing of the characteristic animus of an 
age, than by rummaging among old, 
fusty, musty, questionable papers, 



present its defenders and martyrs as \ in order to get a stray fact here and 



a set of unprincipled villains or blood- 
thirsty savages. But for the Refor- 
mation which such writers love to 
malign, and its enlightened friends 
whose motives and conduct they 
glory in misrepresenting and miscon- 
struing, the " Journal of Popular 
Literature," '• Information for the 
People," " The History of the Rebel- 
lions in Scotland from 1G38 till 
1660," and "The Lives of Illus- 
trious Scotsmen," could not possibly 



there about witches, love-stories, and 
a few isolated cases of personal hard- 
ship, when a nation's liberties were 
trembling in the balance by the tor- 
tuous and sanguinary measures of 
those who gave slender evidence of 
" fearing God or regarding man." 

From the union of the crowns in 
1603, we had a dear-bought and 
clearly specified constitution, to which 
the monarch, and all civil function- 
aries under him, professed formal 



have api)eared. Such productions I adherence by solemn oath. Every 
could not survive the thunders of the attempt to undermine or weaken this 
Vatican, nor could they have effected constitution — especially when made 
an escapement from the tender mer- by those who jilighted their faith to 
cies of the Star Chamber, or tyran- i uphold it "against all deadly" — 
nical court of the High Commission ; I most undoubtedly subjects to the 



while, in this latter half of the nine- 
teenth century, they would most 
assuredly have placed their authors 
in the same dock with Count Monta- 
lembert, and have consigned them to 
the same dreary prison. It is proba- 
ble, although not certain, that such 
articles against the Reformation as 
we are now reviewing, and "The 
Vestiges of Creation," might have 
had influence with the French cen- 



grave charge of perjury and treason. 
And that this charge is justly brought 
against King James, his son Charles 
I., Charles II., and James II., ad- 
mits of largest proof, and cannot be 
denied by even the editors of "Cham- 
bers's Journal." Let these doughty 
defenders and warm admirers of the 
perjui-ed Stewarts, and their ecclesi- 
astical minions, address themselves 
to the heavy task of clearing their 



friends of this dark sin and capital 
crime, without resorting to the low, 
but Hudibrastic quibble — 

" He that imposes an oath, makes it ; 
Not he who for convenience talies it ; 
Then how can any man be said 
To break, an oath he never made ?" 

The secret of the deep-rooted and 
merciless hatred of these crowned 
heads to the English, but especially 
to the unflinching Scottish Cove- 
nanters, is fully explained by the 
startling and damning fact, that every 
soul of theai had sworn and sub- 
scribed these solemn documents, 
while they gloried in the shameless 
breach of them. Let the unsophis- 
ticated reader say, wliether the men 
Avho honestly adhered to their oaths, 
or those who ridiculed and violated 
them, were the traitors ? But these 
royal, and amiable, and persecuted 
gentlemen could play fast and loose 
with the most solemn pledges given 
to their personal friends, who had 
devoted their character, their for- 
tunes, and their lives to uphold their 
arbitrary rule, and prosecute their 
unprincipled policy. What a com- 
mentary on the character of the royal 
Stewarts, and their political and 
ghostly advisers throughout the se- 
venteenth century, have we in the 
expression of Strafford, the fallen 
minister of Charles, when informed 
that his royal master, who had so- 
lemnly sworn that " not a hair of his 
head should fall," had consigned him 
to the block — "■ Trust not in princes." 

Have we no clear and steady light 
on the stern antagonism of the seven- 
teenth century to the Reformation 
cause in the nature of the measures 
resorted to, and in the character of 
the instrumentality employed for its 
suppression? How disgraceful the 
subdolous policy of James to force 
Episcopacy on Scotland in direct 
contravention of the first principles 
of the constitution, and in violation 



of his oft-repeated declarations and 
solemn oaths, by lavishing his favours 
on the Popish party, which plotted 
to blow up himself and Parliament 
with gunpowder ; by proroguing 
from time to time the meetings of 
the General Assembly ; by interfer- 
ing with the election of its members, 
and thus securing packed meetings ; 
by insolently interrupting its discus- 
sions ; and by securing the triumph 
of a form of divine worship abjured 
by Scotland and its Church, and the 
treacherous monarch himself, and 
which drew deep as blood on the 
hard-fought-for liberties of the king- 
dom ! 

This infatuated and cruel policy of 
the father was rigorously pursued by 
his equivocating and no less cruel son, 
who was the personification of false- 
hood, and plunged the three nations 
in a sanguinary civil war that brought 
him to the block. So incapable were 
these royal imbeciles of improving 
the most calamitous lessons to their 
family, that the licentious and hard- 
hearted Charles 11., for whom the 
Scottish Covenanters had expended 
their treasure and their blood, was 
no sooner restored to his throne, than 
he drew the sword against his steadi- 
est and warmest Scottish friends. 
The bloody tragedy was finished by 
the murderous James, whose fire and 
sword policy united all the frag- 
mented elements of the three long 
persecuted nations, to chase for ever 
from the throne Avhich they had dis- 
graced, the race of the perjured, li- 
centious, and bloodthirsty Stewarts. 
Amen, and Amen. 

And these are the men and the 
measures which the friends of the 
the people have selected as the ob- 
jects of their unconstitutional pane- 
gyric, and prelatic admiration ; while 
the defenders of our liberties are run 
down as ignorant, superstition", fa- 
natical, and hard-hearted persecu- 



i 



THE ARK. 



tors ! If their representation of the 
seventeenth century be the true one, 
then it does follow that the Revolu- 
tion of 1G89 is a capital crime, and 
that Victoria's right to the crown is 
far more than equivocal. 

There are some modern chroniclers 
crammed with antiquarian lore, who 
aspire to the fame of Sir Walter Scott, 
but are minus his genius, and lack 
his moral courage in honestly ex- 
plaining their ruling passion, in see- 
ing nothing patriotic, or religious, or 
even human, in the Covenanting an- 
tagonists to a royal race of hypocrites 
and murderers. In all deliberation, 
Scott gives the following explanation 
of those principles Avhich actuated 
him in writing his " Old Mortality " 
— "As for my good friend Dundee, I 
cannot admit his culpability in the 
extent vou allege ; and it is scandal- 



ous of the Sunday bard to join in 
your condemnation, 'and yet come of 
a noble Graeme ! ' I admit he was 
tant soit pen savage, but he was a 
noble savage ; and the beastly Cove- 
\ nanters against whom he acted, 
'' hardly had any claim to be called 
men, unless what was founded on 
their walking upon their hind feet." 
This certainly is honest ; and we like 
j it better than the more dastardly 
: policy of less plucky adversaries, 
I who, like the serpent with his victim, 
first beslavers, and then proceeds to 
I devour him. But as space prevents 
j prosecuting this line of remark, vpe 
shall resume it in next number, and 
I address oui'selves to the specified in- 
stances of Covenanting persecution 
in Chambers's Journal, No. 252, 
entitled "The Battle of the Cen- 
turies." 



The General Assembly of the Free : that such a tone is uncalled for in 
Church have just issued a " Pastoral the present deplorable state of so- 
Address to the People under their J ciety ; far from it ; there is but too 
Charge," bearing upon the peculiar '> much reason for mourning and 
aspect of the times, and the duties of lamentation : but as it comes from 
professing Christians. We desire to the highest court of the Free Church, 
make a few brief remarks upon this it is sulhcient to excite surprise, pre- 
Address, by way of stating some senting so wide a contrast to the 
truths which it seems to keep in ! comfortable and congratulatory 
abeyance, and which Ave deem es- ' nature of the Moderator's Address 
sential to a correct understanding of | at the opening of the last Assembly, 
the signs of our times, and of our | The state of society, and of the 
proper work in relation thereto. In i Church, was then declared to be of 
venturing our animadversions on this the most hopefid kind ; such vast 



very momentous document, we utterly 
disclaim every unworthy motive, and 
profess to be actuated only by deep 
regard for the glory of God, and the 
interests of truth. 

In the first place, then, we cannot 
help being much surprised by the 
tone of grief and alarm which per- 
vades the Address, in regard to the 
signs of the times. We do not mean 



progress had been made in doing 
good on every side, and so many 
vigorous and zealous agencies and 
institutions were continuously spring- 
ing into existence. At that time we 
thought ourselves, and were declared 
by others to be, quite singular and 
out of tune in regard to affairs, in • 
constantly uttering complaints and 
dark forebodings ; but now we ought 



to derive some comfort from the har- 
mony and sympathy that appear 
between our own views, and those 
of the Free Assembly, expressed in 
their present Address. 

But, while we concur in the gen- 
eral acknowledgment of the fearful 
prevalency of immorality in its mul- 
tifarious forms, we are far from 
thinking that the " Pastoral Ad- 
dress " is what it ought to be. 
Coming from such a quarter, and 
in such circumstances, there are at 
least three things we would expect 
in the document. 1st, It should give 
a faithful enumeration and descrip- 
tion of the main symptoms of the 
moral malady which has so deeply 
infected society. 2d, It should ac- 
curately assign the cause or causes 
giving rise to the disease. And 3d, 
It should point out the true remedy. 

Now, we are sorry to be obliged 
to affirm, that in each of these points 
the Address referred to is woefully 
deficient. That the evils so preva- 
lent in society, and patent to the 
most ordinary observation, are gra- 
phically described and earnestly re- 
proved, we freely admit ; but it must 
strike every candid reader of the 
Address, that there is no allusion 
whatever to the far more alarming 
plague-spots of the ecclesiastical body 
itself. This manifest omission illus- 
trates the scriptural interrogation, 
"Why beholdest thou the mote that is 
in thy brother's eye, but considerest 
not the beam that is in thine eye ? " 
&c. And truly, the sins of the com- 
munity may well be designated motes, 
in comparison with the iniquities of 
the ecclesiastical body, for the latter 
is the source of the former, as we 
find declared in Jeremiah xxiii. 9, 
&c., " Mine heart within me is 
broken because of the prophets. . . . 
For the land is full of adulterers ; for 
because of swearing the land mourn- 
eth ; . . for both prophet and priest 



I are profane ; yea, in my house have 
I found their wickedness, saith the 

1 Lord I have seen, also, in 

I the prophets of Jerusalem, an hor- 
i rible thing ; they commit adultery, 
and walk in lies ; they strengthen 
I also the hands of evil-doers, that 
none doth return from his wicked- 
ness, .... for from the prophets 
I of Jerusalem is profaneness gone 
i forth into all the land." Can we 
I wonder that uncleanness is now so 
i deeply tainting society, when Ave con- 
sider the spiritual adulter)/ with which 
the Church is polluted? For while 
she claims identity with the Cove- 
nanted Church of Scotland, she yet 
shamelessly ignores the formal and 
sacred bond which married her to 
I the Lord ; and she carries on a dis- 
reputable dalliance with those socie- 
ties and sects which she is sworn to 
oppose as the enemies of Christ's 
truth. Is it surprising that our 
nation forms antichristian and infi- 
del alliances, when the Church gives 
the example byassociating and uniting 
with sundry popular offshoots from 
the Church of Rome? Why should 
we be astonished at the gigantic 
frauds and commercial dishonesties 
of the age, when the Church makes 
so little account of breaking the 
most solemn contracts with the Most 
High? Or why should we find fault 
with the prevailing love of display, 
extravagance, and luxury, when the 
Church is so eager upon costly and 
gorgeous ecclesiastical structures, 
elaborately adorned in the most 
approved styles of mediaeval and 
Popish art? In fine, can we wonder 
that every precept of the moral law 
is openly and grossly violated, and 
that by the professed members of 
the Church, when there is no scrip- 
1 tural discipline administered towards 
the offenders, when there is no sep- 
arating of the precious from the vile, 
I but when feelings and character are 



preferred above the ordinances of 
Jesus Christ and the moral salvation I 
of our country? "I have not sent 
tliese prophets, yet they ran ; but if 
they had stood in my counsel, and 
had caused my people to hear my 
words, then they should have turned 
them from their evil way, and from 
the evil of their doings." 

Ikit, coming to our second inquiry, 
we remark, that there must be a 
potent cause for producing such dire 
effects upon the morals of British, 
and especially Scottish society. And 
what is that cause? The " Pastoral 
Address" furnishes no clue for its 
discovery. This is painfully disap- 
pointing ; for, unless the cause of the 
disease be clearly ascertained, there 
can be no successful treatment in 
order to a cure. What can be the 
source whence all these evils have ; 
sprung? "We have been asleep at 
the very brink of a volcano of moral 
pollution. "We are suddenly awak- 
ened by the startling but authorita- j 
tive announcement that our country 
— long thought to be a model to other ; 
lands — is now the most wicked in ; 
Christendom, There have been all 
sorts of schemes for reformation [ 
carried on amongst ns for more than ' 
half a century — societies for accom- j 
plishing this and the other good ; 
object; there has been a vast ma- ; 
chinery of a religious, charitable, 
temperate, and generally reformatory 
kind going on, under the guidance 
of very active, zealous, and talented \ 
persons, so that there has been i 
nothing heard on every side, but 
enthusiastic cheers because of the 
good that was being done. And now 
the result is made known in stubborn 
stajjistical facts and figures, that we 
are far worse than ever before. We 
have been sweeping and garnishing 
our housa^fc, expelling by various 
mechanical expedients the unclean 
spirit, who has now come back and 



taken possession, \> ith seven other 
worse devils, and so our last state is 
worse than the first. If it be so, why 
are we thus? The reply is brief, 
and the General Assembly knows it 
full well, and all Britain and the 
world shall yet know it. It is. We 
have broken our covenant ivith Jehovah. 
And now what of the remedy ? 
As the Address fails to point out the 
origin of the social malady, so it is 
at a loss what remedy to prescribe. 
It speaks, indeed, of the urgent 
necessity of the outpouring of the 
Holy ISpirit, and exhorts to fervent 
prayer, as the appointed means to 
obtain such a blessing, — it reminds 
us of the need of a revival such as 
those with which nations and churches 
liave been favoured in former times, 
adducing the eminent instances of 
tlie precious awakenings and refor- 
mations in the limes of David and 
.Solomon, of Josiah and Nehemiah, 
as well as those in the earlier times 
of the New Testament dispensation, 
and the more recent cases during the 
Keformation. We agree, in the main, 
with all this. Nothing is more needed 
than a revival by the power of the 
Holy Spirit; and for this we are 
warranted to pray incessantly. ' But 
mere asking will not obtain the bless- 
ing. "If we regard iniquity in our 
hearts, the Lord will not hear us." 
True and acceptable prayer for a re- 
vival, necessarily includes hearty con- 
fession of sin, and that not in gene- 
ral terms, but as particularly as pos- 
sible. If we examine the passages 
cited in the " Address," narrating 
the revivals under the judges and 
kings of Israel, we find that a very 
minute and unreserved confession of 
sin — national sin — always preceded 
a favourable response. "\Ve need 
only to direct attention to the fol- 
lowing passages to coi'roborate this 
position, 2 Chron. xxix. xxx. xxxiv., 
Ezra ix., Neh. ix., as also Psalm 



7^ 



cvi. 6 to the end, Jer. ii. iii. and vi., Tsa. 
lix., especially verses 20, 21. "The 
Redeemer will come to Zion, and to 
tliem that turn from transgression in 
Jacob, saith the Lord." What 
transgression ? It is specified from 
the 13th verse and onwards, and 
mny be simply characterised as na- 
ti'onal apostacy from the covenant of 
the Lord. " Transgressing and lying 
against the Lord, and departing away' 
from our God," &c. The same prin- 
ciple holds true in regard to the ex- 
amples drawn from the revivals 
under the preaching of tlie apostles. 
The "Address" refers to the remark- 
able occasion on the day of Pente- 
cost, But what was the preparation 
which Peter inculcated upon his 
hearers? " Repent, . . . save 
yourselves from this untoward gene- 
ration." He, doubtless, alludes to 
the great public sin of the generation, 
viz., crucifying the Lord of Glory. 
And in chap, iii., he again reminds 
tliem of the same sin, and recalls the 
covenant dealings of God towards 
their fathers, declaring that they were 
the children of that covenant. More- 
over, oui<Lord himself, when preach- 
ing publicly^ spoke most pointedly of 
the a im of the nation, both of that 
particular genei'ation and of those 
going before, and denounced the 
righteous judgment of God on ac- 
count of these national sins, Matt, 
xxiii. 28-38. But in this Pastoral 
Address we find no mention at all of 
national guilt, either past or present. 
It isolates this generation from all 
the preceding, and shuts up every 



man to deal with God only for him- 
self, as if he had nothing to do with 
society. Such a system of revivalism 
is not to be found in Scripture. It 
accords well with the selfish princi- 
ples of our fallen nature, but is quite 
opposed to the genius of T'lristianity, 
and would, if carried out, overthrow 
that first principle of our holy reli- 
gion, that " Man's chief end is to 
glorify God," by teaching that "Man's 
chief end is to get himself saved," 
But as our space is limited, we have 
only to inquire, in conclusion. What 
is revival? In the word itself, a 
great principle lies infolded. Its 
simple meaning is, a returninri to the 
life that was formerly possessed. This 
was the outstanding characteristic of 
all the revivals in Old and New Tes- 
tament times. Is it such a revival 
that the Free Church expects ? Then 
the duty is manifest : "Let them turn 
the hearts of the children to the fa- 
thers." Let each man, like Daniel, 
make hearty confession : " O Lord, 
to us belongeth confusion of face, to 
our kings, to our princes, and to our 
fathers, because we have sinned 
against Thee," &c. And let us hear 
and obey the solemn invitation — 
" Thus saith the Lord, Stand ye in 
the ways, and see, and ask for the 
old paths, where is the good way, 
and walk therein, and ye shall find 
rest for your souls," Let this land, 
once so solemnly bound to the Lord 
in covenant, take up the resolution, 
"I will go and return to my first 
husband, for then was it better with 
me than now." 



fas |0OT m ^laim is %akx^m ? 

What has the plea of liberty of 
conscience to do in the case of 
Popery ? or Avhat relation has re- 
ligious persecution to the penal sta- 
tutes against Papists ? — a sect which 



hath blended faith with faction, and 
hath graffed on the stock of religion, 
rebellion ; which, wiih-its speculative 
and religious erroi-s," hath associated 
crimes, and can pretend conscience 



for almost any villany ; whose re- 1 holy warfare, without dragging all 
ligion equally violates truth and jus- ; the powers and engines of this world 
tice, morality and humanity ; — a into their service, then, I grant, they 
sect whose followers have withdrawn ought to have been opposed only by 
themselves from the just authority the same weapons. But this never 
and laws of tlie civil State, and re- was, and never will be, the genius of 
•signed their consciences, and with Popery. . Every one knoweth that it 
tliem their persons and purses, to the hath ever been established; feuppol"ted, 
will of a foreign despot, who is, in propagated in a very different man- 
fact, their only king, lawgiver, judge, ner. 'This ecclesiastical beast* hath 
and generalissimo; who are not i 'pushed with the horn and stamped 
merely heretics, blasphemers, and j with the feet of secular power. And 
idolaters, but disturbers of society, | those would be ridiculously stupid, 
the men who turn the world upside j and unnaturally regardless of their 
down, who are professedly at war own safety, who would neglect to 



with the rights and liberties of all the 
rest of mankind ; men whom no kind- 
ness can tame, whom no fetters can 
bind, and scarce any terrors restrain 
— who, like the madman, if suifered, 
would scatter firebrands, arrows, and 
death around him, and say, Am not 
I in a transport of holy devotion, and 
in the fervour of Catholic zeal? 
Need we attempt to evince the ne- 
cessity of coercive measures, and the 
equity of penal laws in the case of 
such ? Could anything else be suited 
to the evil, or an adequate security 
against the danger? Doth not the 
primary law of nature and society, 
which is self-preservation, sufficiently 
warrant them ? Hath not a society 
a right of protecting itself, and all its 
unoffending members, from violence 
and injustice of every kind, by every 



break its force and resist its violence 
by means of the same kind, when 
they were put in their power. These 
means, which at first were impro- 
perly and unlawfully applied by Rome 
for the avowed purpose of imposing 
religion and compelling consciences, 
whereby they became, in her hands, 
antichristian, when employed against 
her are nothing more than defensive 
armour, and proper necessary means 
for regaining or maintaining^ natural 
rights and civil liberties. Violence 
can only be repelled by violence. 

"A^im vi repellere^ioet. 
Armaque in armatos sumere jura sinunt." 

The law of nature dictates tljis, 
and doth not the law of revelation 
say the same thing? All those who 
take the sword are deservedly ad- 



means competent to it, and particu- j judged to perish by it. It is pre- 



larly by exerting its power of punish- 
ing ? It is surely lawful, when un- j 
justly attacked, to use such means of 
defence as the nature of the danger, 
and the manner of the adversary's 
attack, render necessary. If Papists 
had employed only spiritual or ec- 
clesiastical weapons in their pretended 



dieted by^ the spirit of inspiration 
with a particular respect to the 
punishment of antichristian perse- 
cutors. " He that leadeth into cap- 
tivity shall go into, captivity, and he 
that killeth with the sword shall be 
killed with the sword." — Briice^sFree 
TkovgJits, pp. 257-259. 



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Vol. IL-No. 2. 



JANUARY 1859. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 
The Year 1858. 

" Little Children, keep yourselves from Idols." 
Presbytery as it is, and as it ought to be. 



f Ij^ m^ 1858. 



Such aphorisms as, " Coming events 
cast their shadows before them," are 
equally trite and instructive to na- 
tions and individuals. In taking a 
general survey of the ruling charac- 
teristics of the year that has just left 
us, we Avould fain enlist the calm and 
candid attention of the reader to the 
salutary sentiment Avhich such apho- 
risms contain, and to the practical 
lessons which they enjoin. 

As every year throws up events 
common to the general run of its pre- 
decessors, so it has its peculiar cha- 
racteristics by which it is distinguish- 
ed from others ; and to carefully note, 
and practically improve these, is true 
wisdom and Christian philosophy. 
" Can ye not discern the signs of the 
times ? " These characteristic signs 
'may be trivial of themselves, and may 
have been long of acquiring a definite 
and intelligible shape; yet, like the 
feather thrown upwards which shews 
the direction of the wind, or thrown 
on the tide which indicates its rapi- 
dity, they constitute the ruling signs 
of the time, and demonstrate the 
animus of the age. In order to con- 
clude aright on the specific character 
of a community, whether political, 
ecclesiastical, or both, we must take 
into account the means of information 
with which they have been furnished, 
the correction to which they have been 



subjected, the animus of the instru- 
mentality employed, and, especially, 
the stage in their history which they 
have reached. And fully alive to the 
fiact, that dilFerent and conflicting in- 
ferences have been drawn from what 
are admitted on all hands to be the 
regnant features of the year 1858, we 
claim to exercise the right which this 
ultra-liberal age glories in conceding, 
of forming and expressing our own 
independent judgment. 

Our distinctive object, then, in this 
brief article, is to specify a few of the 
more prominent events of last year, 
as dismal of themselves, and porten- 
tous of a near and dismal future ; and 
we shall commence with those of an 
ecclesiastical character, according to 
Cowper's couplet — 

" When nations are to perish in their sins, 
'Tis in the Church the leprosy begins," 

And although the task is invidious, 
and will be held by many to be un- 
gracious, yet we shall touch as softly 
on the sore parts as a faithful regard 
to the best interests of our fellows 
will allow. 

It is painful to have to advert, at 
the very commencement, to the glo- 
ried-in, and practical ignoring of, 
ecclesiastical order by the sworn ad- 
herents of Episcopacy and Presby- 
tery. Need we point, in illustration 



10 



of this heavy charge, to the sanc- 
tioned exercise of religious functions 
by those who repudiate official ordi- 
nation by "the imposition of liands?" 
Such a flagrant breach of order by 
the formal sanction of tb.ose who are 
under solemn obligation to discoun- 
tenance and suppress it, is a heavy 
blow at the heart of the constitution- 
alism of these respective systems, and 
must bring official ordination into 
disrepute, while it cannot fail to 
throw established order of an eccle- 
siastical kind eventually among the 
No'i-essantials. This disorder, which 
would wreck the political and social 
world, has grown out of the long- 
veiled, but lately avowed creed, that 
to do good, even at the expense of 
divinely instituted order, is not only 
a primary duty, but an act of purest 
philanthropy. And what is the plain 
English of this, but a very clumsy 
attempt to graft Episcopalian Curacy 
upon Scottish Presbytery ! 

In addition to the above, the calm 
observer of the so-called ecclesiastical 
world cannot fail to be struck with 
the introduction into its respective 
denominations of threatening disrup- 
tive elements ; so much eo, indeed, 
that it would not be easy to specify a 
single section in which an apple of 
discord is not found. Anglican 
Tractarianism, as appears from the 
Poole case, is forcing before civil 
courts the legal settlement of the ex- 
tremely hazardous question. Whe- 
ther the Confessional be according 
to the standards of the Church ot 
England? Nor is the divided judg- 
ment of the Synod of the Scottish 
Episcopal Church on the Eucharis- 
tical controversy without deep and 
ominous interest. Of the same cha- 
racter, and running in the same direc- 
tion, is the new Non-intrusion move- 
ment within the Established Chiu'ch 
of Scotland ; while, simultaneously 
with these disruptive movements, we 



have before the Court of Session the 
case of Rev. Mr. Macmillan versus the 
Free Church ; and, without specify- 
ing other seriously disturbing ele- 
ments, we are treated now and again 
to most unseemly clerical wrangling 
about, not doctrine or discipline, but 
" the Sustentation Fund." 

Moreover, there arc very disturb- 
ing elements common to all these de- 
nominations, and which cannot be 
settled, save on the shaky condition 
of ill-defined forbearance, or the more 
wrecking policy of compromise. The 
intelligent reader anticipates our re- 
ference to instrumental music, the 
practice of free communion, and the 
revival and practice of mediasval 
aesthetics and worship. And, in pass- 
ing, we must take the liberty of ex- 
pressing our surprise, that the injunc- 
tion of the last General Assembly of 
the Established Church, to institute 
a searching inquiry on the subject of 
alleged innovations in worship, has 
not yet been complied with, or even 
mooted, by a single Presbytery ! 
From such low, and tremulous, and 
hitherto wrecking policy as expe- 
diency, that time-honoured institu- 
tion " has been wounded in the house 
of its professed friends." Might we 
liint the proverb, " Quem deus vult 
perdere, prius dementat." Surely 
some members of the Metropolitan 
Presbytery know tliat, by allowing 
such innovations to proceed and get 
themselves rooted, their claim to the 
sufficiently unpopular Annuity Tax is 
put in hazard, if not forfeited in point 
of law. But, in conclusion, we would 
propose, as indicative of the true cha- 
racter of the ecclesiastical world, the 
solution of the problem, the popular 
I cry for union, and the stern adherence 
to sectarianism. 

In taking a very general survey of 
the Political events of the year that 
has closed upon us, we have it as our 
object to specify a few of the more out- 



11 



standing of these, and of the more 
portentous, as drawing upon the vitals 
of the Constitution, and directly af- 
fecting Vicloria's crown. 

The etfects of the previous mone- 
tary crisis told, and still tell, with 
crushing effect upon some of the 
most reputable firms and mercantile 
houses in tlie three kingdoms, while 
salutary speculation is paralysed ; 
additional Government favour has 
been extended, and pecuniary grants 
have been given to the adherents of 
Rome; heavy discouragement has 
been dealt out to the Presbyterian 
interests, especially in the infatuated 
sister isle, so fertile of dangerous se- 
cret societies, and that glories in trea- 
sonable speeches against the bloody 
Saxon, is'^or are we to overlook the 
Cherbourg fetes, especially when 
viewed in the light of the rough set- 
tlement of the question of slavery by 
France bullying Portugal, an ancient 
■ ally of Britain, without a breath of 
disapprobation on our part ; when 
viewed in the light of the trial of 
Montalembert ; and when viewed in 
the light of the military preparations 
of almost every power in Europe. 
As more nearly touching the crown, 
we cannot omit from our general 
summary our matrimonial alliance 
with the court of Prussia, rather than 
with the house of Orange ; the pro- 
clamation of Victoria as Empress of 
Hindostan ; and the ominously awk- 
Avard predicament into which the 
Houses of the Lords and Commons, 
as well as the Crown itself, have been 



thrown by the admission of Jews into 
Parliament. These events, which 
give a distinguishing and portentous 
prominency to the year 1858, ac- 
quire a tremendous significancy from 
the rending cry for a KeCorm, Avhich, 
if carried, will remodel the entire con- 
stitution, and endanger monarchy it- 
self. Although we profess not to be 
politicians, and shall not undertake 
to balance the respective merits or 
demerits of the parties or their mea- 
sures ; yet, we apprehend, the tide of 
a radical reform, lacking moral and 
true conservative qualification, has 
been long accumulating, and requires 
only the slightest drawing up of the 
constitutional sluice to rush on Avith 
resistless impetuosity, to overflow all 
embankments, and hopelessly sub- 
merge the present political fabric. 
Lord Macaulay's imaginary sketch of 
the New Zealander viewing the ruins 
of London from a broken arch of one 
of its bridges, indicates more of phi- 
losophic sagacity than the petulant 
sneer of the renegade Whig, Lord 
John Russell. 

Although the sins of all classes of 
our country merit the disorganising 
scene which Macaulay's pen has so 
graphically described, yet far off be 
that day, when the complaint of Pan- 
theus, Apollo's priest, looking upon 
the desolation and confusion of burn- 
ing Troy, shall become ours : — 

..." Fuimus Troes : fuit Ilium, et ingens 
Gloria Teucrorum." 
" Scarce had I said, when Pantheus, with a 
groan, 
Troy is no more, and Ilium was a town ! " 



'* little diljiliiniT, \\tt^ umx$iM fxm Pols.'' 

his favourite deity, and prefer his 
offering ; no matter though their 
varied beliefs were unknown to the 
wise and learned Athenian — in his 
excess of superstition he had reli- 
giously provided for every worship- 



When the apostle Paul visited 
Athens, we read that his spirit was 
stirred within him at the spectacle of 
a city wholly given to idolatry. 
There every devotee of a false reli- 
gion could bend before the altar of 



12 



THE ARK. 



per of the ancient world by erecting 
altars bearing the inscription, " To 
the gods of Asia, Europe, and 
Africa." But the philosophic Greek 
could not rest content with such 
vague generalisations. A raging 
plague visits Athens, and sacrifices 
are offered to her numerous gods 
without effect ; the idolatrous people 
are compelled to own there is a 
higher Deity to whom they have not 
yet sought, and, at the suggestion of 
Epimenides, they erect an altar to 
the true God ; but alas ! by their 
own confession, to them the Un- 
known. Humiliating spectacle ! 
Athens, " the eye of Greece," the 
most learned city of the world, where 
wisdom culminated, whose sages, 
patriots, philosophers, poets, sculp- 
tors, were the most renowned in the 
world, still confessing, in the days of 
Paul, her ignorance of the only liv- 
ing and true God, the Creator of 
that visible universe whose beauty 
the Greek ever loved to contemplate, 
and so faithfully strove to portray. 
No doubt, her highest philosophers, 
though unvisited by the clear light 
of revelation, yet groped with the 
flickering torch of reason through 
the darkness and mystery of uni- 
verse, in earnest search after its 
glorious originator, " if haply they 
might feel after Him;" but even 
their misty guesses at the truth were 
rejected by the body of the people, 
who preferred the degraded and 
abominable idolatry of their grosser 
belief. 

While we condemn, with St. Paul, 
the demoralising idolatries of the su- 
perstitious Athenians, it might, per- 
haps, be profitable to inquire whether 
or not, in so doing, we do not con- 
demn ourselves! if we have not 
within us, invisible to human sight, 
yet stretched in all its impurity be- 
fore the eye of God, " a city wholly 
given to idolatry ! " Should any one 



think he may safely reply in the 
negative, we would refer him to 
what our Lord says of the human 
heart in Mark vii. 21, 22. That 
the heart is the spring from whence 
all impurities flow is a truth unpa- 
latable to every unregenerate man — 
he cannot perceive it, because of the 
deceitful moral malady which affects 
his whole nature ; " for the heart is 
deceitful above all things, and des- 
perately wicked." There are many 
who would look with horror and de- 
testation on the image-worship of 
the heathen, that are yet as idola- 
trous in heart as they. The light of 
revelation is to them not an illumi- 
nation of the inner man, but is used 
by them as a lustrous cloak to veil 
the black flesh and tattered habili- 
ments beneath. Whosoever gives 
not to God the first and highest 
place in his affections is necessarily 
u'holhj given to idolatry ; doubtless, 
he may, like the Athenian, erect, as 
a formal duty, an altar to the Un- 
known God ; but such the living God 
will not acknowledge. " He who 
dwelleth not in temples made with 
hands" will not accept a shrine in so 
unholy a Pantheon. 

That even the regenerate are not 
exempt from idolatry, we may learn 
from the apostolic injunction we have 
chosen for our title, " Little children, 
keep yourselves from idols." True, 
the regenerate are not wholly given to 
idolatry, else those who are born of 
God would, in no way, differ from 
the world which lieth in wickedness. 
Within their hearts the Spirit of God 
reigns supreme ; but, because of in- 
nate corruption, and the temptations 
of the Evil One, overthrown idols will 
resume a temporary sway, and even 
I new ones be erected, much to the 
: grief of the neiv mai}, who is ever bat- 
I tling with them, till death, the har- 
j binger of glory, relieve him for ever 
from their hated dominion. 



THE ABK. 



13 



Every one Avho has been spiritually i 
taught to know himself, must confess i 
he has many idols ; but there is ge- ! 
nerally, and especially in those of | 
strongly-marked individuality, one, I 
head and shoulders above the rest. ; 
To this fact St. Paul alludes in ! 
Heb. xii. 1. Now, it is the duty of 
Christians at all times to strive ear- 
nestly to discover, and, when disco- i 
vered, to contend against their beset- 
ting sins. But there are seasons when ; 
the call to this duty is louder and 
more imperative, to incite the strug- | 
gling soul to renewed exertion in be- 
seeching the Spirit of God to infuse 
new life within him, that he may be 
enabled to battle successfully with the 
loathed incubus which pinions him to | 
the earth. That the lore&ent season is j 
uttering a very intelligible voice on I 
this point we need scarcely be at the i 
pains to shew. Another year, with 
its deeds good and evil, is enrolled in 
the Book of God, in characters that 
will never be obliterated. The mer- 
chant sits at his desk making up his 
accounts ; — God also is saying, " Pay 
me what thou owest." 

Deeply conscious that we are all 
verily guilty in giving that honour 
and glory to other gods which is due 
to the living God alone, Ave shall now 
conclude by specifying some of those 
idols which depraved human nature 
is most prone to serve — trusting the 
reader will amplify our bare sugges- 
tions, and thereby test himself. In 
order to be very general, we shall first 
state that every form of idolatry is the 
worship of— I. The World ; II. The 
Flesh ; and III. The Devil — shewing 
that there is a triunity of evil as well 
as the Trinity of Godhead. Although 
the worship of one of the three may 
assume a predominance in its respec- 
tive votaries, yet it is impossible to 
serve the one without being bound to 
the others — the union of the three 
being indissoluble. 



J. The Worship of the World.— We 
make an idol of the world, in the first 
place, when we seek to regulate our 
conduct by its approved maxims, in- 
stead of accepting the revealed will of 
God as the only rule of our duty. 
How common it is for human nature, 
when contending with a moral or re- 
ligious difficulty, to inquire. How do 
others act in such cases ? how shall 
I decide so as to secure the smiles and 
approval of the world ? instead of 
prayerfully seeking light from the 
Divine Word ! Most miserable and 
eternally ruinous delusion ! That grim 
idol, before whose triumphal car the 
misguided votary is prostrated, will 
remorselessly crush its adoring vic- 
tims in its mad and cruel progress. 
2dly, and in connexion with the pre- 
ceding remark. We make an idol of 
the world when we esteem the praise 
of men more than the praise of God. 
This is a very ensnaring idol. It is 
highly gratifying to human nature to 
receive the laudations of friends (alas, 
how often insincere !) and of the 
world ; and there are very few who 
are not, more or less, influenced by 
them. That it is impossible to win 
the praise of men and the approbation 
of God, we may learn from His own 
words — " The friendship of the 
world is enmity with God." " That 
which is highly esteemed among men 
is abomination in the sight of God." 
odly, We make an idol of the world 
when we prefer its pleasures, honours, 
and benefits, to denying ourselves, 
taking up our cross, and following 
Jesus. Of how many can it be said 
that, like Moses, they esteem the ?-e- 
proach of Christ greater riches than 
the treasures of Egypt? 

II. The Worship of the Flesh.— The 
term flesh we here use in that accep- 
tation so commonly employed in the 
New Testament Scriptures to denote 
the corrupt desires of depraved human 
nature, in opposition to those spiritual 



14 



desires implanted in the regenerate 
soul by the Holy Spirit. The forms 
of idolatry under this head are as nu- 
merous as they are varied. Isll/i, We 
worship the flesh, when we obey the 
instincts of our lower nature, by in- 
dulging in anger, hatred, pride, and 
all those foul passion?, which degrade 
man from the high position in wliich 
God has set him — from being the 
crown and masterpiece of Cieation, 
the union of the material with the 
spiritual — to place him beneath the 
animals, and to constitute him the 
nearest approach to the devil. 2d[ij, 
We worship the flesh, when we give 
an undue place to tlie natural afl'ec- 
tions, the exercise of which is other- 
wise laudable and beautiful. All 
earthly affections have been given to 
us, principally as lessons in that Di- 
vine love, which ought ever to hold 
the chief and absorbing possession of 
our whole being. " He that loveth 
father or mother, wife or cliild, more 
than me," says Christ, " is not wor- 
thy of me." How often has even the 
saint been constrained to exclaim, as 
he bends in his agony over the dead 
body of a beloved object, " Lord, hast 
Thou come to call mine iniquity to my 
remembrance?" Happy for him whose 
idol is thus removed ! otherwise, it 
will be to him " a thorn in the flesh," 
which Divine strength and grace will 
alone enable him to bear. 2>dlij, We 
worship the flesh, when we exalt hu- 
man intellect to a sphere beyond that 
which God has given it. The exer- 
cise of the intellectual powers is ne- 
cessary to the development and 
healthy balance of our being ; and, 
in the consideration o{ natural tilings, 
their free exercise is safe enough. 
But when we enter into the sjnritual 
region, the unaided intellect Avill be 
sure to mislead us— for the deep 
things of God can oidy be spiritually 
discerned. Man, by the Fall, has 
lost all spirituality of intellect — his 



\ nature being totalhi depraved ; and, 

' if a new spirituality he not given 
him through the regenerating influ- 
ences of the Holy Spirit, mere intel- 
lect alone will lead him, not to, but 

far from the God of Salvation — by 
himself cast forth into error and un- 
certainty, " a wandering star, to 
whom is reserved the blackness of 
darkness for ever." 

III. Tlie Worship of the Devil. — Tn 
order to serve the evil one, it is by 
no means necessary to erect a visible 
altar, and thei-eon to offer sacrifices 
to devils and unclean spirits ; or, as 
some have had the impious temerity 
to do, to enter into a formal compact 
Avith Satan, to work his work, and 
receive his unholy rewards. Ey 
worshipping any of the foremen- 
tioned idols we serve the devil both 
faithfully and well. It matters not 
to him what form of idolatry we 
adopt, for he is the inventor of them 
all, and equally sure of the varied 
worshippers as his prey. There are 
some persons who seem to have no 
fear whatsoever of the devil, and 
even presume to scoff at the exist- 
ence of this most potent enemy of 
the human race. Alas ! such, by 
tlieir own confession, shew them- 
selves to be his securely enthralled 
worshippers, led captive by him at 

I his will. There is no child of God 

I who is not powerfully conscious of the 
existence of an evil spirit ; for every 

I one who strives to enter in at tlie strait 
gate must face the devil in the way, 
and be exposed to his malicious 
attacks, till eternally secure within 
the gates of glory. On the other 
hand, his faithful friends he can well 
afford to let alone — they are not 
tried nor plagued by him as other 
men are. How often do we serve 
the devil, by listening and yielding 

j to his temptations, when we ought 
to be praying for grace and strength 
to resist him ; and how often do we 



15 



invite his presence, by a neglect of 
the divine injimction, "Watch and 
pray, lest ye enter into temptation." 
We have in him a sleepless adver- 
sary, therefore " let us not sleep as 
do others:" let us be active in 



the less time and will to do the 
devil's. 

We intended to have addressed a 
few words to the young, suggested 
by the " beloved disciple's " favourite 
mode of designating his hearers, but 



o - o 

God's service, and we will have ' want of space forbids 



|r,e:l31)ta as it is, m\ii as it 0ucil)t to be. 



Perhaps they (the Scottish people) 
are, of all others upon the face of the 
earth, the most attached to their own 
religion, and jealous of everything 
that relates to it. They have for- 
merly given evidence of their readi- 
ness to part Avith all, rather than suf- 
fer themselves to be robbed of it, or 
allow another religion which they 
dislike to be imposed upon them. 
The kings and ministers who have 
attempted it, have always fallen in 
the struggle, a sacrifice to their own 
folly. Neither the wiles of court po- 
licy, nor the terrific threats and 
strokes of power, have formerly been 
able to bend or subdue the free spirit, 
or, as some would choose to call it, 
the stubborn genius of Presbytery. 

The disposition of the body of the 
people is not to be known or judged 
of by the sentiments and conduct of 
some leading modex-n clergymen, 
Avhose business is to keep in per- 
fect unison with the chimes of the 
court, and to soothe the ear of great- 
ness ; nor yet from the behaviour of 
those temporising souls, who, in quest 
of gain and preferment, leave their 
native soil, and prostitute their con- 
science, and sell their religion on very 
easy terms. Nor will they allow 
themselves to be regulated in a mat- 
ter of such importance by the example 
of tlie sister kingdom, nor part so 
cheaply with their sacred and dearest 
rights as some of their neighbours. 
Though Israel should play the har- 
lot, should Judah therefore likewise 



offend ? If England will not refrain 
from pulling away her fences to let 
I in the abomination that maketh de- 
; solate, who can prevent it ? But must 
j Scotland, too, catch the frenzy, aid 
i her in the work, ai'd, after she hath 
made herself accessory to her neigh- 
I hour's guilt and folly, proceed next 
to put hand to undo herself? If Eng- 
land must needs strike up a dance 
back to hell and Rome, let her do so 
in good time ; but must Scotland be 
as complaisant as to follow 1 Though 
their neighbours long to return to 
tiiat house of bondage, and appoint 
their captains to lead them back ; and 
I though a mixed multitude amongst 
themselves, loathing celestial manna, 
may remember the flesh-pots of 
Egypt, and be lusting after its onions, 
leeks, and garlic, yet honest Presbyte- 
rians will frankly tell them that they 
mean not to join them in their march, 
but have bid that place an eternal 
farewell. If it yet seem good to others 
to choose and serve the gods that are 
beyond the flood, they may do so ; 
but for their part they must be ex- 
cused, resolving to serve the Lord. 
And, indeed, if the people of Scotland 
were to act otherwise in this matter, 
they would be of all others the most 
guilty and inexcusable. Not only 
would the examples of their Glen- 
cairns, their Murrays, their Loudons, 
their Warristons, their Argyles, con- 
demn them ; and the ghosts of their 
Wisharts, their Knoxes, Welshes, 
Hendersons, and Guthries upbraid 



IG 



THE ARK. 



them ; but tlieir many bonds, protes- , 
tations, oaths, and covenants, sworn ^ 
and subscribed by all ranks among ; 
them, from the prince to the peasant, i 
would rise up and witness against ' 
them to the face. From the eai'liest 
days of Reformation, they have, in 
this public manner, displayed their 
banners against Antichrist. Though 
this be not peculiar to Scotland (for j 
England, too, hath bound herself by 
oaths to extirpate Popery, in all its j 
parts, and with all its appendages ; 
yea, what Protestant state hath not i 
covenanted and sworn against Po- j 
pery ?), yet no other land hath so : 
often, so heartily, and so solemnly 
bound itself in this very thing. These 
obligations no distance of time, nor i 
change of interests or inclinations, 
can invalidate, while the reasons and 
grounds of them continue the same. 
After all they have thus done and 
suffered, shall they yet go back ? 
Shall they voluntarily run, or others 
attempt to plunge them into still 
deeper abysses of perjury ? Would 
not all the awful imprecations where- j 
with their ancestors loaded them- 
selves and their posterity in case of ; 
treachery, justly light upon such a 
generation? That these covenants and 
engagements, once so dear to every 
pious and patriotic mind, for which 
so many illustrious patriots have 
toiled, for which so many heroes have 
fought, for which so many martyrs 
have bled — which have been produc- 



tive, in time past, of so many valu- 
able blessings to Scotland, and are yet 
pregnant with her future blessings 
and deliverances— that these should 
now be so generally contemned and 
almost foi-got — that Protestants, and 
even so many professed Presbyterians, 
should now have become ashamed so 
much as to mention what was once 
the glory and the boast of Britain, 
and the admiration of all the Protes- 
tant Churches around — is one asto- 
nishing eflFect of the ignorance, the 
prejudices, the impiety, apostacy, and 
madness of the times. I profess I 
venerate the memory of the men, who, 
with so much constancy and heroism, 
adhered, in the worst of times, to 
these sacred engagements, and the 
cause they were meant to promote. 
To them we are in a great measure 
indebted for Avhat of true liberty and 
Protestantism is to this day preserved 
and secured to us from the depreda- 
tions of Romish tyranny and arbitrary 
power. What praise do they not de- 
serve, who, rather than violate their 
I vows, and betray the best of causes, 
scrupled not to shed every drop of 
' their blood ? Martyrs truly they 
I were, if laying down their lives 
for faith, public good, liberty, law, 
, conscience, and pure religion, could 
make them such. But what colours 
\ are black enough to paint the men 
— the monsters rather — who rob- 
bed them of their lives! — Professor 
Bruce. 



The Review of "The Battle of the Centuries" in No. 252 of "Chambers's Journal," is 
unavoidabl}' postponed until a future Number. 

The pages of The Ark are open for reviews of any religious publication, and these will he 
criticised in a liberal and Christian spirit. 

The first volume, stitched, and comprehending 12 Numbers, may be had of Messrs. Paton 
AND Ritchie, price Is. 

Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by Paton and Ritchie, 81 Princes Street 
(to whom all Communications, prepaid, may be addressed). Glasgow : Thomas Mukkay 
AND Son ; and sold by all Boolisellers. 



paton AND ItlTCIlIE, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH. 



C|e |^rll 



Vol. II-No. 3. 



FEBRUARY 1859. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

*' Chambers's Journal " versus the Reformation. 

" Our Banner and its Battles." 

The Burns Centenary. 

Dr. Eobbrt Lek and the Edinburgh Presbytery. 



^' Cbambcrs's |ournal '' krsiis tk ^efornmtioir. 

In our December Number, 1858, we 
addressed ourselves to a defence of 
the cliaracter of the Reformation and 
the Reformers of Scotland of the 
seventeenth century, in reply to a 
rude and rancorous assault against 
them in " Chambers's Journal," 
November 18, 1858, No. 254. 

In this article we propose an ex- 
amination of the specified instances 
of alleged Covenanting persecution, 
culled from " Domestic Annals of 
Scotland," by Robert Chambers. 

These instances, which the writer 
says " it is too possible to extend," 
are spread over the surface of forty 
years of Scotland's most interesting 
history, and amount to five or six. 
Instead of taking them up seriatim, 
it will be a more legitimate mode of 
reaching a fair and safe conclusion 
to advert to the following undeniable 
historic facts, expository of the ruling 
principles and regulating conduct of 
the alternately dominant parties. 
And, by way of preliminary, we re- 
quest attention to the fact that the 
article in " Chambers's Journal " as- 
sumes that the Covenanters were 
equally persecutors with those styled 
malign ants. 

1. By far the greater number of 
these forty years was characterised 
by regal hypocrisy. Popish subdolous 
and sanguinary policy, and Prelatic 



cruel persecution. The names of the 
two Charleses, Archbishop Laud, 
James Sharp, the members of the 
High Commission Court, Privy 
Council, and the Star Chamber, 
audit the accuracy of this dark ac- 
count. The short time during which 
the Covenanters bore sway left them 
small opportunity to try their hand 
at the too natural work of retaliation. 
Betwixt counting the wounds which 
the ruthless fangs of their adversaries 
had inflicted, and building up a shat- 
tered constitution in Church and 
State, the Scotch Covenanters had 
too much to do Avith drawn swords 
in the battle-field to address them- 
selves to persecute five or six indi- 
viduals. 

2. All the dogmas propounded by 
the Covenanters during their brief 
reign, and all the laws ratified by 
Parliaments in favour of their cause, 
were of a strictly and salutarily de- 
fensive character. All subscribe to 
the truth of the maxim, that " a 
preventive is better than a cure." 
The principle under the influence of 
which they acted is exactly the same 
as that adopted by some small lairds 
who give " information to the 
people " by a placard, that " all 
found within these plantations shall 
be prosecuted according to law." 
The Presbyterians had found, with a 



18 



witness, that those against whom 
their preventive laws were framed 
had been convicted as " habit and 
repute " public transgressors. 

3. We are grievously disappointed 
at finding tharnone of these specified 
instances of sore persecution were 
dignified with loss of life. Not one j 
of them was subjected to the pleasure 
of thumbkins or bootkins ; none of 
them got the opportunity of shewing 
his firmness of principle by an hour's 
enjoyment of slitting the nose, dig- 
ging out the ears, burning at the 
stake, or kissing the Maiden of the 
Grassmarket ! Their names and 
martyrdom are of a less vulgar, 
though more luxurious kind, — they 
are kindly reasoned with, and oft 
pardoned when convicted of treason 
against the crown, and persecution 
of their brethren ! What a contrast ! 
Five or six individuals subjected to 
a few inconveniences, while their 
friends for forty years impurpled 
their hands in the blood of Scotland's 
patriots, 

4. There must be some strong 
reason for the writer in " Chambers's 
Journal " stopping in his specifica- 
tion of instances at the year 1671. 
Why not advance to the " killing 
time ? " — to the time when our native 
country was a slaughter-house by 
his heroes of the Popish and Prelatic 
stamp, and Avhen the groans of a 
bleeding nation entered the ears of 
the God of Sabaoth, who brought 
deliverance from a quarter not ex- 
pected? Was it candid, or fair, or 
honest, to omit from the estimate 
of the tender mei'cies of the adver- 
sary this luminous season of Presby- 
terian sufl^ering and legalised murder ? 
" Domestic Annals," indeed ! Scot- 
land's best sons and daughters had 
no homes save Scotland's dreary 
dens, and caves. 

5. Anxious to learn the authorities 
for these few instances of alleged 



sore persecution, we are referred by 
" Domestic Annals" to the following. 
The redoubtable Jedidiah Cleish- 
botham ! Then we have " Spalding's 
History of the Troubles in Scotland 
and England." Of Spalding as an 
authority, it is enough that we quote 
the undeniable fact, that he was one of 
the w^armest admirers and stanchest 
friends of the perjured and bloody 
Montrose. ( Aikman's History of Scot- 
land, vol. iv., 161.) Another au- 
thority is the Privy Council Records. 
The Privy Council was a most un- 
constitutional court, which usurped 
the authority of Parliament, was 
composed of the most unprincipled 
and reckless characters, promulgated 
the most arbitrary, illegal acts, and 
compelled a brutal soldiery to put 
them into execution. (Aikman, iv., 
513.) These, and such as these, are 
the long-since exploded authorities 
on which " Chambers's Journal" re- 
lies for stigmatising the truly con- 
servative principles and patriotic 
conduct of the Scotch Covenanters ! 

6. It is but fair to ask whether 
such selected instances of assumed 
persecution are true exponents of the 
regnant principles or general conduct 
of the great body of the Covenanters? 
If they are, then ■\^■hy so few and 
meagre ? and if they are not, then 
why make such a parade of them ? 
As well, and with more plausibility, 
might " Chambers's Journal" spout 
forth a rude diatribe against the cause 
of Christianity, by pointing to some 
overt acts of Christ's disciples. A\'e 
would invite attention to the well- 
known fact, that the leaders of the 
Covenants, both National and Solemn 
League, enjoined that subscription to 
them should be forced on none — that 
only those who were found to under- 
stand them should subscribe ; and, 
accordingly, numbers who offered 
themselves were refused. Nor does 
the civil injunction that all ranks 



19 



should take thera, and that refusers 
should be visited with penalties, con- 
flict with the conduct of the Church 
adverted to. The clause that respects 
penalties was not intended to bear 
against peaceful subjects M^ho re- 
fused to adopt Presbytery, but tur- 
bulent spirits that had been convicted 
of sanguinary plotting against the 
crown, the parliament, and the dear- 
bought constitutionalism of the nation. 
Moreover, the penalty bore, and was 
intended to bear, upon the exclusion 
from places of power and trust of con- 
victed malignants. And, finally, this 
assumed obnoxious clause was the 
deed, not of the Church, but of the 
State, which was an act of self-defence 
competent to any government. We 
must in all fairness admit that there 
was one notable exception to the non- ! 



I enforcement of the Covenant. The 
Marquis of Montrose, the admired 
■ hero of some popular Jacobitish 
I journalists, the man who swore the 
I Covenant, but afterwards became its 
j darkest enemy, and soiled his hands 
I in the blood of its fast friends, did, 
I and in contravention of strictest in- 
junctions, force the Aberdonians to 
I take the Covenant, and afterwards 
I shed their blood because they refused 
! to abandon it ! These few outstand- 
ing facts furnish a ready solution of 
; the few instances of alleged persecu- 
tion which " Chambers's Journal " 
has adduced, and all similar instances 
which its conductors can possibly 
adduce. 

Because of our limited space, we re- 
serve a more formal examination of the 
specified instances to a future number. 



'' (Bur ianncr m\ \\% iiittles.^' 



A PAMPHLET bearing the above title, 
written by a " Disruption minister," 
and " recommended for circulation by 
the General Assembly's Committee on 
the Principles of the Free Church," 
has lately made its appearance. Its 
main object is to identify the Free 
with the Reformed Church of Scot- 
land. This appears from the author's 
words near its beginning ; — " If I am 
to tell you about the Free Church, I 
must begin at her beginning, and that 
will lead us back to the Reformation 
all the way." It also appears from 
the name of the pamphlet — " Our 
Banner and its Battles." In this 
respect it closely resembles " The 
Constitutional Catechism," and " The 
Act and Declaration of the Free 
Church ;" to the latter of which we 
shall have occasion to refer in the 
course of our remarks. Were it not 
that we consider this identity as 
merely assumed, and as assumed at 
the expense of the principles of the 



I Second Reformation, and the cha- 
j racter of the Reformers, we would 
; not have put ourselves to the trouble 
of inviting attention to such a pro- 
duction, which, maugre its high re- 
commendations, we consider to be 
destitute of intrinsic merit. 

In order to a safe conclusion on 
the validity of the claim thus put 
forth, we shall simply specify a few 
of the more salient and compre- 
hensive characteristics of the Re- 
j formed Church, which are distinctly 
ignored by the Free Church. And 
this mode of proceeding, we doubt 
not, will commend itself as decisive 
of the question to all candid men, 
whether within or without the Free 
Church. 

1. The Reformed Church of Scot- 
land was eminently a Covenanted 
Church. We are not now reasoning 
on the duty of covenanting as appli- 
cable to the nation, the Church, or 
individuals ; we are merely adverting 



20 



THE ARK. 



to the historic fact that covenanting 
was the grand and ruling cliarac- 
teristic of the Reformed Church in all 
her struggles for religion and liberty. 
No one more readilyadmits, or largely 
dilates upon the fact, than the author 
of " Our Banner and its Battles." 
Now, what question more simple or 
natural than, Is the Free Church a 
covenanted church ? has covenant- 
ing any place in her constitution or 
practice ? Not at all ! It cannot be 
from lack of opportunity that she does 
not address herself to this charac- 
teristic and gloried-in duty of the 
Reformed Church. For if the non- 
intrusion movement was of so vast 
magnitude as this pamplilet assumes, 
if " The Ten Years' Conflict" was so 
important as he represents, if the 
Disruption was " the uplifting of the 
old banner," why did not the Free 
Church retain the inscription on that 
banner, " For Christ's crown and 
covenant ?" But without taking ad- 
vantage of the ridicule with which 
some of the more reputed pious 
ministers of the Free Church can 
speak of the covenants, we refer, in 
confirmation of our inference, to the 
fact that the Act and Declaration, in 
its enumeration of the standards, does 
} not for once mention tliese solemn 
I documents. We cite the passage in 
I' full, page 7lh : — " These several 
I formularies, as ratified, with certain 
explanations, by divers Acts of As- 
sembly in the years 1G45, lGi6, and 
particularly in 1647, this Church 
continues till this day to acknow- 
ledge as her subordinate standards of 
doctrine, worship, and government ; 
with this difference, however, as re- 
gards the authority ascribed to them, 
that, while the Confession of Faith 
contains the creed to which, as a con- 
fession of his own faith, every office- 
bearer in the Church must testify in 
solemn form his personal adherence — 
and while the Catechisms, Larger and 



Shorter, are sanctioned as directories 

for catechising — the Directory for 
Public Worship, the Form of Church 
Government, and the Directory for 
P'amily Worship, are of the nature 
o( regulations rather than of tests — to 

; be enforced by the Church like her 
other laws, but not to be imposed by 

, subscription upon her ministers and 
elders." 

Without waiting to subject this lan- 
guage to critical examination, how 
painfully does it contrast with that of 
" Our Banner and its Battles?" " Our 
tables counsel that before separating 

I for our homes we should enter into 
a covenant ;" and again, " We are 
now covenanters, sworn to stand by 

' Christ's crown rights to the death." 
Surely, if " we " are covenanters, the 
covenants should have a place among 

j "our standards," and notbe studiously 
ignored, as they are, even by " our 
Regulations." Need we tell the reader 
that the claim to identity has failed ? 

j 2. The Reformed Church held 

I these covenants to be of continued ob- 
ligation on the nation and the Church 
of Scotland. That this was held as 

I characteristic of the Reformed Church 

; appears from the covenant itself, 
from the language of her martyrs, and 
from every page of her history. The 
language of the first article of the 
Solemn League and Covenant is, 
" that we, and our j)OSterittj after us, 
may as brethren live in faith and love, 
and the Lord may delight to dwell 
in the midst of us." To the same 

' purpose have we the solemn declara- 
tion of James Guthrie, when on the 
scaffold, — "These sacred, solemn, 

i public oaths of God, I believe can 

j be dispensed with by no person, or 
party, or power upon earth ; but are 
still binding upon the kingdoms, and 
will be so for ever hereafter, and are 
ratified and sealed by the conversion 
of many thousands of souls, since our 
enterinof thereinto." We are not 



21 



aware that the Free Church has put 
forth, in any of her public papers, a 
single utterance, or dropped a single 
hint, in favour of this universally 
admitted characteristic of the Re- 
formed Church ; while, on the other 
hand, it is painful to have to refer to 
a society of ministers and members 
vvfithin her own pale, labouring to 
bring her to an acknowledgment of 
this principle, and especially point- 
ing to her own repudiation of it by 
her General Assembly's Act of 1852. 
We would like to see her lay to heart 
the last words of James Guthrie. 
We would be rejoiced to find more 
of her eloquence in behalf of the re- 
ligion and liberty of the Covenant, 
than is expended upon her great 
Sustentation Fund. And we would 
like to hear those who bear the 
name, and claim descent from James 
Guthrie, employ more respectful and 
measured terms when speaking, in the 
metropolitan Presbytery, of his dis- 
tinguishing principles, — " the old 
song of descending obligation ! ! ! " 
Having neither design nor heart to 
enlarge on this painful subject, we 
do submit, that the above remarks 
demonstrate the failure of this claim 
of identity. 

3. The Reformed Church gloried 
in acknowledging the '■'■jus divinum 
Preshyterii" the divine right of Pres- 
bytery. This, we need scarcely say, 
was a ruling principle permeating 
her standards, guiding her actions, 
and essential to her uniformity. It 
had given it a conspicuous place in 
the famous papers presented by the 
Scotch Commissioners to the West- 
minster Assembly ; and after under- 



going an unprecedented analysis, it 
was acknowledged by the combined 
erudition, talent, and piety of that 
Assembly, to be " the only form of 
Church government authorised by 
the AVord of God." In order to 
shew that the claim to identity has 
again failed, and failed in regard to 
this cardinal and constitutional doc- 
trine of the Reformed Church, we 
have simply to refer to the Act and 
Declaration, which sets Presbytery 
among the Regulations, denying it to 
be a test ! And is it not evident, 
that if Presbytery be what the Re- 
formed Church declared it, the Free 
Church answers her own claim, and 
inflicts a deep wound upon her own 
ecclesiastical character and constitu- 
tion? 

Space forbids a formal considera- 
tion of the doctrine of the Headship 
of Christ, of which so much has been 
spoken and written, and about which, 
with all due deference, much ignor- 
ance prevails. We intended, also, 
shewing that the Non- intrusion 
movement, by being confessedly but 
a half measure, injured the Headship 
fully as much as did State interfer- 
ence ; and that the Veto Act, by its 
recognition of Patronage, put the 
Free Church in the awkward predi- 
cament of both acknowleging and 
condemning that terrible evil. With 
a kind and parting word to some of 
those whose names are appended to 
the pamphlet, we have to remind 
them, that, having personally and 
solemnly taken these covenants, they 
should ponder the words, " Shall 
they break the covenant and be 
delivered ? " 



if]c iurits Centcimrg. 



A CALM and candid discussion of the 
vastly important question. What is the 
bearing of the life and productions 



of the Ayrshire Bard upon the religion 
and morals of society, especially upon 
Scottish society ? is as yet premature. 



We must, before formally address- 
ing ourselves to such a heavy task, 
allow the present febi'ile excitement 
to subside. Wliat some of the con- 
ductors of the fourth estate of the 
realm — we would charitably hope in 
pain to be delivered of a daily paper 
— have been pleased to designate 
" pulpit trash," is certaiidy stealing a 
march upon legitimate controversy, is 
haughtily dictatorial, and ill accords 
with the liberal creed which a modern 
" Scotsman " glories in avowing and 
recommending. It is needless to re- 
mind the intelligent reader and sober 
thinker, that such perverse vocables 
are provocative of a retaliation which 
conduces little to the calm investi- 
gation of a cardinal principle of 
Christian ethics. And, as we are 
upon this subject, we have to deplore 
some hasty, if not harsh, clerical 
effusions, poured forth against less 
excitable ministerial brethren, as 
characterised by "stupidity, spite, 
malice, &c." This excels, after its 
kind, anything that ever came from 
the pen of the bard, and all the more 
clearly shews tliat we are not yet in 
a condition to do anything like justice 
to tlie subject. 

We are happy, however, to state 
that the late unprecedented Centen- 
ary, notwithstanding such unseemly 
and painful drawbacks as we have 
adverted to, furnishes a fair and fit- 
ting opportunity for approximating a 
safe practical solution of this deeply 
interesting problem. If the late more 
than national homage rendered to the 
genius and works of Robert Burns 
be in accordance with the estimate 
formed of it by the admirers of the 
bard, then it follows that the great 
body of Scotland's clergy have proved 
their inadequacy to imprint their 
views of morahty upon tlie intellect 
and moral feelings of their country- 
men ; in other Avords, that Scotland's 
clergy " have laboured in vain, and 



spent their strength for nought, and 
in vain." On the other hand, if the 
late Centenary be what the body 
of the clergy of Scotland, by their 
absence from the respective banquets, 
unmistakably indicate, and what not 
a few of them have formally declared 
from their pulpits, then Scotland is in 
a very deplorable condition, morally 
considered. We put the question 
in this tangible and legal shape — 
Scotland's clergy versus Scotland's 
inhabitants — in order to shew its 
magnitude, and that the Centenary 
has put our country in a more 
seriously awkward predicament than 
when the bard handled his keenly 
caustic and slashing pen. As this, 
therefore, is the shape which the 
question must assume, we hold it 
both unfair and unmanly that a few, 
a very few, meteoric clergymen, and 
the dashing Philippics of editorial 
Scotsmen, should settle it by a kind 
of French tout (fun coup. We 
have heard all, perhaps, that can be 
said on the one side: candour requires 
that we should give a patient hearing 
to what may be advanced on the 
other — " audi alteram jictrtem." 

By way of preliminary, we may 
state the following things and make 
the following concessions, wliich in 
no manner of way touch the real 
merits of the question. 

1. Scotland's bard had real genius. 
We are not aware that any man, we 
had almost said that any clergyman, 
who has read his productions has 
been slow to make this acknowledg- 
ment. If any such exist, we repu- 
diate his claim to be heard in the 
case. That he was a genius, a real 
character — that his poems are true to 
nature — and tliat he stands at the head 
of Scotland's, and perhaps England's 
and Ireland's, bards, we will not dis- 
pute. Although we might dilate upon 
his genius, might specify in illustra- 
tion of it some of his more finished 



THE ARK. 



23 



productions, and even minor and 
fugitive pieces ; yet we readily admit 
that the late Centenary has fairly 
settled that question. AH classes on ; 
that occasion, including even the I 
clergy, were forward to acknowledge i 
that Burns outstripped all his com- 
petitors, ancient and modern, in tak- 
ing poetic portraits, in the art of 
poetic photography. Surely this con- 
cession will satisfy the voracious maw 
of his warmest lay, clerical, and edi- 
1 torial admirers ! "While making this 
I large concession, shall his worship- ' 
I pers blame us for hesitating to place 
side by side with his effusions those , 
of the seraphic Isaiah, or the sv/eet 
singer of Israel ? Let them be honest ; 
in saying so, that we may not argue 
the question upon sceptical inuen- j 
dos. 1 

2. That the clergymen of Burns's 
day and locality were not what they 
should have been, that they laid i 
themselves open to a severe castiga- [ 
tion, and that such scenes as those 
so graphically described in his " Holy 
Fair " actually took place, may be \ 
admitted. But such an admission is 
foreign to the grave question, — What | 
is the tendency of the life and writ- 
ings of Burns on the religion and : 
morality of society ? It is still an 
open question, whether the weapons '' 
used by the poet were of a legitimate , 
kind, considering the solemnity of the 
subject and the occasion; whether 
there were not other warrantable and \ 
more reputable modes of redressing 
the evils complained of; whether the 
weapons employed were not at vari- 
ance with the boasted religion, the 
consistency of being at " the fair " in 
the character of a communicant, and 
whether the sanctities of the most 
holy ordinance of the Christian re- 
ligion could escape scathless from 
the thunder-storm of ridicule against 
its official administrators ? We can- 
not say we are quite prepared to 



submit this grave question for de- 
cision to those editorial Scotch pens 
that have subjected their holders to 
severe penalty for violating the 
amenities of civil life, and that, too, 
by the verdict of a jury of their 
countrymen ! 

3. The poet's most enthusiastic 
admirers ai'e not slow to admit and 
condemn not a few of his produc- 
tions as scurrilous, and much in his 
life that contravened the first lessons 
of morality. To this we are not 
aware that any have taken excep- 
tion ; and how could they, seeing 
the bard himself made acknov.dedg- 
ment of the fact, and expressed his 
regret? Let it be distinctly under- 
stood, that, at present, we have not 
to do with the defensive or exculpa- 
tory department, which his thick and 
thin admirers resort to, but with the 
tendency of such writings, and such 
a life, upon the morals of society. 
From this a moral logician will not 
allow himself to be driven by such 
exculpatory pleas as, " to err is 
human," an amended edition of his 
works should be published, his ac- 
knowledgment and expressed regret 
testify to his honesty and atone for 
his delinquencies, and he sinned not 
more deeply than did David himself, 
the man according to God's own 
j heart. All such pleas but the more 
strongly admit the dark and stern 
fact, — the fact which still raises the 
I question, whether the immoralities 
adverted to constitute, in the life and 
writings of Burns, the exception 
or the rule; whether the purer 
portions of his productions are 
expository of the darker, or the 
darker are expository of the purer ; 
whether it be possible to read his 
writings otherwise than in the light 
of his life ; and whether ordinary 
mortals can safely separate the 
good from the evil, over the latter of 
which he has thrown the fascinating 



24 



THE AUIC. 



charms of his rare genius ? But I periodical, we shall now conclude 
without any remarks anticipative of | by kindly requesting our readers to 
a more formal consideration of this | study to exercise their own judg- 
very momentous question, which we j ment, without allowing prejudice to 
reserve for next number of our I operate. 



gr. Ilolini fee anir tlje iMnbtrrglr fresbnteti. 

The name of Dr. Robert Lee bids fair about "courting investigation," he 
to become famous in the ecclesiastical should, after a whole month's distinct 
annals of the Established Church of warning by Dr. Balfour's notice, and 
Scotland. That his mode of con- after eight months' warning by the 
ducting public woi'ship in Greyfriars' | General Assembly's injunction, have 
Church is not the same with that craved anotlier month to prepare his 
which obtains among his brethren answer to a simple, plain, and most 
throughout Scotland, is what the intelligible question. As he did 
Doctor himself will not scruple to know, and could not but know, that 
acknowledge, even although the last his mode of conducting public wor- 
General Assembly had not enjoined ship differed from that observed by 
upon Presbyteries to institute an his brethren, how comes it that he 
inquiry into some alleged cases of j required no time, and sought no con- 
innovation in public worship. To sultation with his brethren, for break- 
fix upon some general, and, it may ing through the forms in present use ? 
be, some equivocal terms of the As- ; Tliis conduct has certainly an ugly 
sembly's injunction, is unworthy a look. 

minister who " courts investigation " j But without laying too much stress 
of the alleged innovation, and at ob- on these painful features of the case, 
vious variance with the patent and i what reply is to be given, should he 
well-understood reason of that in- insist on, as an admission of the 
junction. Why should Dr. R, Lee principle of liturgical services, the 
insist on having that injunction of proceedings of the General Assembly 
the Assembly read by the clerk of respecting "Aids to Devotion?" 
the Presbytery? and why should he j Above all, how meet his position, 
seek to shelter himself under its should he adopt it, that the service as 
wings, when his name was so fre- conducted by him accords with that 
quently and disorderly mentioned in performed by the early Reformers, and 
the Assembly's debate, as the reason recommended,if not sanctioned, by the 
and object of its deliverance? We \ Directory for Public AVorship ? On 
confess we are disappointed in our this last- mentioned field must the pre • 
estimate of the Doctor's moral courage sent battle be fought, and we would 
by his resorting to such a low policy, , hint that those who are preparing for 
or rather ecclesiastical diplomacy. the conflict should study deeply the 

It is not pleasant to have to add, 1 Preface to the Directory, as expository 
that after so much said by Dr. Lee ' of that non-estaijlished document. 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by Patost and Ritchie, 81 Princes Street 
(to whom all Communications, prepaid, may be addressed). Glasgow : Thomas Mureat 
AND Son; and sold bv .ill Booksellers. 



PATON AND HITCHIE, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH. 



C|t %x\u 



Vol. II.-N0. 4. 



MARCH 1859. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 
Trinity College Church. 
The Ruling Pkinciples of the Reformation. 
Dr. R. Lee and- the Edinburgh Presbytery. 



©rinitg College CIjiutIj. 



We are always unwilling to take up 
legal questions, tbe discussion of 
which should be confined to the civil 
courts ; but as so many important 
law cases deeply aifijcting the consti- 
tution in Church and State are con- 
stantly making their appearance, we 
hope to be excused when we now and 
then take notice of such. The ques- 
tion relative to the building of Trinity 
College Church has been now for 
some years before the public. Tbe 
North British Railway Company 
scheduled this building for removal, 
it being in the way of their intended 
operations ; to which the Town 
Council of Edinburgh, as heritors, 
objected,, unless a suitable church 
should be erected in lieu thereof. 
The Railway Company refused to 
comply with this, and the matter 
went before a Parliamentary Com- 
mittee. The Town-Council, repre- 
sented by the Lord Provost who had 
full powers, instead of insisting as 
before on the erection of a modern 
church suitable for Presbyterian 
purposes, demanded that provision 
should be made in the Act of Par- 
liament, that if the Railway Com- 
pany removed the church, they 
should be held bound to rebuild it 
according to the old style and model ; 
the reason for this new request being, 
not that the church i-equired to be of 



that peculiar style for Presbyterian 
worship, but because Edinburgh had 
an interest in the maintenance of old 
ecclesiastical edifices, and that this 
church in particular was the admira^ 
tion of those who visited the city in 
search of antiquities. This plea had 
weight with tbe members of com- 
mittee, and a clause was inserted in 
the Act accordingly, but with this 
proviso, that the Company might 
be relieved of their obligation to re- 
build the church by making payment 
to the Council of the sum of £16,000 
and upwards. Of this the Railway 
Company took advantage, being glad 
to be free of all responsibility in the 
matter, which was now left entirely 
in the hands of the Town Council. 

When the subject came under the 
consideration of that body, some were 
desirous of rebuilding the old church, 
considering they were honourably 
bound to do so, while others held 
that the Act of Parliament only 
bound the Railway Company, and 
the legal obligation went no further. 
The question came to be agitated 
throughout the different municipal 
wards of the city, and many a fierce 
election contest turned upon it, while 
the Town Council has for some years 
been the scene of endless strife in con- 
sequence, until it has ended in litiga- 
tion. The Lord Ordinary has de- 



'I 



26 



THE ARK. 



cided that the obligation of the Rail- 
way Company descends to the Coun- 
cil ; they having accepted the money, 
have come under the obligation con- 
tained in the Act. 

We do not object to the interlo- 
cutor of Lord Ardmillan as between 
the imrties ; all having admitted the 
legality of the statute in question. 
It is very evident that if a body of 
men enter into a contract, it is only 
with the consent of all the parties 
concerned that such can be altered or 
departed from ; while one individual 
interested, and having a locus standi., 
can insist upon the original agreement 
being carried out to its full extent. 
The minority of the Council hold this 
exact position in this case ; and, con- 
sequently, have gained the lawsuit as 
far as it has yet gone, looking for a 
similar decision should it go further. 
:; Were it our object merely to defend 
the decision of Lord Ardmillan, we 
would not have brought this matter 
under the attention of our readers ; 
but we proceed to shew that the Town 
Council had no right in laiv as heri- 
tors, to demand that provision should 
be made for the restoration of the 
church in the old style and model ; 
that, therefore, the Act is in this re- 
spect illegal, and ought to have been 
set aside, as such, by his Lordship. 
Although a body of heritors have a 
right to regard a parish church as 
their own property, they must regu- 
late their conduct in the erection of 
chui'ches, and other matters cii'ca 
sacra, according to the religion esta- 
blished by law. When the heritors 
of a parish intend to erect a church, 
a plan is laid before the Presbytery 
of the bounds, who determine if it is 
suited for Presbytei'ian usage. This 
is the common law on the subject, and 
demonstrates the fact that heritors 
are not allowed to act in such matters 
on their own responsibility. It is 
important here to mention, that Ro- 



man Catholic edifices, such as St. 
Giles's and Trinity College Church, 
were not built or intended for Pres- 
byterian worship, but were used by 
the Church of Scotland as they hap- 
pened to survive the Reformation, 
I and as money was not then so plen- 
tiful as now, else provision would 
doubtless have been made for the 
erection of churches of a less ornate 
character. If, however, as in the pre- 
sent case, any of these ancient edi- 
fices happen to be removed, the law 
provides that such are not to be re- 
stored ; seeing that if such were ne- 
cessary, it would suppose that medi- 
aeval architecture is essential to Presby- 
tery. Had the Committee of the 
House of Commons acted in accor- 
dance with law, they would have de- 
manded of Lord Provost Black to 
shew them that there was something 
about the " style and model" of 
Trinity College Church required for 
Presbyterian purposes, before making 
provision that his request should be 
complied with. 

It by no means follows that an 
Act of Parliament is legal, because it 
has happened to receive the assent of 
the Legislature. An Act, before it 
can be legal, must be in accordance 
with common law, as seen in the 
constitution of the country. For in- 
stance, had it been attempted by the 
supporters of Roman Cathohc eman- 
cipation to enact that Mr. O'Connell 
might take his seat in the House of 
Commons for Clare, by swearing the 
oath in a form different from all other 
members ; or in the case of Baron 
Rothschild, that one of the members 
for London could act the same part, 
by omitting the words, " on the true 
faith of a Christian;" it is evident 
such Acts could not be put in force, 
so long as the common law declares 
that all members, with the exception 
of Quakers, must, before taking their 
seats, swear the oaths in the same 



27 



form. Thus, in order to admit Catho- 
lics and Jews, the law common to all 
constituencies is changed, so that a 
Catholic or Jew is equally eligible for 
Edinburgh or Dublin, as for London 
or Clare. It cannot be supposed that 
a different rule is to be observed in 
the case of the Church of Scotland, 
which is one of the institutions of the 
country, by Trinity College Parish 
being made an exception in the oper- 
ation of the law regulating the conduct 
of heritors. It is a flagrant breach of 
civil law, and we have little doubt 
will be held to be so, should this 
point be pled in the Inner Court. 

The case on the part of some in- 
mates of Trinity Hospital carries ab- 
surdity on the very face of it. It 
ignores the Reformation and Revolu- 
tion Settlement, and all the conse- 
quences resulting therefrom as to the 
disposal of ecclesiastical property, j 
The only parties having an interest ! 
and a locus standi in the matter, are i 
the Presbytery and Town Council. If 
the majority of the Council really de- 
sire to carry their case in the superior 1 
courts, the only argument that can be I 
of the slighest service to them, is that • 
we have attempted to state — viz., the j 
illegality of the Act, in so far as pro- ] 
vision is made therein for the erection ; 
of a mediaeval structure, the genius 
of the Presbyterian Church of Scot- 
land, as seen in numerous Acts of 
Parliament, from 1592 to 1690, and 
subsequent to that, being simplicity/, as 
opposed to anything gorgeous in 
architecture and other externals of 
worship ; and to provide by Act of 
Parliament, now, that a parish church 
is to be built in a particular style, on 
account of its antiquity/ — and more 
especially in a style suited and used 
for Roman Catholic worship — is both 
illegal and unconstitutional. Before 
such a statute can be legal. Presby- 
tery must be disestablished. 



The Corporation of the city of 
Edinburgh have acted not a very 
honourable part in connexion with 
this matter. They have broken faith 
with the Legislature and all parties 
concerned ; and were it not that we 
believe a most important principle of 
the reformed constitution in Church, 
and State is involved in the case, we 
confess we have no desire in other 
respects to see a public body, more 
especially invested with magistratical 
authority, capable of acting such a 
part, relieved from the awkward pre- 
dicament into which they have got 
themselves. In conclusion, we sub- 
mit the most honourable way of es- 
capement from obloquy left the Coun- 
cil, is to retrace their steps, to re- 
assume the position of ex-Provost 
Black, when he attempted at first to 
negotiate tlie matter with the Rail- 
way Company before going to the 
Parliamentary Committee. In order 
to accomplish this noiv, the interlo- 
cutor of the Lord Ordinary will have 
to be reversed on the plea above 
stated, and the money so illegally ob- 
tained by the Parliament misunder- 
standing Scottish law, repaid to the 
Company after the erection of a 
modern church in a place convenient 
for the parishioners. Although we 
do not expect they will act thus, 
having a legal right to keep the 
money and dispose of it for the pub- 
lic good in any way they may deem 
best ; still we would beg to remind 
them that the sum was not obtained 
in an honourable manner, and they 
would, by acting thus towards the 
Railway Company, be redeeming the 
chai-acter of the city as well as their 
own reputation ; while the commu- 
nity in general would consider, that 
as magistrates tiiey had set their 
fellow-citizens an example in the 
paths of integrity, honour, and vir- 
tue. 



28 



Ore lluling |H1ndplc3 of tk llcfonnatioir. 



Some nations Lave been eminenlly 
favoured by the sovereign grace of 
Him Avho " doeth according to His 
will in the armies of heaven, and 
among the inhabitants of the earth." 
And next to the chosen people of 
Israel, none have partaken so largely 
of this distinguishing divine favour 
as our own beloved native land. 
After a long dreary niglit of pagan- 
ism, during which these islands were 
full of the habitations of horrid 
cruelty, the rays of the " true light " 
of the Gospel at length reached our 
shores soon after the beginning of 
the Christian era. But this partial 
enlightenment was soon obscured 
again by the rise and propagation of 
the gloomy errors of the Roman 
Antichrist. Nevertheless, God's gra- 
cious purposes could not possibly be 
hindered, and therefore, through His 
tender mercy, the day-spring once 
more visited us from on high at the 
period of the Reformation. 

"When the Lord had delivered 
Israel from the bondage of Egypt, 
He led them aside into the solitude 
of the desert, and there revealed to 
them as a Church and nation, such 
a perfect system of religious truth 
and civil polity, that by adhering 
steadfastly to it they would secure 
His favour and protection, and flou- 
rish in the enjoyment of the high- 
est religious, social, and national pro- 
I sperity. 

i III like manner, at the period of 

i their glorious liberation from Anti- 
I christian bondage, our forefathers 
I were entrusted with the eternal prin- 
ciples of truth, essential to religious 
i and civil liberty, to be embodied in 
I the national constitution, and to be 
I transmitted in all their purity and 
[ power to the genei-ations yet unborn. 
Although, as a nation, we have 



derived incalculable advantages from 
the influence of these precious prin- 
ciples, yet every serious and Chris- 
tian observer is compelled to lament 
the fact, that many evils are at work 
amongst the various religious, social, 
and political ranks, and that these 
evils are so rapidly and widely ex- 
tending as to threaten the most 
alarming results both to the Church 
and State. "While it would be easy 
to trace this deplorable degeneracy 
to the neglect of our Reformation 
principles, and the ignoring of solemn 
national engagements, yet we shall 
not attempt to do so at present, but 
rather take a brief survey of *' the 
good old paths " of truth, out of 
which there is no rest or peace for 
individuals or communities. What 
then were the ruling principles of the 
British Reformation ? 

The more prominent of them may 
be stated in the following proposi- 
tions — 

I. That the Inspired Word of God, 
contained in the Old and New Testa- 
ments, is the only rule of faith and 
duty. 

II. That it is the binding duty of 
the Church to give her formal testi- 
mony to the truths contained in the 
Scriptures, by a systematic and 
written confession of her faith. 

in. That it is likewise the 
Church's duty to declare her adher- 
ence to truths already ascertained, 
and to hold them fast unto the end. 

IV. That national as well as in- 
dividual covenanting is a part of re- 
ligious worship, and that such cove- 
nants are of continual obligation. 

These are the outstanding princi- 
ples which were " most surely be- 
lieved amongst us " in the purest and 
liveliest times of the Church of God 
in this land ; but as they are now 



too generally despised or forgotten, 
we may here consider them briefly. 

I. The illustrious and central 
principle received and acted upon by 
the Reformers was, that the Scrip- 
tures of the Old and New Testament 
are the word of God, and the only 
rule of faith and holy obedience, to 
which nothing is to be added by pre- 
tended new revelations of the Spirit, 
or by tradition. In support of this 
doctrine, the inspired volume is suf- 
ficiently distinct. " To the law, and 
to the testimony ; if they speak not 
according to this word, it is because 
there is no light in them," Isa. viii. 
20. " All scripture is given by in- 
spiration of God," &c., 2 Tim. iii. 
15-17. Tliis is a principle founded 
not on the theories of fallible men, | 
but on the eternal and immutable 
truth of the living God. 

II. It was held also as a clear 
principle of Scripture, and therefore 
the Church's bounden duty, to make 
a distinct and formal confession of 
her faith ; " and for the more effec- 
tual detection and confutation of 
error, and elucidation of truth — for 
preserving that uniformity of senti- 
ment among her own members, 
without which there can be no com- 
fortable or profitable I'eligious fellow- 
ship — for the information of foreign 
churches — and especially for the trans- 
mitting of her religious attainments 
to succeeding generations — to com- 
mit that profession to writing, to 
give it her judicial sanction, and to 
ratify it by her solemn vows to God." 

Objections against written creeds 
and confessions are now very popular; 
but the practice is clearly in accord- 
ance with the Word of God, and has 
been a characteristic part of the 
Church's work since the beginning. 

Jesus Christ, the only King and 
Head of the Church, has revealed 
Himself as the " Faithful and True 
Witness ; " and in this character He 



witnessed a good confession before 
Pontius Pilate, Kev. iii. 14 ; 1 Tim. 
vi. 12, 13. He has committed to 
His Church the whole system of re- 
vealed truth — the oracles of God ; 
and she is bound to contend earnestly 
for the faith thus delivered to the 
saints. As the Church is the orga- 
nised society of Christ, founded on 
the doctrine of the apostles and pro- 
phets, it is essentially her duty to 
declare for Him in His person, offi- 
cial character, and revealed truths. 
This principle has been acknowledged 
and acted upon by the Church from 
the days of Abel down to those of 
the Incarnation of Christ, which is 
declared to be " a great cloud of wit- 
nesses," and has been practically fol- 
lowed by the Church since apostolic 
times, especially during the domina- 
tion of the eastern and western Anti- 
christs. Now, as witness-bearing is 
a formal and solemn act, so in the 
case of the Church which bears wit- 
ness to the truth of God, it must 
necessarily be judicial, and assume 
the form of a document to be seen 
and read of all men ; it must serve 
to the Church the same purposes 
which a banner serves to an army 
(Isa. xliii. 10; Luke xxiv. 48; Acts 
i. 8). " Thou hast given a banner to 
them that fear Thee, that it may be 
displayed because of the Truth," 
Psa. Ix. 4. In the name of our God 
we will set up our banners," Psa. 
XX. 5. By such a document alone — 
a continuous confession — can the 
Church be recognised as the same 
society at different times, and in vari- 
ous places; and by this alone is it pos- 
sible to trace historically the Church 
of Christ since the days of Christ's 
ascension to glory. In accordance 
with the principle of a testimony, or 
judicial declaration of the visible 
Church, by which alone we could 
trace her visibility, and learn her 
history from the time of her erection 



TiiK ai;k. 



on earth till the present hour, have 
we her creeds, and confessions, and 
testimonies. "For He established a 
testimony in Jacob, and appointed 
a law in Israel, which He commanded 
our fathers, that they should make 
them known to their children ; that 
the generation to come might know 
them, even the children which should 
be born ; who should arise and de- 
clare them to their children." Such 
a symbolic book is essential to the 
character of the Church of Christ as 
a witnessing society, and especially 
during an era of divisions and apos- 
tacy. (See Europe's Crisis, pp. 341- 
344.) 

Throughout the Word of God we 
find the Church thus characterised as 
a society bearing explicit testimony 
to the truth. Zion is expressly called 
upon to unfurl her banner, and to 
confess her God. Our Lord also de- 
manded from the disciples their ex- 
press testimony to His character, 
when He asked, " But whom say ye 
that I am ? " And after they had 
responded, He adds, " Whosoever 
therefore shall confess me before men, 
him will I confess also before my 
Father which is in heaven. But 
whosoever shall deny me before men, 
him will I also deny before my Father 
which is in heaven." The Church of 
Philadelphia is commended because, 
says Christ, "Thou hast kept my 
word, and hast not denied my name." 
And finally the whole redeemed com- 
pany of martyrs are described thus, 
" I saw under the altar the souls of 
them that were slain for the word of 
God, and for the testmony which they 
held." 

To conclude this general summary 
of the scriptural argument, we quote 
the words of a late eminent servant 
of God : " All those to whom the word 
of God comes are bound by the 
highest authority to believe it. This 
will be granted by all who admit its 



Divine origin. But it is no less evi- 
dent that the belief of the truth is to 
be followed by a public and joint pro- 
fession of it ; ' with the heart man 
believeth unto righteousness, and with 
the mouth confession is made unto sal- 
vation,' Kom. X. 10. The Scriptures 
also plainly teach that the Church is 
a society formed upon a public and 
joint profession of the doctrines and 
laws of supernatural revelation ; and 
as that revelation is one, so all the 
members of the Church have one faith 
and one profession. 'Endeavouring 
to keep the unity of the Spirit in the 
bond of peace. There is one body, 
and one Spirit, even as ye are called 
in one hope of your calling; one Lord, 
one faith, one baptism,' Eph. iv. 3-5. 
Her members are enjoined not only 
to be one in sentiment about the 
matters of God, but also in their public 
profession to speak the same things ; 
' I beseech you, brethren, by the name 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all 
speak the same thing, and that there 
be no division among you ; but that 
ye be perfectly joined together in the 
same mind, and in the same judg- 
ment,' 1 Cor. i. 10. Without unity 
in sentiment, there can be no com- 
I fortable or profitable fellowship among 
j the members of the Church. ' Can 
I two walk together except they be 
agreed?' To ascertain this coinci- 
i dence of sentiment among the mem- 
[ bersof the Church, there must be some 
declaration of principles, to which all 
; who seek admission to her fellowship 
I are required to accede." 
I It is objected that no more is ne- 
I cessary to ascertain this unity but a 
simple declaration of adherence to the 
Scriptures. Experience, however, has 
taught us that this is insufficient, since 
all denominations of professed Chris- 
tians profess to receive the Scriptures 
as the rule of their faith, though they 
differ widely fi-om one another about 
tlie fundamental doctrines. In this 



31 



case, Avians, Socinians, Arminians, 
and Calvinists might be comprehen- 
ded in the same Church, and might 
all sit down at the same communion 
table ; for they all profess to receive 
the Scriptures as the rule of their faith 
and practice. This shews the ne- 
cessity of some explanatory standard 
as the basis of her unity, and a term 
of her religious fellowship, containing 
a declaration of the sense in which 
the Church understands the sacred 
oracles. 

Again it is objected, " that con- 
fessions of faith tend to weaken a sense 
of the authority of the Scriptures, the 
only rule of faith and practice." They 
have no such tendency, but the con- 
trary. They do not proceed upon any 
supposed insufficiency of Scripture, 
but upon the well-known propensity 
of man to pervert and misapply its 
meaning ; and so far from weakening 
its authority, they are calculated to 
vindicate its doctrines and laws from 
the false constructions that have been 
put upon them by men of corrupt 
minds. And so they have been uni- 
formly received and acted upon by 
Protestants, not as the rule of their 
faith, but as the form of their Christian 
profession ; not as supreme, but only 
as subordinate and explanatory stan- 
dards. 

It is further objected " that they 
suppose that men may express the 
truths of God with more precision 
than He has done Himself" But this 
objection might apply equally to the 
ordinance of preaching, and every 
other mode of religious instruction. 
One design of preaching is to metho- 
dise, illustrate, and explain the doc- 
trines and laws of inspiration, so as 
to bring them, as much as possible, to 
the level of the capacity of the gene- 



rality of mankind. But Avho ever 
supposed that this tends to impeach 
the perfection of the words of the 
Holy Spirit? We suppose that the 
enemies of public creeds are not 
yet prepared to discard the ordinance 
of preaching as a human invention ; 
but they might do so on the same 
principle upon which they condemn 
public confessions. We shall only add, 
that notwithstanding the abhorrence 
which some have of public creeds, 
they find themselves obliged to have 
recourse to what is equivalent to 
them. " Against public articles of 
faith," says a judicious writer, " many 
Christians are strongly prepossessed. 
The prejudice, however, is more 
against the name than the thing. 
Every Church has certain religious 
principles for the basis of its union. 
It has its discriminative persuasion 
expressed in one manner or other, and 
more or less exactly understood by its 
members. What has brought them 
together, and what retains them in 
fellowship, but coincidence of religious 
sentiments ? How is this coincidence 
discovered but by mutual explana- 
tions? Who knows not that the 
common persuasion of the Church is 
often as rigorously applied in the ad- 
mission and exclusion of members, 
among those who condemn creeds and 
confessions in name, as among those 
who maintain their utility? Since 
every Church, then, has its own system 
of acknowledged principles, it appears 
unreasonable to condemn an expe- 
dient of which the object is merely to 
ascertain them with the utmost pos- 
sible precision, and to exhibit them 
with the utmost possible publicity." 

We shall postpone the consider- 
ation of the other two leading princi- 
ples to another occasion. 



gr. % fee Eiitr tlje itrlnhtrglf f mbgtcrg. 

The Edinbvirgh Presbytery met on the 23d ult., when Dr. Lee delivered an elaborate speech 
in reply to the question put to him by the Presb\i;ery at their last meeting. The court was 
evidently taken by surprise by the Rev. Dr. becoming querist in turn; from being defender, 
he assumed the position of "accuser of the brethren." The proceedings presented that total 
want of order, which has characterised this case through its successive stages — many of the 
speakers, by their conduct, destroying the common idea attachable to a court. 

In our last, we stated that the Directory for the Public Worship of God was a non-estab- 
lished document ; this the Rev. Dr. lias thought fit to deny, and has rested all his argument 
thereupon. We are therefore under the necessity of proving our assertion — whether to Dr. 
Lee's satisfaction we cannot say, but to the satisfaction of every honest mind. We do not go 
far to seek proof, finding all we' want in Dr. Lee's own words : — 

" At the very time when the Estates of Parliament were discussing the Ki-volution Settle* 
ment in 1690, there appeared an address of the Presbyterian Ministers and Professors of the 
Church of Scotland to the Estates of Parliament. Tliis address shews what they under- 
stood to be the law of the Church. They state that their admce to the Estates is, that 
they sanction the Confession, the Larger "and Shorter Catechisms, the Directory for the 
Public Worship of God, and the form of Presbyterial Church government and discipline — 
that is to say, the whole five documents compiled by the Westminster Assembly — all of which 
they knew that the Church had solemnly committed themselves to; and the only reason 
why the Estates did not sanction the whole was, that their patience was exhausted by the 
hearing of the Confession of Faith, and they would hear no more." 

This serves our present purpose. It matters not for what reason the Directory was not 
established, if it was not established. This is a specimen of Dr. Lee's argaimentation — it is 
even destitute of the plea of plausible sophistry. But the learned Professor goes on to defend 
the use of a form of prayers. We have no wish to discuss the question with him ; but we 
would hint, that if his conduct in the Presbytery was a sample of the spiritual edification and 
devotional feeling that the reading of praj'ers imparts, we would be apt to exclaim, in similar 
terms to the Service-Book — From Liturgies and Forms of Prayer " Good Lord deliver us." 
And, as the Rev. Dr. is ever and anon referring to his Kirk-session and congregation, we ask, 
whether the use of a liturgy has the same effect upon them which it seems to have on himself. 
As to the parallel, or rather contrast, which Dr. Lee attempts to draw between the impro- 
priety of addressing the Queen in an extempore manner, and therefore of the still greater 
incongruity of addressing God in pra3-er in a similar way, we would say, that it is not Dr. 
Lee's idea of the Majesty of heaven that is the standard, "but simply and solely what God has 
been pleased to reveal concerning His glorious Majesty in His Word. 

Verily, Dr. Lee has given rather an equivocal exemplification of the loyalty he professes 
for the Majegty of Heaven, in the light in which he now views his ordination vows, and in 
the disrespect which he shewed to an ecclesiastical court. Turning, however, from this view of 
the subject, our attention is now directed to the accusations which Dr. Lee brought against his 
brother presbyters. We view such accusations as eminent signs of the times, shewing that 
the Church as well as the State is ripe for judgment, when the gloried-in doctrines of our 
covenanting fathers are trampled under foot. " Many pastors have destroyed my vine- 
yard." We could not have believed that there was such a lack of the royal grace of love in 
the Edinburgh Presbytery, as the statement of the Rev. Dr. exhibits, "it shews a state of 
matters the most deplorable ; a spirit repugnant to human nature, fallen though it be. And 
knowing the many breaches they had made in tlie constitution of the Churcli, to stand as 
prosecutors for a similar ofience" shews an amount of shamelessness and audacity passing far 
that of the Pharisees who brought the woman taken in adultery to our Lord. " lie that is 
without sin among you let him first cast a stone at her." 

Ere we conclude, we have a word to those who replied to Dr. Lee. So long as they con- 
tinue speaking " with all respect " of the Anglican Church, they will never stand on tei-ra 
firina ; they will never rid their feet from the mire in which they are entangled by such lan- 
guage. Our ancestors knew far better how to treat the subject, when they declared Episcopacy 
to be part of the " wicked hierarchy," and instead of playing the coquette, openly and unani- 
mously gave it as their conviction that " it ought to be abolished." 

If time and space permit, however, we will, in our next, address ourselves to a consideration 
of the merits of the question. 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by Paton and Riichie, 81 Princes Street 
(to whom all Communications, prepaid, may be addressed). Glasgow : Thomas Muueat 
AND Son ; and sold by .all Booksellers. 



PATON AND I'.ITCHIK, rRLNTER.'!, EDINBURGH. 



Vol. II.-N0. 5. 



Cfje %xiu 



APRIL 1859. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

" The Testmony of Jesus." 

"Our Light Affliction, which is but for a moment. 
FxTRACT FROM Kev. Alex^vndeb Monckikff 
Church-Government Scriptdrai, anu Essential. 



'%\}t ©estimonir oi %m\s:' 



Rev. xix. 10. 



The preceding and subsequent con- 
texts point out the closing scene of 
the European regal decade of politi- 
cal and ecclesiastical domination, and 
the introduction of the long predicted 
and sustaining millennial blessedness, 
as the accurate chronology of this in- 
teresting vision. We are furnished 
with a special invitation, given by the 
ministerial angel, to raise and con- 
tinue the song of praise for passing 
sentence of judgment upon the mys- 
tical Babylon ; the hearty compli- 
ance of those found at the dawn of 
the millennium with this invitation ; 
the marriage of the Lamb with the 
Jews, according to promise ; and the 
blessedness of those invited to be 
guests on this festive bridal occasion. 
In this verse, again, we have the con- 
duct of the apocalyptist in falling 
down before and offering divine wor- 
ship to this millennial representative 
minister ; the rebuke administered to 
John — " See thou do it not ; " and 
the reason assigned for the rebuke, 
and directive of John's future con- 
duct — " I am thy fellow-servant, 
and of thy brethren that have the 
testimony of Jesus." This reason 
most clearly indicates that this angel 
was, like John, vested with ministerial 
authority ; that they were 



in their respective times in the same 
public work ; that they and all those 
witnesses who intervened held the 
same testimony ; formed the one con- 
tinuous and identical witnessing so- 
ciety ; and that, in point of gifts, 
graces, and attainments, this minis- 
terial angel excelled even the apostles. 
The concluding clause of this 
deeply interesting passage — " For the 
testimony of Jesus is the spirit of 
prophecy" — has, because of real and 
alleged diflBculties of a consistent ex- 
position of it, been designated " the 
cross of interpreters." That difficulty, 
we apprehend, has arisen from the 
popular aversion to admit the doc- 
trine of one visible and continuously 
identical Church of Christ, distin- 
guishable from all ecclesiastical com- 
petitors and rivals by the testimony 
of Jesus, according to the obvious re- 
quirements of this verse — "I am thy 
fellow-servant, and of thy brethren 
that have the testimony of Jesus." 
The sound exposition of the passage, 
therefore, must depend on the true, 
the scriptural sense of the phrase, 
" the testimony of Jesus." And in 
the event of accurately ascertaining 
that true sense, it will be less difficult 
to shew how the testimony of Jesus 
is the spirit of prophecy. 



34 



As preliminary, and also necessary, , 
to an intelligible and safe exposition \ 
of this phrase, "the testimony of 
Jesus," we must observe its close 
connexion with the preceding clauses j 
of the verse, as seen in the term for — j 
" For the testimony of Jesus is the 
spirit of prophecy." The mistake 
into which John fell, and by which 
he concluded that this angel was 
Christ himself, was rectified by not 
only saying, " I am thy fellow-ser- 
vant, and the fellow-servant of them 
that have the testimony of Jesus;" 
but by declaring that he could be 
John's fellow-servant, and the fellow- 
servant of all successive witnessing 
brethren, because he and they held the 
same testimony of Jesus. Thus John 
was, and all his ministerial successors 
were, ministerial prophets, and formed 
one continuous society of witnesses, be- 
cause they held the testimony of Jesus. 

A testimony may, for popular pur- 
poses, be defined, the evidence of 
a witness, given in open court, admin- 
istered and taken with all the solem- 
nity of an oath, carrying judicial 
weight. Such a proper testimony, as 
it is distinguished fi'om mere and 
fluctuating and dubious opinion, re- 
spects a formal declaration of the 
whole ascertained truth of God. 
" Teaching them to observe all things 
whatsoever I have commanded you." 
And thus " he that is unfaithful in 
the least is also unfaithful in that 
which is much, and he that offends 
in one thing is guilty of all." These 
things, at least, are included in the 
testimony of the faitliful witness of 
Christ, and where prejudice, and bi- 
gotry, and latitudinarianism prevail 
not, are universally admitted and 
acted on. 

In the interpretation of this phrase 
we require to keep in eye, that the 
volume of inspiration specifies and 
distinguishes three kinds of testimony, 
— the testimony of God, the testi- 



mony of the Church, and " the testi- 
mony of Jesus." In regard to the 
first, the testimony of God the Father, 
it is the written word, all of which is 
given by inspiration of God. Hence, 
asawitness, God has given His solemn 
I oath to the truth of inspiration ; — 
" that by two immutable things* in 
which it is impossible for God to lie ; " 
j hence also, '' He established a testi- 
mony in Jacob, and appointed a law 
in Israel," Secondly, and as distin- 
! guishable from this testimony of God, 
i we have the testimony of the visible 
i Church. Her testimony is her formal 
i and judicial response to the written 
word, is her confession of faith to be 
seen and read by all men. This 
distinction is not oidy recognised, but 
formally declared in the written word, 
Rev. vi. 9, " And when he had 
\ opened the fifth seal, I saw under the 
altar the souls of them that were slain 
for the word of God, and for the testi- 
momj icldch they lield" Rev. xii. 11, 
" And they overcame him by the 
blood of the Lamb, and by the word 
: of their testimom/." But, thirdly, the 
testimony of God, and the testimony 
of the visible Church, are distin- 
guished from the testimony of Jesus. 
j AVhile the commentators and exposi- 
tors consulted, satisfactorily enough 
i distinguish betwixt the testimony of 
j God and of the visible Church, they 
I do appear to us to confound the wi'itten 
word, the testimony of God, with the 
testimony of Jesus, — they resolve 
both into the one testimony, the vol- 
ume of inspiration. 

Without, then, in the first place, 
attempting to fix the specific meaning 
of the phrase, the " testimony of 
Jesus," we shall shew that inspiration 
does distinguish betwixt these two. Let 
the following passages suffice : — Rev. 
i. 2, " Who bare record of the word 
of God, and of the testimoni/ of Jesus 
Christ." Rev. i. 9, " I was in the isle 
that is called Patmos, for the word of 



35 



God, and for the testimony of Jesus 
Christ." Rev, xii. 17, "And the | 
dragon was wroth with the woman, j 
and went to make war with the 
remnant of her seed, which keep the i 
commandments of God, and have the \ 
testimony of Jesus Christ" In fine, ! 
we have the very explicit language 
of the passage under consideration, 
and that, too, emphatically repeated: 
" that have the testimony of Jesus : ! 
for the testimony of Jesus is the i 
spirit of prophecy." These, and 
similarly worded passages, pave the i 
way for attempting to fix the precise 
meaning of this phrase. There is one 
portion of the written word which, 1 
properly considered, is not the testi- 
mony of God the Father, but pecu- 
liarly of Jesus, and that is the Apo- j 
calypse, or the Book of the Revela- j 
tion. It is, therefore, as given by 
Christ to John after His ascension to 
glory, designated, " the revelation of 
Christ, the testimony of Jesus." 
Rev. i. 1, 2, "The Revelation of 
Jesus Christ, The word of God, and 
the testimony of Jesus Christ." The 
things of the Apocalypse revealed to 
John were to be shewn to all his 



official successors — " to all his ser- 
vants ;" and now this angel says, "I 
am thy fellow- servant, and of them 
that have the testimony of Jesus." 
The accuracy of this exposition ap- 
pears from such considerations as 
the following: 1, The revelations of 
tiiis book were not made by God the 
Father, but are ascribed to Christ, 
to Jesus, to the voice, the Son of 
God. Rev, i. 18, 19, "I am He that 
liveth, and was dead ; and, behold, I 
am alive for evermore. Amen ; and 
have the keys of hell and of death. 
Write the things which thou hast 
seen, and the things which are, and 
the things which shall be hereafter." 
2. And in close connexion with the 
above, when God challenged creation 
to advance and open the sealed book 
of the Apocalyse, none save the Lamb 
of God was found adequate for the 
task, which thus became eminently and 
peculiarly His own. And, 3. Unless 
we adopt this view, we will fail in 
giving anything like a satisfactory 
exposition of such language as " the 
word of God, and the testimony of 
Jesus," with which it abounds. 
(To he resumed.') 



fur f tgljt iiictiaii, iaMcI) is but Ux a moment/' 



"Man," says Job, "is born unto 
trouble as the sparks fly upward." 
Suffering and death, the legitimate 
consequences of sin, have fallen to 
the lot of all men, by our first 
parents' eating of 

" 'J'he fruit 
Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste 
Brought death iuto the world, and all our 
woe." 

In order to restore finite and fallen 
man to his intimate relationship with 
the Infinite and Infallible, the suffer- 
ings and death of his nature, mysteri- 
ously linked with tliat of the divine, 
was necessary. Humanity sinned. 



therefore humanity must suffer ; the 
Infinite was sinned against, conse- 
quently none but the Infinite can 
give the required satisfaction. The 
blessed Emmanuel, God in the flesh, 
has wrought out this unspeakably 
glorious salvation for a chosen num- 
ber, who are, through His surety 
righteousness, delivered from suffer- 
ing and death — whether temporal, 
spiritual, or eternal — as the -punishment 
of sin. But though the elect are thus 
delivered, through Christ's perfiect 
sacrifice, from suffering and death as 
the punishment of sin (for no endur- 
ance of sufiering on the part of the 



36 



creature can ever atone for his sin 
against God, and the reprobate are 
eternally detained in torment because 
they cannot pay to God what they 
owe), yet we find that a certain 
amount of affliction is imposed upon 
the regenerate as a necessary disci- 
pline to fit them for glory. Had 
man not sinned, no such preparation 
for heaven was requisite, there being 
no moral impurities requiring purga- 
tion. But man is the heir of de- 
pravity, and because of this he must 
be purified by sufiering. Natural 
death the Christian is also called 
upon to endure, not necessarily, for 
it has been already undergone for 
him, but as his last grim enemy, 
who, seeming to subdue him, is, in 
reality, the messenger sent to deliver 
him from eveiy other foe, and to 
conduct him home a glorious con- 
queror, to receive from his King a 
palm, a crown, and an inheritance 
eternal in the heavens. 

If we then would reign with Christ, 

we must, of necessity, suffer with 

Him ; we must drink of His cup, 

and be baptized with the same fiery 

baptism. The great question of 

every man's life is, Whether he will 

suffer affliction with the people of 

God, or enjoy the pleasures of sin for 

a season ? If God himself do not 

give us grace to decide this momen- 

toqs question, we will, without doubt, 

choose the worse ; although even the 

j natural intellect, if rightly exercised, 

I will enable us to see that all tlie pro- 

! fit is on the side of the former, and 

' nothing but loss, eternal loss, the re- 

! suit of the latter. To serve God has 

i the promise of the life that now is, 

I and that which is to come ; tlie ser- 

j vice of sin has the assurance of 

j neither. If we serve God we know 

I that we sh^U have affliction, for " we 

I must, through much tribulation, enter 

I the kingdom of God." But if we 

serve sin, are we thereby excluded 



from suffering, or have we the 
smallest security of an hour's enjoy- 
ment of its unhallowed pleasures and 
rewards? Suppose we had — tliat 
we could, by some means, be assured 
of a long life spent in the uninter- 
rupted gratification of every earthly 
desire and dehght, — what follows? 
Death, and an eternity of unutterable 
woe ! The longest life will come to 
an end ; and what proportion do 
seventy, eighty, or even an hundred 
years spent in pleasure, bear to an 
eternity of misery, anguish, and de- 
spair ? " For what is a man pro- 
fited if he shall gain the whole world, 
and lose his own soul ? 

Although the afflictions which God 
sees meet to lay upon His people are 
painful to bear, and intended by Him 
to be so ; yet, when we compare 
them, on the one hand, with the 
everlasting torment of the repro- 
bate, — and contrast them, on the 
other, with the unspeakable glory 
that shall follow their patient endur- 
ance, — all earthly suffering sinks into 
insignificance, and is less than a 
speck of star-dust in the regions of 
immensity. It is by looking at afflic- 
tion in this way, that we are enabled, 
like the apostle Paul, to characterise 
it as light, and but for a moment. In 
order that we may cordially assent 
to such a conclusion, it may, per- 
haps, be pertinent to inquire, Who 
is this that can so afford to regard 
affliction ? And has the man who 
speaks really known suffering in its 
fiery intensity ? True it is, that 
these words are the words of inspira- 
tion ; but it is also true that the 
Holy Spirit employs the endowments 
and experiences of the vaiious writers 
in the Word, as the vehicles to con- 
vey His inspired truth to us. Let us 
hear, then, the writer's own testimony 
as to his afflictions, of which he 
furnishes us with a very general 
catalr>gue in the eleventh chapter of 



37 



his 2d Elpistle to the Corinthians, 
from the 23(1 verse to the end. So 
numerous and varied are the trials 
and persecutions here enumerated, 
that the mind is tempted to doubt 
the possibility of one man outliving 
so incredible an amount of physical 
and mental torture ; and the apostle, 
feeling this, solemnly takes God to 
witness that what he says is no ex- 
aggeration ; verse 31st — "The God 
and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
who is blessed for evermore, knoweth 
that I lie not." Had Paul not been 
a man more than ordinarily beloved 
of his Lord, and honoured by Him i 
to labour more abundantly in His 
Church than any of the other apos- 
tles, his frail tabernacle could not ; 
have survived the daily death to 
which it was subjected. So nobly 
had the grace of God enabled him to 
subdue sense, that, when informed 
by the Spirit that bonds and afflic- \ 
tions awaited him in every city, he 
could triumphantly exclaim, "None! 
of these things move me ;" and when j 
his loving brethren teartuUy besought 
him not to go up to Jerusalem to j 
certain imprisonment, he bade them 
desist, and shewed them that the 
glory of the Cross was to him infi- ' 
nitely more precious than any personal 
consideration ; — " What, mean ye to j 
weep and to break mine heart ? for 
1 am ready not to bound only, but ! 
also to die, for the name of the Lord ; 
Jesus." Not only did this earnest ' 
martyr of Christ fail to be discour- 
aged at the prospect of suffering, but j 
under its actual endurance he could 
rejoice in it, and sing loud praises to 
God, as we find him doing in the 
inner prison of Philippi. And what 
was the secret of this strange joy ? 
Jt was tliis. The apostle felt, that 
by such discipline the natural man 
within him was ever receiving deeper 
and deadlier wounds ; while the 
spiritual man was strengthened and 



invigorated, like a giant refreshed 
with wine. "Therefore," he says, 
"I take pleasure in infirmities, in re- 
proaches, in necessities, in persecu- 
tions, in distresses for Christ's sake ; 
for when I am weak then am I strong." 

Now, if such was the exercise of a 
man who lived at a time when those 
who professed Christianity were called 
upon to endure grevious suffering, re- 
proach, loss of property, and frequently 
of life, for Christ's sake ; and who, 
above all that cloud of faithful wit- 
nesses, was "in labours more abun- 
dant, in stripes above measure, in 
prisons more frequent" — if He could 
thus regard the severest affliction, 
what shall we say of those who, liv- 
ing in very different and highly fa- 
voured times, will not even sacrifice 
the smallest and most contemptible 
earthly preferment for the honour of 
Christ and His cause? Where has 
the spirit of the holy apostles and 
martyrs gone, when so few of their 
professed followers will now bear the 
smallest reproach for the name of 
Christ — when the faintest breath of 
opposition will turn them aside from 
the path of duty ; and who, lured by 
uncrucified sense, will leave the pure 
realities of a spiritual worship, to re- 
turn to shadowy types and symbols, 
now worthless and idolatrous, because 
of their removal by God to make way 
for the more glorious manifestation of 
their Divine Antitype ? 

To those who are by faith patient- 
ly enduring severe affliction, of what- 
ever nature it may be, whether phy- 
sical suffering, loss of friends, or of 
this world's goods, or reproach for 
the name of Christ, we would say, 
Great is your reward in the kingdom 
of heaven, " for your light affliction, 
which is but for a moment, worketh 
for you a far more exceeding and 
eternal weight of glory." Long and 
painful that affliction may be ; and 
by reason of its intensity, the sufferer 



may be constrained to exclaim with 
Him who suffered as man can never 
suffer, " My God, my God, why hast 
thou forsaken me ? " Yet the support- 
ing arm is beneath him, though he 
may not feel it ; and that unutterable 
love which planned, wrought out, and 
brought home to him his redemption, 
measures skilfully every drop put 
into his cup, and will not afflict him 
above what he is able to bear ; and 
though his afflictions may continue to 
the end of his days, yet his trans- 
ports will be the more ecstatic when 
his temporary sufferings shall be 
eternal rejoicings ; for infirmity and 
sin, — unchangeable holiness; for 
waxing and waning faith, — unfading 



vision in the presence of the Lamb. 

" For eye hath not seen, nor ear 

heard, neither have entered into the 

heart of man the things which God 

hath prepared for them that love 

Him." With such a glorious pros- 

! pect, who will refuse to endure, yea 

I even to rejoice in affliction ? Let us 

I then in its endurance be consoled by 

j the example of those holy mea who 

have gone before ; but especially, and 

above all, may we be found "looking 

unto Jesus, the author and finisher of 

our faith ; who, for the joy that was 

set before Him, endured the cross, 

despising the shame, and is set down 

at the right hand of the throne of 

God." 



Cdnrt from |iit. |llcenkr Ifloncricff. 



Nothing is more certain than that 
cleaving to God, and close walking 
with Him, zeal for the kingdom of 
Jesus Christ, for His truths, and 
purity of His worship, and for the 
government of His house, our en- 
deavouring personal and family, as 
well as public reformation, and our 
promoting the honour of God, ac- 
cording to our several stations and 
capacities, are duties incumbent upon 
us by the Scriptures of truth, and 
the authority of the God of heaven ; 
and all ranks among us in Scotland, 
who are, by the solemn oath of God, 
sworn to be active in these duties, 
having grossly transgressed in every 
one of these particulars, as our tres- 
passes are grown up to the heavens, 
so we have reason to fear, that be- 
cause of the oath of the covenant 
these lands of Scotland, England, 
and Ireland shall mourn ; and that 
the Lord shall pursue the quarrel 
thereof until He bring darkness and 
desolation upon us. Ezek. xvii. 
15, 19, " Shall he break the covenant, 



and be delivered? Thus saith the 
Lord God, As I live, surely mine oath 
that he hath despised, and my cove- 
nant that he hath broken, even it 
will I recompense upon his own 
head." Dan.ix. 4, 8, " And I prayed 
unto the Lord my God, and made my 
confession, and said, O Lord, the 
great and dreadful God, keeping the 
covenant and mercy to them that 
love Him, and to them that keep 
His commandments, Lord, to us 
belongeth confusion of face, to our 
kings, to our princes, and to our 
fathers, because we have sinned 
against Thee." 

These lands belong to Christ, by a 
deed of giit from the Father, — Psalm 
ii. 8, " Ask of me, and J shall give 
thee the heathen for thine inherit- 
ance, and the uttermost parts of the 
earth for thy possession ; " and by 
resignation of themselves to Him in 
our covenant's national and solemn 
league; but we forgot His mighty 
works, believed not in God, nor 
trusted in His salvation, but have 



39 



departed from the Lord by a gradual j 
backsliding, till our defection is come \ 
to a most lamentable height ! j 

A flood of oppression has over- 
flowed the land, hirelings are in^ 
traded upon the heritage of the Lord, 
and the cries of the oppressed are , 
ascending up to heaven. Christ has 
been dethroned, and the idol of self ! 
set up in His room ; and the author- j 
ity of Christ has been attacked, and 
the authority of men set up above it ; i 
and that by public deeds both of i 
Church and State. 1 

We look like a people ripened for j 
judgment, if we consider that Christ 
and His Gospel are despised, that 
sin is become universal, and the 
wickedness of man is great in the 
earth. The Spirit of God is re- 
proached, and the Son of God is 
blasphemed ; lesser judgments have 
not reclaimed us, and warnings by 
God's Word and Providence have 
been contemned, and a deep security 
has seized all ranks of persons. And 
many sinful compliances have been 
made with the sinful courses, both of 
present and former times. Hos. v. 
11, 12, 14, "Ephraim is oppressed 
and broken in judgment, because he 
willingly walked after the command- 
ment. Therefore will I be unto 
Ephraim as a moth, and to the 
house of Judah as rottenness. For 



I will be unto Ephraim as a lion, 
and as a young lion to the house of 
Judah; I, even I, will tear and go 
away ; I will take away, and none 
shall rescue him." 

And we have good ground to ap- 
prehend the approach of tearing, and 
lion-like judgments that " will spare 
none;" that the wise man shall not 
be delivered by his wisdom, the 
strong man by his strength, nor the 
1 rich man by his riches, nor the time- 
i serving man by his sneaking com- 
1 pliances ; such judgments as shall be 
j sudden and surprising, so awful and 
terrible, that men's hearts shall fail 
\ them ! that there shall be no way to 
I escape them, or flee from them, and 
by which these lands in many places 
shall be " laid desolate," and being 
j " desolate shall mourn." 

Men have taken their time of sin- 
ning, and God will take His time of 
i punishing ; He will vindicate His own 
j holiness, and maintain His authority 
i and government of the world. Men 
have pled for a toleration of error 
and blasphemy from this topic, that 
"God can right Himself; and so He 
will," to the terror of Britain and 
Ireland ; and will punish these sins 
that magistrates would not punish, 
and ministers would not censure. 
" And because I will do this unto 
thee, prepare to meet thy God." 



Cl]iirclr=6aircrament Scriptural anb €sm\M. 



As divine revelation, so whatsoever 
is thereby intimated and ordained, 
concurs unto both these noble ends, 
the salvation of men, in subordination 
unto the glory of God ; and it is God 
Mediator into whosehand this revenue 
of glory doth immediately come ; 
whatsoever glory He acquiresisa^'ZH^'- 
lyglorjj. The glorifying of His priest- 
hood must respect Him as a "priest 
upon His throne," Zech. vi. 13. The 



glorifying of His prophetical office 
must respect Him " as one having 
authority," Matt, vii. 29. For, when 
He stands and feeds with knowledge, 
it is " in the majesty of the name of 
the Lord His God," Micah v. 4. 
Thus the glory of His other offices is 
gathered unto His kingly office, and 
all concurs unto a kingly glory ; 
whence it is evident that any glorify- 
ing of Him whatever, that is not 



40 



ultimately aimed at His kingly office, 
is nothing better than a hypocritical 
show, that cannot meet with accept- 
ance. Moreover, this kingly glory 
is twofold, according to His twofold 
mediatory kingdom, visible and in- 
visible. Though His visible kingdom 
is to continue but for a set time, yet, 
duringthat time, there can be nothing 
more indispensable than the affairs of 
Cliui ch -government. Let men revile 
these externals ever so much, they 
are of no small account with Zion's 
King. The doctrine and mainten- 
ance of Church-government is of as 
essential necessity to the Mediator's 
glory in the Church, as the doctrine 
of grace is to the salvation of men. 
And which is of the highest import- 
ance, the divine glory, or the salvation 
of all men f 

I cannot believe that any are 
rightly concerned about the salvation 
of themselves or others, while con- 
temning the visible glory of the 
Mediator ; while contemning the doc- 
trine, being, and exercise of Church- 
government that promotes the same. 
It is not the " salvation of God " 
that those men do mean. That sal- 
vation which is not actually subordi- 
nate to the divine glory, is a cheat. 
And the salvation which reconciles 
not men unto the doctrine and main- 
tenance of Church-government, in 
so far renounces subordination to the 
divine glory. A salvation this is, 
that would not please a self-denied 

Christian as such 

It is very evident that no society can 



have its privileges secured without 
government. Men are generally sen- 
sible of this when they pass under 
civil government, as what is necessary 
to preserve and vindicate the privi- 
leges of nature and sociality ; neces- 
sary also for maintaining those ad- 
vantages that arise from civil society 
as such, while men are exposed to 
devouring injuries on every hand, 
and by themselves impotent of de- 
fence. Tiius the safety of valuable 
enjoyments requires government in 
all societies ; but how is the necessity 
thereof aggravated in the present 
case? The system of saving truth is 
the distinguishing privilege, the great 
treasure of Christians ; far more valu- 
able than anything that appertains to 
them in any other character. This 
treasure of truth is what lies under 
the greatest hazard in this world, 
whither it is sent from above. . . . 
The government and discipline which 
God hath appointed in His Church 
is the actual fence wherewith He 
encompasseth the heavenly seed of 
truth, that so the torrents of impiety 
may not sweep it away, or bury it 
under a sand-bed of error. The 
scriptural order of the house of God 
is the effectual partition betwixt truth 
and error ; if this be broken down, 
then error, fertile of all mischief and 
death, must first mingle itself with 
the Church's treasure of revealed 
truth, and then moulder it away alto- 
gether. . . . Hereof we have had 
woeful experience in Scotland. — Rev. 
Adam Gib. 



Next number will contain the concluding article on Chambers's " Battle of the Centuries," 
and also a consideration of the Religious Creed of Robert Burns. 



Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by Paton and Ritchie, 81 Princes Street 
(to whom all Communications, prepaid, may be addressed). Glasgow : Thomas Mukkav 
ANH Son; and sold bv ?A\ Booksellers. 



TATON ANl 



IE, PRINTIiRS, EUINBUKGTT. 



€\t Jrfe. 



Vol. II. -No. 6. 



MAY 1859. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 
Dk. Robert Lee A2jd the Edinburgh Presbytert. 
" Chambers's Journal " versus the Keformatioit. 
The House of God. 



ir. Robert fee m\^ tlje CMnbargir ircsljgtcrir. 



Reserving for a future number a 
more formal consideration of the 
deeply interesting and vastly im- 
portant question of Liturgies, it may 
not be without profit to view the 
probable issues of the discussion of 
it in the ensuing General Assembly, 
especially as they may be supposed 
to affect the Established Church in 
this country. Whatever view the 
Presbytery of Edinburgh may enter- 
tain of the question, it cannot admit 
of a doubt, that it will loosen some 
of the foundation stones of her con- 
stitution as an Established Church, 
and may precipitate a disruption 
which her adversaries, both within 
and without the Commons House of 
Parliament, will not deeply regret. 
We apprehend we have sufficient 
data for roughly estimating the pro- 
bable upshot of this discussion, in the 
mediaeval propensities of the ecclesi- 
astical world, in the voluntary temper 
of even the political world, and in 
the popular mania for a revival of 
the faded glories of sensual worship, 
under the guise of ardent devotion, 
and at the expense of doctrine and a 
long established mode of worship, 
characterised by the spirituality and 
simplicity of the Christian economy. 
We shall circumscribe this large field 
of observation, however, and keep 



within the narrower limits of the 
effects of this discussion, as already 
ascertained by the temper, conduct, 
and composition of the Metropoli- 
tan Presbytery of the Established 
Church. 

I. This question, vital to the con- 
stitution of the Presbyterian Church 
of Scotland, has been raised at an 
unfavourable, if not ominous season. 
"All things are lawful, but not 
always expedient." Few skilful and 
patriotic generals would hazard a 
division among their officers, when 
union was essential to meet the long 
premeditated spring of an ancient, 
compact, and dexterous adversary. 
Is the Church of Scotland blind to 
the onward move against her strong- 
holds, as indicated in the abolition of 
university tests, the application of 
the same screw to her parish schools, 
and the projected measure in regard 
to the Annuity-tax? These mea> 
sures, helped forward by some of her 
influential members, constitute the 
embodiment of an assault which, if 
successful, will number her among 
the things that were. We require 
not to shew, that expediency, when 
principle is not intolved, is sound 
principle ; and surely Dr. R. Lee 
will not plead that adherence to the 
long established mode of worship 



42 



which prevails, and which himself 
till of late observed, is sinful. Let 
him assign a reason then, either of 
principle, expediency, or patriotism, 
to his Church, for forcing the Gene- j 
ral Assembly to give a deliverance 
Avhich renders dealing with him im- | 
perative on his Presbytery. "We } 
would have thought that if the old j 
cry, " the Church in danger," would 
not have dictated prudence to the [ 
Doctor, he would have " called a 
halt " when the honours and emolu- 
ments of the Deanery were periled. 
Never, so far as we know, did any ; 
of the real friends of the Church be- 
tray such a lack of policy. 

II. The discussion, as hitherto 
conducted in the Presbytei'y, and par- 
tially by pamphlets, is a pitiable ex- 
posure of the character of the Pres- 
bytery, and also of the Established 
Church. This we sincerely and 
deeply regret, not merely as weaken- 
ing the claim of the Church upon 
the nation, but also as exposing the 
ministerial office and character to 
the already sufficiently infidelised 
spirit of the political and literary 
animus of the age. At some doors, 
upon some heads, must be laid an in- 
calculable amount of fearful respon- 
sibility ; and they who can unmoved 
look on its damaging effects, Avill not j 
readily shew, by any process of argu- 
mentation, their intelligent appre- , 
elation of superior devotion at such a j 
price. Although it is not our pro- 
vince or design to attempt shewing j 
on which side the greater culj^ability ! 
is to be found, yet we cannot but 
mingle with our regi'et a formal and 
hearty reprobation of the public ex- ' 
posure of the one public prayer for 
years of ministerial brethren. Is any , 
man, lay or clerical, so ignorant of 
the workings of human nature, as to 
require to have it demonstrated that 
such an exposure is piahulum to the 
sceptic, and sufficient to compel j 



Scotland to put down an institution 
that scandalises both religion and 
common morality ? A blow has tl)us 
been struck at the character of the 
national Church, from which she may 
not soon recover. 

III. The discussion of the question 
has shewn that the position of Dr. 
Lee, if not formally adopted, is not 
disliked by many of his brethren. 
Dr. Lee, and it must be gratifying 
to him, does not stand alone in 
favouring a modified liturgical public 
service. This is a serious phase of 
the case, and one eminently discour- 
aging to those who have incurred 
some odium in defending the long 
understood and practised mode of 
public worship. We do not here 
allude so much to the author of 
"Presbyterian Liturgies" — to the 
formal compliance with that service 
by Rev. Mr. Caird before her Majesty 
at Balmoral, and for which his 
Presbytery never called him to 
account — to the recent somewhat 
popular practice of publishing books 
of prayers — or to " the Aids to 
Devotion," lately published by the 
Committee of the General Assembly, 
— we say we do not so much allude 
to these, in which we apprehend there 
is a measure of concession to the 
principle of a liturgical service ; but 
we have in eye the large and in- 
fluential minorities in the Metro- 
politan Presbytery on the side of Dr. 
Lee. At the special general meeting, 
held on the 26th of last month, the 
motion of Dr. Simpson, "that the 
Presbytery enjoin Dr. Lee to dis- 
continue his present innovations," was 
supported by twenty-three ; whereas 
the amendment of Dr. Bryce, " that it 
is not necessary, or for edification, to 
proceed farther in this matter," was 
supported by twenty votes. This 
close cutting, this very narrow ma- 
jority of three, this very large and 
reputable minority at so full a 



meeting, naturally enough led to " an 
appeal to the Synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale." This narrow majority 
of three, this influential and reputable 
minority in so vital a question, is A 
TELLING FACT in the history of the 
Established Church of Scotland, — a 
fact of which the Parliament and 
her persistent and dexterous volun- 
tary /ree/ifis will not fail to take a due 
advantage. 

IV. The discussion of this question 
has thrown up a doubtful, an equi- 
vocal majority against the position of 
Dr. Lee. This startling fact appears 
not from the two motions submitted to 
the last special meeting of the Edin- 
burgh Presbytery, but from the 
speeches of their movers and defend- 
ers. Those who voted for Dr. Bryce's 
amendment were consistently true to 
the amendment and to one another, 
and shall not swerve in the hour of 
trial. Those who voted for Dr. Simp- 
son's motion hang not well together, I 
are ready to subject themselves to the I 
decision of the General Assembly, 
and acknowledge that Dr. Lee's pre- 
sent practice may be an improve- 
ment. This is the position, if posi- 
tion it can be called, of Dr. Simpson 
the mover, and Dr. Stevenson the 
seconder, of the barely successful 
motion of the Presbytery. How pre- 
carious the decision of this question 
when left in hands so plastic, when 
entrusted to sons of the Church so 
obedient, and when all is dependent 
on the composition of the Supreme 
Court ! The lesson which the righte- 
ously stern history of the Presbyterian 
Church of Scotland has unequivocally 
taught and strictly inculcated in all 
questions of principle is, " whether 
we will obey God or man, judge 
ye;" but the ministers of modern 
times, with a few most honourable 
exceptions, with wonderful pliability, 
await the Jupiter nod of the Assembly. 

V. This is a question which admits 



not of compromise or toleration by 
any Presbytery, Synod, or even the 
General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland. To this most important 
view of the question — a view which 
is inseparable from, and rises out of, 
the nature of the question itself — 
we would solicit the calm attention 
of the reader. The question is not 
one of dogma or of doctrine, a de- 
liverance on which might be ingeni- 
ously evaded, or kept in the dark 
territory of mere negatives. It is no 
secret that hitherto, in the history of 
Presbyterian admirers of liturgies, 
there were suspicions of heretical 
speculation on the cardinal doctrines 
of Calvinism, a leaning towards Ar- 
minianism, and negative views of 
the proper deity and distinct person- 
ality of the eternal Son of God. By 
simply shutting the mouth, or playing 
at the game of doctrinal equivoque, 
Presbyterian liturgists have contrived 
to be secure under the silent batteries 
of Calvinistic battlements. But the 
present case, simply because it is one 
of practice — public worship in the 
congregation — cannot be compro- 
mised — cannot be made a subject of 
forbearance. The decision of the 
Supreme Court must be yea or nay 
— liturgy or no liturgy. Any other 
decision would throw up a visible 
breach of the body; and if the an- 
tagonistic parties were sincere and 
honest by observing their conflicting 
practice, the result would be two 
Established Churches of Scotland — 
there would of necessity be another, 
and we believe, last DISRUPTION. 
Without further prosecution of this 
suggestive line of remark, and as 
much will depend on the composition 
of the court that must adjudicate on 
the case, we shall take a vidimus of 
the composition of the Metropolitan 
Presbytery, into whose hands the 
General Assembly may put the case 
for final settlement. 



44 



In addressing ourselves to the task 
of taking the portraits of the mem- 
bers, the leading members of any 
reputable institution, we are quite 
alive to the possibility — to the hazard, 
if not the certainty, of misinterpreta- 
tion of motive, and misconstruction 
of conduct. We can sincerely say 
we design not the least offence to the 
most sensitive, and we set not "aught 
down in malice." 

Begging pardon for not including 
in our picture the Gibeonites, whose 
reasoning powers are displayed in 
voting for "first or second motion," 
but who are nevertheless useful as 
"hewers of wood and drawers of 
water," and who know how to return 
favours ; we would fain give a place, 
which, however, our limited canvas 
prevents, to those who speak too 
often and too obstinately to be effec- 
tive. Those to whom we thus refer 
are kindly entreated to improve the 
hint, when questions of so grave a 
character are being discussed. Tiiere 
are not a few in the Presbytery who, 
from character, status, and gravity, 
are always listened to Avith patience, 
if not with satisfaction. Among these 
we would put the names of Drs. 
Simpson, Grant, Crawford, Muir, 
and Lee ; something to the point is 
also expected from Messrs. Veitch 
and Nicholson. The accuracy of tlie 
above may be ascertained irom the 
space given to their reported speeches 
in the public prints, and especially 



from the praise or abuse bestowed 
on them by the conductors of the 
newspaper press. 

But the two members of Presbytery 
that occupy the foreground are Drs. 
Lee and Muir. They both have status, 
mental calibre, learning, and char- 
acter that ensure a hearing. Were 
we to distinguish betwixt the two, 
we would say Dr. Lee is the better 
advocate in a case of quirk, but Dr. 
Muir is the better statesman in a 
case of constitutional law : Dr. Lee 
would descend to cavil and person- 
; ality rather than lose his case ; but 
i Dr. Muir is strong on his constitu- 
' tional ground, and requires not to 
! l)reak his gravity for the sake of 
carrying his plea. TJiat Dr. Muir is 
j the safer guardian of the constitu- 
I tioualism of the Church of Scotland, 
\ appears not only from the fact that 
lie Jias never for once occupied the 
low ground of personality, and the 
fact that he has always been at his 
post when constitutionalism was 
threatened, as in the case of the 
Tests, but especially from the fact 
I that he has been honoured with the 
sneering vulgarisms of journalising 
Scotsmen, and the envy of ecclesi- 
astical witlings. Dr. Muir, we had 
almost said, is the right man in the 
wrong place ; and as there are few 
Dr. Muirs, we are nigh despairing of 
an honourable deliverance on tlie 
great question of Liturgies. 



'^C^iimkrs's |ouruar' kxmxs tk f eformation. 



In our February number, and second 
article on the heartless assault of 
" Chambers's Journal " against the 
Reformers and the Reformation of the 
seventeenth ceuturj'-, we flatter our- 
selves that we succeeded in exposing 
the gross partiality of his Jacobitish 
authorities, and in vindicating the 



leading dogmas of the Reformation 
cause, as in accordance with the dic- 
tates of revelation, sound reason, and 
liberal policy. We are now desirous, 
in performing our promise to our 
readers, to conclude our remarks on 
this subject, by examining the five 
or six instances of alleged persecu- 



45 



tion inflicted by the savage Cove- 
nanters on the mild Prelatists and 
Papists of that interesting era. 

By no means desirous of refusing 
to face the bloodiest phase of the 
question, we shall give Robert 
Chambers the benefit of pleading the 
very darkest of his specified instances 
of Presbyterian persecution. As 
given, then, in No. 254 of the Jour- 
nal, November 13, 1858, we read : — 
*' About the same time (1643), 
the Marquis and Marchioness of 
Douglas, who were Catholics, were i 
deprived of their children, lest they 
should inherit the errors of their 
parents, or be sent for their educa- 
tion to France. The Marquis, on \ 
one occasion, petitioned the Presby- ! 
tery of Lanark for permission to have j 
one of his sons brought from the | 
school at Glasgow, and placed at j 
that of Lanark, ' hut not to come home ' 
to his parents unless the Presbytery per- 
mit.'' This proud noble had to re- i 
ceive a Presbyterian minister into ! 
his house, to be a spy upon his reli- I 
gious practice. After he had made \ 
some concessions, his Marchioness | 
still held out ; but at last she was 
compelled to yield." " On the 9th of 
March 1650, two ministers went to 
pass upon her that sentence of ex- 
communication, which was to make 
Iier homeless and an outlaw, unless 
she should instantly profess the Pro- 
testant faith ; at the same time tell- 
ing her ' how fearful a sin it was to 
swear with equivocation or mental 
reservation.' The lady, of course, 
reflected that the system represented 
by her visitors was now triumphant 
over everything ; that, for one thing, 
it had brought her brother Huntly, 
not a twelvemonth ago, beneath the 
stroke of the maiden. She ' declared 
she had no more doubts,' and at the 
command of one of the ministers, 
held up her hand, and solemnly ac- 
cepted the covenant before the con- 



gregation." "As might be readily 
supposed, the Marquis and Mar- 
chioness of Douglas continued to be 
Catholics in their hearts. The Pres- 
bytery had only forced them into a 
hypocritical submission." 

This designed-to-be-telling instance 
of Presbyterian persecution is, like 
all the others of the same complexion 
in " the Domestic Annals," to be ex- 
pounded in the light of the leading 
principles and policy of the Presby- 
terians, which we have specified in 
our February number, and to which 
we refer the reader. The authority 
cited is " the Register of the Presby- 
tery of Lanark," to which the Mar- 
quis sent his petition ; and surely this 
shews that the Presbyterian Church 
of Scotland, and her intelligent and 
patriotic leaders, both lay and cleri- 
cal, who instructed that no individual 
should be forced to take the cove- 
nant, cannot be charged with either 
the follies or the crimes of any single 
Presbytery, and especially of a Pres- 
bytery that had so long smarted 
under the severe lash of the house of 
Douglas ! This, we submit, is un- 
generous and uncandid. 

Moreover, we take exception to 
R. Chambers's narrative of this in- 
stance, inasmuch as he mixes up 
with the Presbytery's register his 
own comments; we desiderate the 
register in extenso and by itself. Such 
a mode of writing annals is bewilder- 
ing, if not designedly one-sided. 
Above all, it was requisite that the 
reader should have been put in pos- 
session of the antecedents of the two 
families, those of Douglas and 
Huntly, and the specific charges 
against them. This is a capital flaw 
in the lugubrious narrative, by sup- 
plementing which the design of the 
annalist would have been defeated. 
To this essential feature of the case 
we shall now briefly address our- 



46 



The annalist, with an accuracy, 
the purport and bearing of which he 
seems not to have known, relates 
the horrors of excommunication as 
brought down upon the head of the 
Marchioness, while the Marquis is 
neither threatened with this eccle- 
siastical thunder, nor requested to 
take the covenant. Why this dis- 
tinction betwixt the Marquis and his 
lady ? Is not the explanation to be 
found in the term excommunication ? 
How could the Church excommuni- 
cate the Marchioness if she had not 
previously been in communion? And 
does not this shew that the two mi- 
nisters were sent to Douglas Castle 
not to force the covenant upon any 
of the family, but to deal with the 
perjured Marchioness? Viewed in 
the light of this fact, whither go all 
the heartless, rancorous remarks of 
the annalist about Presbyterian cleri- 
cal " spies upon the religous (religi- 
ous!) practice of the Marquis, and 
the Presbytery forcing them into a 
hypocritical submission." 

The religious character and con- 
duct of the Marchioness may be ex- 
pounded in the liglit of those of her 
brother, the Marquis of Huntly, to 
whose execution the annalist refers. 
In the General Assembly of 1643, 
Baillie, vol. ii., p. i)2, says, "It was 
complained that Huntlie did receive 
sundrie excommunicate Papists in 
his service ; that he had no worship 
in his familie ; that these seventeen 
years he had not communicate, bot 
once with the excommunicate Bishop 
of Aberdeen. Of these he was or- 
dained to be admonished by his Pres- 
bytrie : hereof he was quicklie ad- 
vertised ; so that, ere we arose, he 
did send to us, under the hand of 
some neighbour ministers, a testifi- 
cation of his good carriage," &c. 
Like brother, like sister, and like 
brother-in-law ! 

But without troubling the reader 



with the disreputable, treacherous, and 
treasonable minutia; of the houses of 
Douglas and Huntly, so prominent in 
every chapter of Scottish history dur- 
ing the seventeenth century, we may 
refer to two or three comprehensive 
facts, which our eulogistic annalists 
would do well to remember. 
I No Scotsman, even slenderly ac- 
j quainted with the history of his 
country during the first half of the 
seventeenth century, requires to be 
told of the shameless part played by 
King James and his son Charles I., 
aided and abetted by Popish noble- 
men under the guise of Prelacy, 
against the Church and kingdom 
of Scotland ; and we are confident 
that no amount of Jacobitish ingen- 
uity shall be adequate to shew that 
that faction was other than inimical 
and cruel to the liberty and religion 
of our native country. The Presby- 
terians gained the victory in the 
General Asssmbly of 1638, not by 
the sword, but by reason and firm- 
ness. Charles knew well that the 
triumph of Presbytery in Scotland 
could not consist with his Prelatic 
and arbitrary schemes ; and he im- 
mediately, on hearing of the Glasgow 
Assembly's decided conduct, resolved 
on war. His preparations were im- 
mense ; his army, next year, reached 
the border ; and Scotland's patriots 
responded to the call to meet the 
royalists. In this most critical junc- 
ture of Scotland's afiiiirs — when our 
all, our very existence, was haz- 
arded — what was our greatest trial ? 
j what was that which constituted our 
extremity ? It was not the immense 
army of the royal hypocrite and des- 
pot ; it was the deep and sanguinary 
plot of heartless traitors at home, 
waiting the arrival of a burning Irish 
army to land in the west of Scotland, 
and, by forming a junction, to plunge 
their swords in their country's heart ! 
And who were these savages — these 



TIJE AKK. 



47 



darkest of Scottish traitors ? Who 
were they but the retainers of the 
house of Huntly in the north, and of 
the house of Douglas in the south ! 
And these are the houses to be held 
up to admiration in this latter half of 
the nineteenth century ; and by Scots- 
men, too, who undertake the tutor- 
age of the public mind by writing 
" Information for the People." 



It does seem passing strange that 
such assaults on the cause and per- 
sons of the reformers should pass with 
impunity in an age charactei'ised by 
a zeal to erect monuments to their 
memory ; but Wisdom is justified by 
the declaration, " Truly ye bear wit- 
ness that ye allow the deeds of your 
fathers ; for they indeed killed them, 
and ye build their sepulchres." 



Q^ ^mt of 6.0^. 



'Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is Mount Zion." 



When God conferred on man the 
beneficent institution of the Sabbath, 
He not only gave him a day of ex- 
emption from ordinary occupation, 
but one in which he was admitted 
to an especial nearness to God, and 
that in company with his brethren 
in the Church. The public service 
of God in the sanctuary gives to the 
Sabbath its peculiar glory, and renders 
it the most perfect type of the ever- 
lasting rest reserved for the people of 
God. No doubt the believer may 
enjoy ecstatic moments in the closet, 
but this joy, if we dare so phrase it, 
is but a selfish joy when compared 
with the transport of praising God 
in the midst of the congregation — a 
prospect which cheered our blessed 
Lord in His dying agonies on the 
cross — Psalm xxii. 22. David, while 
in the wilderness, experienced much 
of God's presence and guidance, but 
nothing could satisfy that intensely 
loving heart, save the contemplation 
of God in the sanctuary. In many 
of his Psalms we find him pouring 
forth a child-like wail of lamentation 
because shut out from his Father's 
house. With what sanctified ardour 
does he express in the forty-second 
Psalm his intense longing after the 
public service of God : "As the hart 
panteth after the water brooks, so 
panteth my soul after thee, O God. 



My soul thirsteth for God, for the 
living God : when shall I come and 
appear before God?" And in the 
sixty-third, " O God, thou art my 
God ; early will I seek thee : my soul 
thirsteth for thee, my flesh longeth 
for thee in a dry and thirsty land, 
where no water is ; to see thy power 
and thy glory, so as I have seen thee 
in the sanctuary." 

We have already remarked that 
the public service of God in His 
house is the most perfect type He 
has given us of heaven ; and, were it 
not for the many sins which we con- 
stantly mingle with our best perform- 
ances, it would be heaven itself; for 
the services in the former differ from 
the lattei", not in Jcind but in degree. 
In the sublime descriptions of heaven 
with which we are furnished in the 
fourth and fifth chapters of the Book 
of Revelation, we have no other than 
the same company who are to be 
found weekly assembled in the house 
of God, with this difference, that 
from the Church on earth we cannot 
exclude evil deeds, evil persons, and 
evil angels. 

First, then, we have the invisible 
presence of God the Father, whose 
inexpressible glory the heaven of 
heavens cannot contain, much less 
any house that we may build. A 
faith's consciousness of His awful 



48 



presence will solemnise every true 
hearer of the Gospel; bidding him 
" keep his foot when he goes to the 
house of God, and be more ready to 
hear, than to give the sacrifice of fools." 

Next, we have the benign pre- 
sence of God the Son, a risen, a glori- 
ous Redeemer ; not silent, but speak- 
ing audibly through His authorised 
servant, words of life and immor- 
tality ; for it is He, and only He, 
who is " worthy to take the book, 
and to open the seals thereof." Mar- 
vellous and blessed condescension ! 
God himself the speaker to fallen 
and sinful man. No wonder the 
sweet singer of Israel exclaims, '" I 
Avas glad when they said unto me, 
Let us go into the house of the 
Lord." What an unspeakable hon- 
our and privilege to listen to Him 
who speaks as never man spake ; to 
Him who alone has the words of 
eternal life ! Can there be any so 
dead, so infatuated, as to refuse to 
hear such a speaker ; who will ne- 
glect to wait upon Him when He 
addresses the people ; and who will 
not rather pray for feet to walk, ears 
to hear, eyes to see, and an enlight- 
ened and loving heart to understand, 
that he may go to His house, and 
hear the gracious words which pro- 
ceed from His mouth ! 

And here, also, have we the re- 
freshing presence of God the Spirit, 
without whose holy ministration the 
words of the speaker would fall on 
the hearts of the hearers, powerless 
as the stroke of him who vainly 

" tilts with a straw 
Against a champion cased in adamant." 



Silent and invisible, yet powerful 
in divine majesty, God the Spirit 
guides the authorised preacher in the 
selection of a portion of the Holy 
Word ; and, anointing his eyes with 
the "euphrasy and rue " of a spiritual 
vision. He gives him to see a mystery 
and beauty in the Word, unseen by 
mortal sense; and which the same 
Spirit enables him so to manifest to his 
hearers, that his words fall on their 
stirred hearts, grateful as dew on the 
tender grass ; and, graciously con- 
strained by the Spirit's resistless in- 
fluence, they exclaim, " It is the 
voice of God, and not of man ! " Do 
we believe in these loving ministra- 
tions of the Spirit? Let us then 
seek prayerfully and in earnest, the 
means by which we can alone gain 
them ; and be careful lest we grieve 
the Spirit, or quench His heavenly 
operations, and thereby frustrate the 
grace of God. 

As regards the hearers, we have in 
the Church on earth, as in heaven, 
the assembly of the saints; for, if 
they are not to be found in the house 
of God, where, may we ask, are they 
to be found ? Zion is the birthplace 
of the saints ; there they are nur- 
tured and brought up ; and there 
they are formally united to the Lord 
in an everlasting covenant that shall 
never be forgotten. It is while wait- 
ing in her courts that they are fix- 
voured with the most gracious invi- 
tations of her King to enter His pre- 
sence, and prefer their requests : 
there they receive His choicest gifts, 
and present their most acceptable 
oflFerings. 



Europe's Crisis. 



" The Boole of the Day." By Rev. James Wright. 
James Wood, 88 Princes Street. 



Price 5s. 



Edinburgh: Published for the Proprietors by Patox and Ritchie, 81 Princes Street 
(to whom all Communications, prepaid, maybe addressed). Glasgow: Thomas Muuray 
AND Son; and sold bv all Booksellers. 



PATON AND KITCIIIR, PRINTI 



EDINBURGH. 



C|e Jrfi 



Vol. II-No. 7. 



JUNE 1859. 



Prke Id. 



CONTENTS. 

De. Egbert Lee and the General Assembly. 
The New Problem ; or, Derby- Wisealan Alliance. 
The House of God. 
Free Church Assembly. 



gr. fckrt fee u^ 

And so the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland has, on the 
morning of May 25th, 1859, given 
its deliverance on the very exciting 
case of alleged innovations in public 
worship, brought before it by the 
appeal of Dr. Robert Lee, minister 
of Old Greyfriars' Church, Edin- 
burgh. 

The deliverance of the Assembly 
is extremely interesting from various 
considerations : it is so as indicative 
of the signs of the ecclesiastical 
heavens, among the more eminent 
ministers, the students of divinity, 
and the more respectable of the 
laity, of the Scottish Establishment. 
That the Established Church is in a 
transition state — that a change in 
her sentiments, speech, and practice, 
"has come over the spirit of her 
dream," and that she is drifting from 
her former Presbyterian anchorage 
tovirards Anglicanism, admits of no 
debate and no doubt. 

Reserving either for a future 
number of our periodical, or for 
what may be more permanent, a 
formal consideration of the merits of 
the Liturgical question, we shall now 
take a pra^ctical view of this deli- 
verance, not only on its own account, 
but especially as seen in the light of 
the debate that preceded it. 



We cannot help expressing our 
disappointment, on reading the re- 
ported discussion on tlie question, to 
find — and we say it with all due 
deference — such unacquaintedness 
which the salient facts of the history 
of the Reformed Church of Scotland; 
so much apparent ignorance of her 
essentially anti-liturgic character and 
struggles ; so sorry argumentation on 
her partial practice in her infancy, 
as if suited to her manhood state, 
when "she put away childish things;" 
and so much of damaging concession 
on the part of her would-be most 
stringent defenders as to the non- 
essential character, or mere aesthetics, 
of liturgies and postures in divine 
worship. In all these respects, and 
especially in the last, we desiderate, 
throughout the discussion, a single 
firm position — a single solid argu- 
ment on the ground of real principle ; 
all, and that, too, without exception, 
so far as we can discover, is resolv- 
able into mere taste, the accident of 
ecclesiatical arrangement, and calling 
for modification to meet the more 
refined, alias anglicanised spirit of 
the age. 

Without specifying examples illus- 
trative of this heavy charge against 
every speaker on the question, we 
would rather direct attention to the 



50 



two following capital fallacies, or 
sophisms, in the supposed strongest 
argumentation of not only Dr. Lee, 
and those who ranged themselves on 
his side, but of those who took an 
antagonistic position, simply because 
of ecclesiastical arrangement. 

I. Postures in public worship are 
readily and universally admitted to 
be mere non-essentials. Now we 
do submit that this is extremely lax, 
unguarded, and dangerous talk for 
a Presbyterian Church, and espe- 
cially for the General Assembly of 
the Church of Scotland. His Holi- 
ness of Rome has found a special 
charm, a magic wand, in the dogma 
of postures ; and the Reformed 
Church of Scotland, in raising her 
formal and solemn protest against 
Rome's genuflexions, kneelings, pro- 
strations, &c., sanctioned, as essen- 
tial to her spirituality, a simplicity 
of posture intelligible and salutary 
from the striking contrast. And 
without applying this at present to 
" standing to sing, and kneeling to 
pray," we have a clear historic illus- 
tration of Rome's artful policy in the 
fact, that all those Churches at the 
Reformation which were sticklers for 
such postui'es, never were far re- 
moved from Rome's fetid territory ; 
and by adding to their worship the 
stimulants of paintings, instrumental 
music, and liturgies, prepared their 
less intellectual adherents for too 
friendly correspondence with the 
successful enchantress of the Western 
Empire. This historic fact throws 
not a little light on the present con- 
troversy, while it illustrates the sanc- 
tified sagacity of the Scottish Re- 
formers. 

H. The fortress within which the 
modern Presbyterian liturgists in- 
trench themselves, is the negative 
mode of defence. Accordingly, no 
passage is of more frequent, and 
seemingly of more defiant use with 



them, than, " Where there is no law, 
there is no transgression." Such slip- 
shod reasoning has been much in 
vogue of late, both among the litur- 
gists and the pleaders for instrumental 
music in public worship. Now we are 
surprised that this fencing sword has 
not been wrenched from the hands of 
those who, in the above cases, have 
been so swaggeringly flourishing it. 
Logicians are well aware of the legi- 
timate use to be made of the negative 
mode of discussing a question, and 
avail themselves of it by separating 
the mere or fictitious adjuncts from 
the essentials. But the negative 
mode is merely preparatory for stat- 
ing what is positive ; so that, when 
the positive is ascertained, it is most 
absurd to fall back upon the disposed 
of negative. And who requires to 
have it formally shewn, that, from 
its very nature, a Directory is essen- 
tially positive, and cannot possibly 
admit of being reasoned on in a 
negative way. It is not easy to con- 
ceive of the strange structure of mind 
that cannot apprehend or aj^ply, and 
especially in this controversy, such 
simple reasoning. 

Without meaning any offence, we 
must refer to the most ordinary, 
every day, simplest illustrations. 
We have Directories of every de- 
scription, and for every purpose. 
Who ever expected to find in a Street 
Directory any other than the positive 
address of Dr. Robert Lee, 24 George 
Square ? and what master, in giving 
directions to his servant as to the 
mode of conducting his business, 
would expect to hear that some other 
modes were not forbidden ? In a 
word, a Directory, as essentially 
positive, cannot be supposed to 
specify any other modes. The pas- 
sage then, " Where thei-e is no law, 
there is no transgression," is most 
grievously misapplied in this contro- 
versy, while its misapplication be- 



61 



trays a pitiable lack of sound logic. 
Moreover, in what sense can it be 
said that there is no law in the Di- 
rectory ? if so, then the designation 
is a misnomer — the Directory would 
cease to be a Directory. 

But, as we are not now reasoning 
on the merits of the question, we shall 
take a practical view of the deliver- 
ance of the Assembly on Dr. Lee's 
appeal. 

There were two motions before the 
house ; the first, that of Dr. Bisset, 
was to the effect that Dr. Lee should 
discontinue the use of set forms of 
prayer, but that he might, along with 
his congregation, use all libei'ty as to 
standing when singing, and kneeling 
when praying. This was the suc- 
cessful motion, being supported by 1 40 
votes. The other motion, that of 
Dr. M'Pherson, was to the effect that 
the General Assembly enjoin Dr. 
Lee to discontinue both the postures 
and the set form of prayer. This ' 
motion was supported by 110 votes. 
The former, or Dr. Bisset's motion, 
was carried by a majority of 30. 

This judicial deliverance of the 
General Assembly is a condemnation 
of liturgical service, or set forms of 
prayer. Now, as the question was 
eminently and especially one of a 
liturgical character. Dr. R, Lee has 
lost his case. All his reasoning on 
the Directory, as allowing, or not 
prohibiting, liturgical service, is de- 
clared to be not only irrelevant, but 
erroneous. His declared object in 
rolling away the reproach that 
attaches to the Established Church, 
because of the extempore prayers of 
her educated ministers in this latter 
half of the nineteenth century, and 
the recovery of her lapsed sons from 
the imposing ceremonies of the Angli- 
can Estalishment, is hereby declared 
to be at variance with the ecclesias- 
tical arrangements and practice of the 
National Church of Scotland. Dr. 



Lee, and those who think with him, 
never contemplated rendering the 
Church of Scotland attractive to those 
who lean towards a modified Angli- 
canism by merely allowing the con- 
gregation to " stand while singing, 
and kneel while praying." The 
liturgical service was held to be the 
charm to secure the attachment of 
some of our ambulatory Scottish 
nobility, the more refined of our 
literati, and the semi- sceptical portion 
of our newspaper press. This de- 
liverance has formally decided that 
Dr. Lee's ecclesiastical patriotism is 
not only questionable, but spurious, 
and antagonistic to the accredited 
principles of his own Church : that 
tor her defence and commendation, 
"now eget tali auxilio" she needs not 
such weapons or such defenders. 

But, as by this deliverance Dr. 
Lee and his friends have lost their 
plea, have been baulked as to their 
object, it is a question meriting grave 
consideration, what could induce or 
influence Dr. Lee, when the deliver- 
ance was intimated to him, formally 
expressing his acquiescence therein ? 
Accoi'ding to the printed report we 
read, — " Parties having been called 
in, and the judgment intimated to 
them, Dr. Lee said, ' I beg to ac- 
quiesce in the judgment, and crave 
extracts. Acccording to my under- 
standing of the finding which has now 
been given, I shall certainly do my 
best to submit to it.' " Wherefore 
this qualified language — " according 
to my understanding" of this finding? 
Could the finding be viewed as vague 
or ambiguous ? Is it possible to in- 
terpret it otherwise than as a con- 
demnation of a liturgical service by 
Dr. Lee and every other minister of 
the Established Church ? In ad- 
dressing ourselves briefly to the 
reasons or policy of Dr. Lee, in pro- 
fessing his acquiescence in this 
deliverance, we beg to submit the 



52 



following conjectural considera- j 
tions : — 

1. The deliverance of the Assembly I 
was carried by a comparatively small | 
majority — only of 30 in a full house. ! 
It is somewhat startling to not a few j 
in Scotland, although doubtless en- 
couraging to Dr. Lee and his friends, \ 
that, in the General Assembly of the 
National Presbyterian Church, 140 
should record their formal and solemn 
vote in allowance of liturgic services 
throughout their congregations ! This 
is a curious and a telling modern fact. 

2. The speeches of nearly all the 
minority rested their defence of Pres- 
byterian order, not u^on jn-indple, but 
merely ecclesiastical and accidental 
arrangement ; while not a few of the 
more distinguished ministers and 
speakers, in support of the finding, 
were careful to exhibit their liberal- 
ism, by highest commendation of the 
English Service-book. Dr. Lee may 
conclude, that such opponents are not 
much to be feared, and they may con- 
sistently yield to any new arrangement 
in regard to the mode of public wor- 
ship. 

3. Those who formed the min- 
ority had ranged against them, 
especially by speechification, the 
acknowledged leaders and popular 
ministers of the National Church. 
This is obvious from the names of 
some Principals and Professors of 
our Universities. We have the names 
of Principals Barclay and Tulloch, 
while a strange use was made of the 
name of the venerable late Principal 
of the University of Edinburgh. 
Next to these we have a goodly 
array of the learned Professors, 
Kobertson, Lee, &c. Tiiis forms, 
along with a large host of popular 
ministers, a powerful reserve corps 
for the next conflict, which the 
admitted liturgic animus of Scottish 
society will, at no distant date, force 
on. And Dr. Lee will count himself 



honoured by occupying the most 
prominent place in this ecclesiastical 
galaxy. 

4. This was the finding of only 
one General Assembly. It is well 
known that each Assembly is com- 
posed of about only one-third of the 
ministers of the Church ; so that we 
require, in order to have the mind of 
the National Church, the deliverance 
of three consecutive Assemblies. In 
addition to this, and in favour of Dr. 
Lee's position, we must not omit to 
state, that the magnates of the Gene- 
ral Assembly, and those leaning to- 
wards liturgic postures, are, in great 
measure, constant members of As- 
sembly. Thus, to speak in the lan- 
guage of insurance brokers, the 
chances in favour of a new or modi- 
fied liturgy in the Presbyterian 
Church of Scotland are not few. 

In fine, it is agreeable, if not glori- 
ous to human nature, to stand out as 
a Reformer, especially in connexion 
with names illustrious for literature, 
for a spirit of accommodation to tlie 
growing liberalism of the age, and for 
the honours of a martyrdom which 
involve not the loss of life, status, 
or emolument. Such considerations 
might dictate the safe policy of ex- 
pressing a dubious acquiescence in 
the temporary adverse finding of 
the late General Assembly of the 
National Church. Tliis brief review 
of the Assembly's deliverance on the 
vitally Presbyterian question of litur- 
gies suggests, that the Church of 
Scotland is in a very serious dilem- 
ma ; that her narrow majority, shew- 
ing serious division of sentiment, jus- 
tifies the old -cry of " the Church in 
danger ; " that her vigorous and al- 
most successful attempt for liturgic 
services identifies her with the de- 
voted Anglican Establishment, which 
the growing demands of a radical 
Parliament will not long spare ; and 
that such policy as to both the inte- 



THE AEK- 



53 



rest and existence of the Scotch Na- 
tional Church is lacking in sagacity, 
and in ability accurately to read 
" the signs ot the times." The intel- 
ligent reader will be at no loss to see 
that in reviewing the proceedings of : 
the Assembly in connexion with this ! 
question, we have reasoned solely 
upon the nature of the different mo- i 
tions, and the position in which the 
General Assembly and Church are 
now placed by the deliverance. In 1 
this latter, which sustains the appeal j 
of Dr. Lee, and so far reverses the 
decision of the Presbytery and Synod, I 



every member of Assembly must be 
held as either concurring, or, what is 
the same, giving a tacit acquiescence 
thereto, as no protest or dissent of 
any kind was made against the same. 
This exhibits the startling fact, that 
the members of Assembly regard the 
judgment of that court as involving 
a matter of slight importance ; while 
the equivocal terms in which both 
motions were worded, shew that the 
Church established by law is pre- 
pared to relinquish her Presbyterian 
constitution at no distant date, if she 
has not done so already. 



Ws^t leto iraMcm ; ax, ^tx^^Mxmxm %{\xma. 



Perhaps the severest and most puz- 
zling problem to which the politically 
Protestant mind of Britain can ad- 
dress itself, is the avowed, the gloried- 
in fact, of a Tory -Popish alliance of 
the day. This is so new, so sudden, 
so unexpected, and so inexplicable, 
on ordinary principles of either Pro- 
testantism or Popery, that the lead- 
ing journalists are confessedly taken 
aback, and counsel patience until 
future events shadow forth the pre- 
sent dark motives and expectations 
of Rome's crafty card-players. 

It has been not only ascertained, 
but boastingly admitted by docu- 
mentary evidence, that Cardinal 
Wiseman used his most strenuous 
efforts, by " letters of recommenda- 
tion," to secure the votes of the 
adherents of his Church in favour of 
Tory candidates for Parliament! 
There must be some strangely new 
policy brought into play by the 
Premier Protestant, the Earl of 
Derby ; a game of a quite novel 
character must be a-playing on the 
British political chess-board ; and, 
as the coalition of naturally repellent 
parties has been already formed, we 
may conclude, from Rome's hitherto 



successful diplomacy, that she shall 
not fail in this new trick. Although 
we cannot pretend to accurately 
ascertain the ulterior objects of this 
Romish charmer, yet, in this free 
country, we shall avail ourselves of 
our privilege of guessing at the issues 
of this jockeyship upon the English 
Derby. 

1. The Tories could not, without 
irreparably damaging all their ante- 
cedents — without incurring irrecover- 
able bankruptcy of political charac- 
ter — overthrow the Established 
Churches in England and Ireland, 

What, then, can meet and cover 
the well ascertained and boisterously 
declared ambitious claims of the 
devotees of Rome? Is it conceiv- 
able that Cardinal Wiseman and his 
clamorous friends will esteem the 
continuance of the grant to May- 
nooth, or the increase of jail and 
regimental chaplaincies, as an ade- 
quate compensation for this novel 
and startling patronage to their 
heretofore sternest adversaries, to 
him long designated " Scorpion Stan- 
ley ? " They seldom, if ever, commit 
such blunders; they are not the 
politicians to commit themselves and 



o4 



imperil their cause, and mut^t, there- 
fore, be held as having secured for 
themselves a far higher figure in the 
compact for such a favour ! 

2. But could not the Tory Go- 
vernment, and with some prospect of 
success, propose the establishment of 
a modified, or cis-montane Catholic- 
ism, side by side with the Established 
Churches of England and Ireland? 
Is this Utopian, or too gross, or too 
impolitic, not to say hazardous ? 
Why, it would not be more hazard- 
ous in our extremely liberal times 
than was the Relief Bill of 1829 ; 
more perilous than was the "appro- 
priation clause ; " or more startling in 
these days of Anglican Tractarianism, 
and Scottish Liturgical progress ; or 
more anomalous than the admission 
of Jews upon equivocal resolutions 
as members of the House of Com- 
mons. In brief, such an establish- 
ment would not be more anomalous, 
or more self-contradictory, than the 
very existence, not to say increasing 
populai'ity, of Cardinal Wiseman in 
London, in obvious, gross violation 
of " the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill." 
To speak of the entirety and purity 
of the political Protestantism of the 
British Constitution, while all these 
paljiable contradictions are part and 
parcel of it, is to talk sheerest non- 
sense ; and such praters would re- 
quire ability to force back, and by 
many degrees, the shadow on the 
British dial. That day has long 
since passed away ! 



3. But would such a proposal by 
a British ministry, and especially if 
successful, not so excite the Protes- 
tantism of the country as to foi'ce on 
a rebellion ? At an earlier period 
there certainly would have been ex- 
treme hazard of such a fearful event ; 
I but we humbly opine the howl of an 
equivocal Protestantism would gra- 
dually subside, until the continental 
despotism, under the dexterous man- 
agement of the Suminus Pontifex, 
would claim what the British Refor- 
i mation, some three centuries ago, had, 
j simply by the royal will and a base act 
I ofParliament, very unjustly wrenched 
j from its rightful owner, the Church of 
Rome. This is Rome's logic ; and 
j logic not calmly uttered, but men- 
I acingly thundered forth in the ears 
I of liberal journalising Protestants, 
who admit the justice of the claim 
which, if valid, must include the 
CKO^\Tf ITSELF, even to the deposi- 
tion, should they prove recusant, of 
the reigning family. In such a ter- 
rific event, his Holiness of Rome 
would not esteem it a veiy great fa- 
vour for a British heir-apparent to 
ofier him an honourable retreat in 
Malta. We would invite the intelli- 
gent portion of the community to ad- 
dress themselves to the solution of 
the most serious of all national pro- 
blems, — What can be the motives 
and ulterior objects of the two parties 
that now form the Derby-Wiseman 
Alliance ? 



^\}t ioiis^ of 6oIr. 

(Continued from page 48.) 

ZioN is their delightful and accus- i all the dwellings of Jacob. Glorious 
where they dwell | things are spoken of thee, O city of 



tomed residence, 

in the presence of God and of 
their brethren : for " the Lord 
loveth the gates of Zion more than 



God." Young and old, every age 
and sex, are there ; we do not even 
except the lisping babe, lest we lose 



55 



our perfect type of heaven ; as our 
Lord liira,self says, " Take heed that 
ye desnise not one of these little 
ones ; ror I say unto you, that in 
heaven their angels do always behold 
the face of my Father which is in 
heaven." It is in the assembly of 
the brethren that the saint can best 
test himself as to his interest in 
Christ ; for, if he prefers their so- 
ciety to that of all others, he can 
confidently join with the beloved 
disciple in affirming, " We know that 
we have passed from death unto life, 
because we love the brethren." 

But we have not yet enumerated 
all the listeners in the house of God. 
Unheard and unseen, a fair and spot- 
less crowd of angels hover there, 
whose pure and sinless minds are 
pondering that mystery of mysteries 
— God in the flesh. The same Lord 
who chose to place His heavenly 
treasure in earthen vessels, that the 
excellency of the power may be of 
God and not of men, has also chosen 
the same vehicle to convey his high- 
est truths to angels as well as to man. 
Of this we are informed in Ephesians 
iii. 10 — "To the intent that now, 
unto the principalities and powers in 
heavenly places, might be known by the 
Church the manifold wisdom of God." 
And as the grateful song of praise 
wells forth from human lips, the un- 
seen choir blend their seraph voices 
with the strain, saying with a loud 
voice, " Worthy is the Lamb that 
was slain to receive power, and 
riches, and wisdom, and strength, 
and honour, and glory, and blessing." 

Seeing then that the house of God 
on earth is so eminent a type of the 
better land above, may we not be 
furnished with a test as to our heaven- 
ward progress, by our appreciation 
and enjoyment of the pattern of 
heavenly things, which God has so 
graciously given to us ? In such a 
searching self-examination every 



Christian must stand clothed with 
shame and humility before God ; 
deeply conscious that if the Lord be 
not rich in mercy towards him, he 
shall never see the kingdom of 
heaven. His carelessness, carnality, 
sloth, ignorance, pride, and, above all, 
his unbelief, must ever rise before 
him with abhorrence and deep con- 
trition of soul. He will weep bitterly 
at the remembrance of neglected op- 
portunities of hearing Christ, as well 
as because of the vain thoughts and 
callous indifference which have pol- 
luted his best services. But if he be 
a true child of God, he will suffer no 
impediment, save that of God's 
placing, to keep him out of His 
house : amid many failings and im- 
perfections he will rejoice to be there, 
more than in the fairest scenes of 
earthly beauty ; and thereby shew 
his relationship to his glorious Elder 
Brother, of whom it was said, " The 
zeal of thine house hath eaten me up." 
As he wars to the death with every 
adversary who would oppose his en- 
trance into heaven, so does he regard, 
as his mortal foe, whatever would 
detain him from the house of God. 

He will adopt no occupation to 
endanger or curtail his presence 
there ; he will frame no frivolous ex- 
cuses for his absence ; he will not 
rest content with a fragment of the 
worship, but be early in God's house, 
and, Jacob-like, will not go without 
the blessing. No, he values too 
dearly his privileges, from which 
nothing will keep him back, save the 
heavy hand of God laid upon him in 
chastisement. 

It is matter of great consolation 
to the Christian amid wars and com- 
motions, and while " the dark places 
of tlie earth are full of the habitations 
of cruelty," that there is still reserved 
to him a little sanctuary, into which 
he may flee with safety. Let him 
then not tempt God to remove it by 



5G 



bis carelessness and misimprovement 
of privileges — let him beware thai 
he set not up an idol in the bouse of 
God, by going there to hear human 
eloquence, and the wisdom of men's 
words, which is foolishness in the 
sight of God ; but let him rather wa,it 
dihgently upon God's ordinances, in 
the faith and patience of the saints. 



obeying the divine com"niand to 
Israel, " Ye shall keep myJSubbaths 
and reverence my sanctu^rv : I am 
the Lord." " And thou shalT do that 
which is right and good in the sight 
of the Lord, that it may be well with 
thee, and that thou mayest go in and 
possess the good land which the 
Lord sware unto thy fathers." 



f\xn €i\xx(\} ^sscmblg. 



Want of space prevents us draw- 
ing the attention of our readers to 
the Glasgow College case, and the 
various theological questions it in- 
volves. We shall endeavour to take 
up the whole subject in a future 
number. Suffice it at present to say, 
we cannot help being somewhat 
astonished that views, so utterly at 
variance and inconsistent with the 
Confession of Faith, have become 
popular in the Free Church ; while 
the unanimous finding of the Su- 
preme Court of that Church, in re- 
ference to lay-preaching, is an act of 
the most suicidal nature, and more 
than neutralises the Calvinistic views 
of those whose conduct may be some- 
what commendable in the Glasgow 
College case, but who, by giving the 
right hand of fellowship to a lay- 
preacher, have dared to trample on 
the doctrine of the laying on of hands, 
and thus given encouragement to an 
individual to take an honour to him- 



self which the Lord of Glory only 
obtained through ordination. " No 
man taketh this honour unto himself, 
but he that is called of God, as ivas 
Aaron. So also Christ glorified not 
himself to be made a high priest ; but 
He that said unto Him, Thou art my 
Son, to-day I have begotten Thee." 
Reason dictates that if our blessed 
Lord and Saviour required ordina- 
tion, much more fallible man. Such 
matters as the doctrine of our de- 
pravity and that of the imposition of 
hands, are deemed as of little im- 
portance in our day ; but Scripture 
views them both as foundation doc- 
trines, and we would advise those 
who see to what the practical denial 
of such must inevitably lead, to learn 
in time their duty to testify for the 
truth as it is in Jesus, who has de- 
clared, " Them that honour me, I 
will honour." " Be thou faithful 
unto death, and I will give thee a 
crown of life." 



Europe's Crisis, 2d Edition. "The Book of the Day." By Rev. James Wright. 
Price 5s. James "Wood, 88 Princes Street. 

Edinburgh : Published for the Proprietors by Paton and Ritchie, 81 Princes Street 
(to whom all Communications, preiiaid, may be addressed). Glasgow: Thomas Mukray 
AND Son ; and sold bv all Booksellers. 



paton and RITCHIE, i'RINTERS, EDINBURGH. 



€\t %xk. 



Vol. II-No. 8. 



JULY 1859. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

The Revivals in Ireland. 



%tmi\ls in %xdmh 



The large and curious history of re- 
ligious Revivalism about the end of 
the seventeenth and beginning of the 
eighteenth centuries, both in the 
American colonies and in the United 
Kingdom, is full of interest to the 
physiologist, the statesman, and the 
Christian. This arises not merely 
from the nature of the subject as pro- 
fessedly religious, but also from the 
instrumentality employed, the means 
used, and especially the striking and 
very extraordinary effects produced 
on the bodies and souls of vast mul- 
titudes of people on both sides of the 
Atlantic. And we hope we do not 
offend the most ardent of the Revi- 
valists, when we hint, that perhaps 
the subject has not yet received that 
attention and discussion which its 
importance demands. "We by no 
means insinuate that we are able to 
throw any new light on the admitted 
mysteries of such movements ; but, 
simply, that revivalists cannot object 
to our complying with their own re- 
quest, that we should examine the 
subject in the light of Scripture and 
reason ; that we " should try the 
spirits whether they are of God ;" 
and should, in the discussion of the 
question, have a respect to the apos- 
tolic declaration, " But I fear, lest by 
any means, as the serpent beguiled 
Eve through his subtlety, so your 
minds should be corrupted from the 



simplicity that is in Christ. For if 
he that cometh preacheth another 
Jesus, whom we have not preached, 
or if ye receive another spirit, which 
ye have not received, or another gos- 
pel, which ye have not accepted, ye 
might well bear with liim." Surely 
no intelligent revivalist of our day 
will demand of the religious world 
that implicit faith which is charac- 
teristic of the occupant of the Vati~ 
can, or that we should, without inves- 
tigation, receive as axioms what the 
most intellectual and erudite of the 
revivalists admit they cannot explain. 
Such a demand is not only irrational 
and unscriptural, but is fitted to throw 
revivalism into disrepute and scandal. 
A painful and generally well-known 
illustration of the above disastrous 
effect occurs in the history of the con- 
troversy about the revival at Cambus- 
lang in 1741-2, under the manage- 
ment of the celebrated George "White - 
field. This controversy presented the 
sad spectacle of not only the infidel 
portion of the community turning into 
ridicule the realities of supernatural 
religion, but also the more sickening 
sight of the most eminent of Scot- 
land's ecclesiastics ranged against one 
another in battle array. And although 
we do not refer to this dark page of 
Scottish ecclesiastical history, as deci- 
sive of the merits of the question of 
revivalism, yet we cannot shut our 



58 



eyes to the fact, that by it the pro- 
fessed object of the revivalists, the 
extinction of denominationalism by 
the adoption of the scheme of uni- 
versal love, was a complete failure ; 
and especially did it manifest the 
thorough inconsistency of the reviva- 
lists by themselves setting their con- 
duct against their professed principles 
and favourite scheme. Having stated 
this characteristic fact of the contro- 
versial history of the 1742 revival, 
especially as it assumes the shape of 
a charge, we shall adduce the proof 
of its truth. 

The celebrated George Whitefield, 
then, notwithstanding his interesting 
face, angelic addresses, and favourite 
scheme of universal love, indulged in 
speaking and writing against men 
who were his superiors in years, erudi- 
tion, a profound knowledge of the 
system of divine truth, and solid 
Clirislian experience, in the unchris- 
tian and burning vocables of bigots 
and PARTY ZEALOTS. Had this great 
apostle of Welsh, American, and 
Scottish revivalism spoken or written 
ssich words at random, or in a fit of 
enthusiasm, and afterwards retracted 
them, or apologised for them, we 
would readily have consigned them 
to oblivion. But to this style of 
treating those who claimed " to try 
the spirits," and examine mere ira- 
pi-essions and extraordinary physical 
eifects upon the animal frames of the 
so-called converts, he pertinaciously 
adhered, and ever and anon recurred. 
Be it known, then, to all whom it 
concerns, that the fiery words of this 
English apostle of Scotch revivals, 
and that, too, while preaching univer- 
sal love to our enemies, are, " Ye 
must therefore have a spirit of univer- 
sal love, a catholic spirit, which is the 
only thing that can unite and make 
Christians happy among themselves 
in this divided state of things. Happy 
amongst themselves, I say ; for to 



make ado about the glory of God in 
these matters is bigotry and party 
zeal." We repeat, lest we be mis- 
understood, that by fixing on this 
sentiment and illiberal phraseology of 
George Whitefield we do not pre- 
judge the calm investigation of revi- 
valism ; nor would we be held as 
giving a premature decision upon it, 
on the more serious ground that all 
Whitefield's clerical compeers en- 
dorsed his sentiments and exceeded 
his intemperate language. We refer 
to the animus and language of Eev. 
Messrs. Adams, Robe, Henderson, 
Currie, M'Culloch, P)onar, Hamilton, 
Drs. Webster and Gillies, &c. And 
while we are on this historical branch 
of the question, we may mention as a 
fact of some significance, that "the 
Revivals of the Eighteenth Century, 
with three Sermons by the Rev. George 
Whitefield, issued by the Committee 
of the General Assembly of the Free 
Church of Scotland," homologates not 
only the revival under the conduct of 
Whitefield and his above clerical 
assistants, but also makes no excep- 
tion to such sentiments and language 
as we have brought before the reader's 
eye. Are we transgressing the bounds 
of candour, or precipitating an ad- 
verse conclusion, when we advise the 
revivalists to apply their own criterion, 
"By their fruits shall ye know them?" 
And it does not require large ac- 
quaintance with the history of eccle- 
siastical feuds to say, that the cause 
of revivalism in Scotland suffered 
more by the spirit and language of 
Whitefield and his friends, than by 
all the ridicule to which it was sub- 
jected by formal sceptics and infidel 
physiologists. 

Preliminary to a calm and candid 
consideration of the so-called revi- 
valism of the last and also of this 
century, we propose specifying and 
briefly illustrating a few of their 
common characteristics and adjuncts. 



I. These revivals have occurred 
periodically, or rather, are rare phe- 
nomena in the history of the Church, 
and by those who have written to 
prove their genuineness are ascribed 
to the sovereignty of the Spirit, who, 
like the natural wind, " bloweth 
where it listeth." Accordingly, we 
have had them about the end of the 
seventeenth and beginning of the 
eighteenth centuries, in the year 1840 
in Aberdeen as the centre, in America 
in 1858, and this year in the north 
of Ireland. Wliile, on the one hand, 
those who insist on them as genuine, 
account for them by a previous state 
of remarkable degeneracy, notwith- 
standing the counter exultation of 
large and successful missionary enter- 
prise ; on the other, mere philoso- 
phers view them as epidemics, ascribe 
them to atmospheric and other na- 
tural influences, or to " the spirit of 
an age," such as the table-turning and 
the spirit-rapping mania. It cannot 
be denied, let us give what explana- 
tion we may, that the external world, 
the position of the planets, &c., have 
had, and still have, very great influ- 
ence over the animal spirits and even 
the intellect of nations ! Not a few, 
and of those whose sober judgments 
and large Christian acquaintance 
with the Scriptures of truth and the 
history of the Church give them a 
claim to be heard and reasoned with, 
have conceived that they were in 
great measure to be ascribed to the 
agency of " the prince of the power 
of the air." And it is a question to 
which Christian philosophers, and 
the most highly-gifted divines of 
every age and country have addressed 
themselves — What is the nature of 
Satanic influence upon the imagina- 
tions of men ? an answer to which is 
not to be hastily or dogmatically 
given by any man. Scripture ascribes 
seasons of special influence to the 
evil spirit, as well as to the Spirit of 



59 



Christ. To the mere fact that revi- 
vals are periodical, are rare, we can 
ascribe nothing as indicating from 
what quarter they come, or what is 
the agency at work. 

II. These revivals were all char- 
acterised by the same kind of instru- 
mentality. Very much of the rea- 
soning employed by those who have 
questioned the reality of these revivals 
respected the instrumentality em- 
ployed in producing them. Although 
the ministers acknowledged by con- 
flicting religious denominations, — 
which implied that their respective 
denominationalism was not only non- 
essential, but a positive bar to the 
scheme of universal love, — were em- 
ployed ; yet laymen originated the 
I movement, and, after their conver- 
I sion, played the most prominent part 
j in the work. Hence, lay preaching 
I in Scotland may be dated from the 
I revival of 1742 in tliis country. Pro- 
I fessor Hodge of Princeton College 
ascribes the origin of the New Jersey 
revival to the efforts of some Scotch 
I settlers, especially to one \\ alter Ker. 
; The originating of the revival at 
I Cambuslang is in great measure 
I ascribed to the efforts of Ingram 
j More, a shoemaker, and Robert Bow- 
I man, a weaver, who went round for 
[ signatures to have a weekly lecture- 
ship set agoing. To the same kind 
of instrumentality was ascribed the 
revival of 1840, and the present reli- 
gious movement in the north of Ire- 
land. Those who, in the controversy 
alluded to above, hesitated to pro- 
nounce in favour of that revival as a I 
work of the divine Spirit, held that | 
the instituted ordinance of the Gospel | 
[ ministry, which cannot be defended j 
in accordance with lay preaching, ! 
I was the appointed instrumentality for 
j convicting, converting, and building | 
up sinners. Romans x, 14. "How i 
j then shall they call on him in whom ! 
' they have not believed ? and how 



60 



shall they believe in him of whom I 
they have not heard ? and how shall j 
they hear without a preacher? 15. [ 
And how shall they preach except I 
they be sent "? " The distinction which 
was made by the revivalists betwixt 
preachinsf and exiiorting, was refused 
in consideration of the multitudes j 
addressed, the form of the addresses, \ 
and the place where — often the pul- 
pit — tiiese addresses were delivered ; 
especially, because the distinction as 
used by the revivalists would render 
preachers and exhorters s) nonymous 
among the people. This last reply 
has demonstrated, if not the accurate 
reasoning, at least the shrewd guess- 
ing of those who used it on that very 
exciting occasion. 

III. These revivals have been ori- 
ginated and promoted by the use of 
the same means. Those who have 
been instrumental in these move- 
ments, especially the clergy, have, 
with a very few notable exceptions, 
addressed tlieniselves to only a few of 
tiie doctrines of the divine Word, | 
which they have designated " the 
Gospel." These are, the necessity of 
regeneration, justification, and mete- 
ness for ])urchased glory. All the 
others, those especially that go to 
constitute wliat is called the Calvi- 
nistic system, and to which the na- 
tural heart is strongly opposed, and a 
ready closing with which is one of 
the clearest evidences of the new 
man. have been not only ignored, but 
formally designated non-essentials. 
This appears not only from the fact 
that ministers of denominations which 
were distinctive because of such con- 
flicting dogmas, constituted the in- 
strumentality employed, and also 
from tlic ruling article of the revival 
creed, universal love ; but also from 
tiieir formal declarations. Hence, 
in what is called " the Cambuslang 
work," we have the formal profes- 
sion of the ministerial performers in 



these words : — " The only method of 
this universal love — not merely a 
love to the persons of all sorts of men, 
and an ardent desire and endeavour 
of their welfare, but such universal 
love, such a catholic spirit, as where- 
through ye will be preserved from, 
and fortified against that bigotry and 
party zeal of reckoning much upon, 
or stickling about those things where- 
aiient the several churches difier." 
To this system of ecclesiastical eclec- 
ticism, those who scrupled to admit 
the genuineness of the popular revi- 
valism objected, that it was point 
blank against Christ's commission to 
the disciples, " Teaching them to 
observe all things whatsoever I have 
comrnanded you ;" that it set aside 
the declaration of the apostle of the 
Gentiles, " I have not shunned to 
declare unto you all the counsel 
OF God;" that it became not the 
servant to make a selection of the 
master's prescribed duties ; and that 
it was beyond the province and the 
power of even the saint to pronounce 
on this or the other doctrine what 
was, and what was not, essential to 
conviction, conversion, edification, 
and confirmation. As these have 
been the characteristics of all the 
revivals since 1742, and on both 
sides of the Atlantic, perhaps the 
above reasoning will not be so readily 
answered, especially by those whose 
professed subordinate standards are 
those of Westminster, as many may 
suppose. 

IV. These revivals, especially in 
our own country, have been most 
successful upon the same classes of 
society. We by no means reflect 
upon these several movements, simply 
because their most noted subjects 
have been those of the lower ranks, 
of the most ignorant, and of young 
females. In writing this fact, we are 
not forgetting the inspired declara- 
tion, " For ye see your calling, bre- 



61 



thren, how that not many wise men 
after the fiesh, not many mighty, not 
many noble, are called ;" nor do we 
shut our eyes to the equally import- 
ant fact, that females liave hitherto 
brought as much honour to Christ 
and His Church, as have done the 
males. But still we say, that the 
persons thus specified by the revival- 
ists, and especially young factory 
girls, were fitter subjects of religious 
mesmerism and hysteria, naturally 
considered, than the intelligent, who 
" can render a reason to them who 
ask them for the hope that is in 
them," and are less liable to subscribe 
to, or be influenced by, the Popish 
dogma, that " ignorance is the mo- 
ther of devotion." Neither is it ne- 
cessary, in maintaining this position, 
that we should charge the revivalists, 
whether performers or subjects, with 
iNSiNCKRiTr. We hold it to be both 
unfair and unsound to reason against 
revivalism by charging the subjects 
of it with hypocrisy, or by insinuat- 
ing that they are practising deception 
either upon themselves or others. We 
may readily admit, as we do, that all 
such sincerely believe they are rege- 
nerated, have experienced pardoning 
mercy, and feel great delight in pray- 
ing to and praising God and the Lamb. 
It must be conceded by the revi- 
valists, that if they rest their case 
simply on the sincerity of the sub- 
jects of the movement, they will put 
themselves into a somewhat awkward 
and entangling predicament. It will 
not be affirmed that Baal's prophets, 
who cried " aloud from morning till 
noon, and cut themselves after their 
manner with knives and lancets, till 
the blood gushed out upon them," 
were chargeable with insincerity ; or 
that the apostle of the Gentiles was 
less sincere in his religious services 
previous to his conversion; or that 
the adherents of the Church of Rome 
are hypocritical in their devotions, 



which Protestants pronounce to be 
superstitious. But a further prose- 
cution of this train of thought must 
be work of supererogation to the 
intelligent and candid controversalist. 
" We speak to wise men; judge ye 
what we say." 

V. All these revivals have been 
characterised, less or more, by strange 
physical effects upon many of the 
subjects of them. These strange 
effects were thus described by White- 
field: " Yesterday morning I preach- 
ed at Glasgow to a very large con- 
gregation. At noon, I came to Cam- 
buslang, the place which God had so 
much honoured. I preached at two 
to a vast body of people ; again at 
six in the evening; and afterwards 
at nine. Such a commotion was 
surely never heard of, especially 
about eleven o'clock at night. It far 
outdid all that ever 1 saw in Ame- 
rica. For about an hour and a half 
there was such weeping, so many 
tailing into deep distress, and mani- 
festing it in various ways, that de- 
scription is impossible. The people 
seemed to be smitten by scores. They 
were carried off and brought into the 
house like wounded soldiers taken 
from a field of battle. Their agonies 
and cries were deeply affecting," To 
the same purpose have we the evi- 
dence of many brought out by the 
examination of witnesses before " the 
Committee of the Presbytery of 
Aberdeen," in 1840. We take the 
following at random : — " Mr James 
Bruce, reporter to the Constitutional 
and Journal, called in and examined. 
What was the nature of the noises in 
the congregation ? Answer. They 
resembled the caterwauling of an enor- 
mous quantity of cats, and certain 
women placed around the pulpit 
seemed to lead them. Did the per- 
sons affected place themselves in 
singular or unusual postures ? An- 
swer. Some lay along, extended on 



62 



their faces, in one of the passages ; 
others seemed to be crouching with 
their faces on the seats of the pews." 
To the above we shall add the evidence 
of William Simpson, Esq., Procura- 
tor-Fiscal, examined by said Com- 
mittee. In answer to the question, 
»' What led him to go to the church in 
Aberdeen on such a night, and what 
he saw and heard while there ?" Mr. 
Simpson deponed, "In the precentor's 
desk there was a gentleman whom I 
understood to be Mr. Burns, but of 
him I have no personal knowledge. 
In the raised seat on the south side 
of the pulpit there were three or 
four elderly women of the lower class. 
Mr. Burns was sitting silent when I 
entered. The noise of which I have 
spoken, came from the female part of 
those sitting in the area not under 
the galleries. Immediately in front 
of the precentor's desk there are two 
square seats. About three or four 
people, who sat immediately in front, 
leaned their foreheads on their hands, 
which were laid on the desk, the 
others were in a reclining position, 
one upon another, with tlieir arms 
around each other's necks, or shoul- 
ders, or upper part of the body ; all 
had not their hands so. The same 
was the case in both these table seats. 
After an interval, Mr. Burns stood 
up, and having extended his hands, 
repeated a few sentences ; this he did 
at intervals. The first thing I heard 
him say was, 'Mourn for your sins ;' 
taking several seconds to pronounce 
each word. The next thing I recol- 
lect was, ' See your Saviour whom 
ye have pierced with your sins,' or 
words to that efi'ect, pronounced in 
the same manner. . . . All the time 
I remained there, the people in the 
raised seat, and in the two table seats, 
and in the area not under the galle- 
ries (excepting the well-dressed fe- 
males)sent forth a continual moaning, 
wailing, or groaning, and were all 



generally lying with their foreheads 
upon the book-board. I remarked 
that whenever Mr. Burns uttered any 
sentence, the wailing, &c., became a 
little higher, and then decreased. I 
observed Mr. Burns turn round and 
speak to those, or to some of them, who 
sat in the raised seat, in an under tone, 
when the noise from that seat became 
greater, &c." This deposition of the 
Procurator-Fiscal shews that the 
Cambuslang revivalism was outdone 
by the scenic revivalism in Bon Ac- 
cord Church, Aberdeen, in 1840, 
under the conduct of the Rev. W. C. 
Burns. Similar, and more striking, 
because more extravagant, are the 
eflfects produced on the bodies of the 
subjects of the present revival in Ire- 
land, which may in part be account- 
ed for by their well-known excitable 
temperament. 

Without, especially in this article, 
attempting an explanation of these 
startling phenomena, as characteris- 
tic accompaniments or adjuncts of 
revivalism, we may state the light in 
which they have been viewed by both 
parties— by the revivalists and by the 
evangelical sceptics. The revivalists — 
we mean the more intelligent of them, 
— whether because they felt them- 
selves more vulnerable through these 
physical and painful demonstrations, 
or whether an out-and-out advocacy of 
them would rather scare tlian attract, 
or whether they felt the difficulty of 
fairly meeting and repelling the ob- 
jections that ascribed them to other 
than divine agency, we will not de- 
termine, — were taken aback; and no- 
torious it is, that even Whitefield him- 
self declared that much of this work 
was to he ascribed to the devil. This 
stands as George Whitefield's written 
and somewhat damaging admission ; 
damaging, we say, inasmuch as what 
he thus applies to much of the work 
may apply to the ichole work. Sub- 
sequent revivalists have been carelul 



THE ARK. 



63 



to keep Whitefield's concession before 
their eyes. When Rev. W. C. Burns 
was giving evidence before the Com- 
mittee of the Aberdeen Presbytery, 
alluded to above, his answer to the 
question upon " sobs, crying, scream- 
ing, fainting, and falling into convul- 
sions," is, " I have a firm and grow- 
ing conviction that there often are, at 
such seasons, individuals who mani- 
fest a great degree of feeling, and yet 
afterwards shew that they continue in 
their natural state." These admis- 
sions certainly do administer a rebuke 
to those clergymen and laymen who 
see little or no glory about religious 
services unless they are accompanied 
with such external glare and terror 
as screaming, and swooning, and fall- 
ing into convulsions ! ! 

Without formally reasoning on 
these terrific phenomena of galvan- 
ism rather than Calvinism, we shall 
give the solid judgment of one as 
capable of examining such a ques- 
tion as President Edwards, or any 
man alive. Mr. Shepherd, on the 
parable of the ten virgins, says, 
" Some have heard voices, some have 
seen the very Mood of Christ dropping 
on them, and His vjoimds in His side ; 
some have seen a great light shining 
in the chamber, some wonderfully 
affected with their dreams ; some, in 
great distress, have had inward wit- 
ness, Thy sins are forgiven : and 
hence such liberty and joy, that they 
are ready to leap up and down the 
chamber. Woe to them that have no 
other manifested Christ, but such an 
one !" 

We might state, in concluding this 
branch of the subject, as a problem 
worthy the consideration of modern 
revivalists, — If screaming, fainting, 
convulsions, &c., as the effects of 
conviction, precede conversion, then 
how can such subjects, who for the 
time are without reason, or the ex- 
ercise of it, be the proper subjects 



of the regenerating spirit, whose 
first saving work it is to enlighten 
the understanding? How can ra- 
tional beings, whose reason is im- 
prisoned, be savingly operated upon 
by the Spirit ? 

VT. Revivalists, in attempting to 
account for and to defend these phy- 
j sical effects, as at least adjuncts of 
i those really or supposed to be con- 
verted, have had recourse to the 
same class of passages of the inspired 
volume. The specially favourite pas- 
sages are, the Pentecostal scene, as 
given in Acts ii.; the history of the 
conviction and conversion of the 
Philippian jailor, described in Acts 
xvi. ; and especially the history of 
Paul's conversion as given by him- 
self in Acts xxii. and xxvi. 

Now, without anything like a criti- 
cal examination of these passages 
separately, it may serve our purpose 
equally well, and probably better, to 
specify a few things on them collec- 
tively, and as bearing upon the re- 
vival controversy. 

1. In all these three cases, the in- 
strumentality employed was that of 
formally ordained ministers, all these 
ministers had one formal and distinct 
profession of the truths of Christ — 
of doctrine, discipline, worship, and 
government. In other terms, deno- 
minationalism, so essential to revival- 
ism, had no place. 

2. The converts were added to the 
one visible church, subscribed the 
same creed, and submitted to the 
same discipline and ministry. " And 
they continued steadfastly in the 
apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and 
in breaking of bread, and in prayers." 
The revivalists' pet scheme of uni- 
versal love and non-essentials was 
unknown. 

3. Each of the three cases referred 
to was proved by A miracle. Pen- 
tecost was ushered in by " a sudden 
sound from heaven, as of a rushing 



G4 



mighty wind, which filled all the 
house where the disciples were sit- 
ting; while there appeared unto 
them cloven tongues of fire, and it 
sat upon them when the gift of 
tongues was communicated." In the 
case of the jailor, " suddenly there | 
was a great earthquake, so that the 
foundations of the prison were shaken ; \ 
and immediately all the doors were j 
opened, and every one's bonds were 
loosed." And Paul declares what 
befell him on the way to Damascus, 
with which the reader is well ac- 
quainted. Surely such cases of glo- 
rious miraculous interposition, and 
which belonged to an age eminent 
for miracles, are not to be resorted to 
as warranting the extravagances of 
modern revivalism. We apprehend, 
such an application of Scripture 
would draw seriously deep on the 
sufficiency of Scripture and the 
spiritual nature of the kingdom of 
Christ, " which cometh not with ob- 
servation." 

4. There are other peculiarities 
about, at least, two of these three 
cases, which restrict them to the 
transition era in which they occurred. 
The Pentecostal effusion, together j 
with the striking effects upon the 
preachers and the three thousand ! 
converts, were matter of prediction 
by Joel, and of promise by Christ, 
to which Peter formally alluded on ! 



that occasion. As Paul was to be 
vested with the office of apostleship, 
and a literal sight of Clirist was es- 
sential to the holder of that office ; 
so a miracle was necessary to his 
conversion. To this the apostle him- 
self alludes, when he says, "And, last 
of all, He was seen of me, as of one 
born out of due season." These pe- 
culiarities restricted the startling ex- 
ternals to that era and to that people, 
shutting out the expectation of any 
similar manifestations in all subse- 
quent ages. And with respect to the 
third case, that of the jailor, and 
wherein its miraculous character is 
common to the other two, we can 
scarcely bring ourselves to believe 
that the revivalists will seriously and 
pertinaciously press them into their 
service, lest by so doing they should 
be called upon to defend the con- 
tinuance of miraculous interposition 
and manifestation from apostolic to 
all succeeding ages of the Church. 
Towards the close of the first century, 
and upon the expiration of the apos- 
tolic office, the ordinary and to be 
continued instrumentality and scrip- 
tural means were in successful ope- 
ration. " For after that in the 
wisdom of God, the world by wis- 
dom knew not God ; it pleased God 

by THE FOOLISHNESS OP PREACHING 

to save them that believe." 
QTo be continued.) 



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AUGUST 1859. 



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CONTENTS. 

The Eevivals in Ireland. 



% 'gMMs m Ixdmxh 



According to promise in last num- 
ber, we resume consideration of re- 
vivalism by prosecuting the historic 
argument. Desirous of giving offence 
to none, our object in this article is 
to furnish the reader witli the matured 
and well-weighed deliverances of the 
most intelligent and pious defenders 
of the revivals of the last and present 
centuries. Did a mode of conduct- 
ing the controversy more favour- 
able to modern revivalists occur to 
us, we think we would have adopted 
it; and should they still object that 
the mode now resorted to is unfair, 
we have certainly a right to demand 
of them that they plainly state what 
is better authority than the very 
names, great in intellect, piety, and 
experience, to which themselves ap- 
peal ? Should this mode of discussing 
the deeply interesting question of re- 
vivals be objected to, then the ques- 
tion resolves itself into, whether such 
men as President Edwards, Rev. 
Drs. Alexander, Wayland, Dana, 
Miller, Hyde, Hawes, Porter, Payson, 
Proudfit, Neill, Milledoler, Davis, 
Lord, Humphrey, Day, Green, Wad- 
del, Griffin, Sprague, &c., &c., are 
more competent to give a solid and 
scriptural judgment than modern, and 
many of them uneducated revivalists ? 
The above galaxy of doctors and pro- 
fessors of divinity may, we should 
think, compare with the most reput- 



able of modern ecclesiastical hier- 
archs, and especially of children of 
twelve years of age and uneducated 
street preachers. 

We are fully alive to the fact, that 
they who address themselves to a 
calm, serious, and professedly Chris- 
tian examination of modern revival- 
ism, with a view to test its genuine- 
ness, put themselves in bad odour 
with a very large portion of the reli- 
gious community. Nor is it difficult 
to account for this extremely impolitic 
mode of suppressing even a scriptural 
discussion of the question, when we 
consider the prevalent feuds in eccle- 
siastical society, the rapid and steady 
advance of the mystery of iniquity, 
and the increase of novel and startling 
crime. In such a state of matters, 
any religious movement is hailed by 
those who " are sighing and crying 
for the abominations that are done on 
the earth " as a refreshing interposi- 
tion from above, as a favourable 
answer to many and ardent suppli- 
cations, and as indicative of the dawn 
of a more glorious and long looked for 
era. And with this feeling we can 
in large measure sympathise, especi- 
ally when the subjects of the move- 
ment are deeply affected with a sense 
of guilt, address themselves with soul- 
earnestness to the divinely appointed 
means of grace, and give decided 
proof of a purer morality. In these 



G6 



overt acts of morality, of great benefit 
to themselves and others, Ave do re- 
joice, and will rejoice ; but, neverthe- 
less, we repudiate the enthusiastic 
revivalist's censorious charge of scep- 
ticism and infidelity, when we claim 
to examine, in the light of the Divine 
Word, whether so great a change is 
spiritual, whether it has been effected 
by the saving operations of the Spirit 
of Christ, whether it is .genuine re- 
generation ? And, at this point of ' 
the discussion, we beg, in sober eai'- 
nestness, to put the question to the 
revivalist, whether he does not take 
too much upon him, whether he does 
not assume the province and exercise 
the prerogative of the Searcher of 
hearts, in not only peremptorily pro- 
nouncing on the gracious state of such 
affected persons, but also, and parti- 
cularly, condemning as still " in the [ 
gall of bitterness and bond of ini- [ 
quity " all who claim to " try the 
spirits whether they be of God ? " 
We do submit, that such impolitic 
and censorious sentences are not very 
transparent evidences of a well-exer- 
cised, regenerated spirit ; and that, 
when launched forth against other- 
wise reputable professors, their ten- 
dency will not be to recommend the 
movement to the intelligent, or shut 
the mouth of literary infidelity against 
the supernatural doctrines of the 
Cross. In nothing has the cause of 
revivalism, asits history demonstrates, 
suffered more serious injury, than by 
the use of this culpable zeal of its 
more ignorant defenders. Trusting 
that these well-meant strictures will 
be received in the same friendly 
spirit in which they are given, we 
advance to the historic argument on 
this question. 

And what, then, are the clear 
evidences of genuine conversion on 
which the cliicls of modern revivalism 
pronounce so oracularly ? They may 
be stated as comprised in excited re- 



ligions affections, a love of Christ and 
religious duties, and external mo- 
rality. Now, is the revivalist so pre- 
pared to hazard a clear judgment 
on these as undoubted evidences of 
genuine conversion, as to consign to 
scepticism and infidelity those who 
claim farther investigation ere they 
give a formal judgment? It is a 
question that requires gravest con- 
sideration, whether such judges are 
entitled to occupy the judicial bench, 
and are competent to decide so per- 
emptorily on what " the day of the 
revelation of the secrets of all hearts " 
shall alone disclose. Surely the in- 
telligent reader of Scripture and the 
experienced Christian require not to 
be informed that, while the above 
evidences belong to the converted, 
they are also displayed by those who 
i have not been introduced into the 
kingdom of grace — a scriptural dis- 
tinction which the majority of re- 
vivalists culpably overlook. 

In illustration and confirmation of 
! this essential and comprehensive posi- 
tion, we shall appeal to President 
I Edwards, deemed by some who claim 
to be judges, as the highest human 
1 authority on this subject. In bis 
I treatise on " The Affections," written 
four years after his " Thoughts on 
Revivals," and when his judgment 
was more matured, he lays down, and 
confirms from Scripture, the follow- 
ing distinctive propositions: — "It is 
1 no sign of true conversion, that reli- 
; gious affections are very great, or 
raised very high ; that the religious 
affections have great effects on the 
body ; that they cause those who 
have them, to be fluent, fervent, and 
abundant in talking of the things of 
religion ; that the subjects of them 
did not make them themselves, or ex- 
cite them of their own contrivance ; 
I that they come with texts of Scrip- 
'. tare remarkably brought to the mind ; 
that there is an appearance of love in 



G7 



them ; that religious affections are of 
many kinds, and accompanying one 
another ; that comforts and joys seem 
to follow awakenings and convictions 
of conscience in a certain order ; that 
they dispose persons to spend much 
time in religion, and to be zealously 
engaged in the external duties of 
worship ; that they much dispose per- 
sons with their mouths to praise and 
glorify God ; that they make persons 
that have them exceeding confident 
that what they experience is divine, 
and that they are in a good estate ; 
and that the outward manifestations 
of them, and the relations persons 
give of them, are very affecting and 
pleasing to the truly godly, and such 
as greatly gain their charity and win 
their hearts." 

These are the twelve distinctive 
propositions which the very learned, 
logical, and pious President Edwards 
has, in the judgment of all who claim 
competency to form an opinion, fully 
demonstrated from the Word of God, 
and in obvious accordance with the 
deductions of sound reason. And if 
Edwards, the acutest of the defenders 
of the American revivals of the last 
century, has declared and demon- 
strated that such are not cevtam signs, 
infallible proofs, of genuine conver- 
sion, might not keenest modern re- 
vivalists, many of whom have not a 
titiie of his sanctified intellect and 
varied scriptural learning, learn the 
salutary lesson of modesty in speak- 
ing of those who chiim the hesitancy 
which Edwards allows ? And if 
none of these states, and feelings, 
and exercises warrant a judgment 
of a favourable kind, we should like 
eiuy modern revivalist to furnish his 
clearer and more comprehensive and 
pointed list of evidences regarding 
the New York, Belfast, or Glasgow 
awakenings. 

Wliile we are upon this branch of 
the subject, we may take the liberty 



of presenting the reader with the 

sage and Christian advice of Dr. 

I Sprague, in his eighth lecture on 

[ Revivals : -^ " There are some who 

will condemn their brethren as cold 

Christians, or perhaps as no Chris- 

' tians at all, because, with less of con- 

j stitutional ardour than themselves, 

and possibly more prudence, they are 

not prepcwed to concw at once in eveiy 

measure that may be suggested for 

the advancement of a revival ; or 

because they talk less of their own 

feelings than some others ; or because 

they attend fewer public religious 

exercises than could be desired. . . 

Many a Christian, who has been 

labouring faithfully and judiciously 

for the salvation of sinners, — whose 

closet has witnessed to the fervour 

; of his devotion, and whose conversa- 

\ tion has been according to the Gospel 

of Christ, — has not only been sus- 

: pected by his brethren of coldness, 

for some one or other of the reasons 

just mentioned, but has been marked, 

and denounced, and even praijed for, 

as dead to the intei'ests of revivals, if 

not dead in trespasses and sins." Let 

the confidence of many of the more 

censorious of modern revivalists shew 

itself to be imbued with the spirit of 

j these remarks, kindly tendered to 

1 them by one of the most eminent 

promoters of revivals in our day. 

I There is. another fact which incau- 

j tious and enthusiastic revivalists have 

j largely insisted on as characteristic 

I of conversion, which merits gravest 

, consideration, especially as it belongs 

to the means used in producing and 

i promoting revivals. We allude to 

the confessed and gloried in addresses 

to the passions, especially the fears of 

' the audience, in preference to and 

before endeavouring to convince the 

I judgment. It is readily admitted 

I that the Spirit of Christ makes use 

of every part of the moral constitu- 

j tion of man in the production of the 



new creature; but Scripture discloses, 
and sound reason accords with it, 
that the enlightenment of the under- 
standing precedes the persuasion of 
the will and the sanctification of the 
affections. To establish this as the 
order of the Divine procedure with 
man was the one object which Pre- 
sident Edwards had in his treatise 
on " The Will." This divinely logi- 
cal master in Israel established, 
beyond all controversy, his main 
position, that the volitions of the 
will naturally and necessarily fol- 
lowed the last dictate of the under- 
standing. Now, we do submit, that 
this natural, rational, and divinely- 
established order is inverted by re- 
vivalists. Their first object is to 
cause an excitement among the affec- 
tions, which, when wound up to the 
highest pitcii, most naturally affect 
the body. Demonstrative proof of 
this glitters on the surface of the his- 
tory of revivalism; and so tremblingly 
alive to it as a vulnerable point are 
they, that the more cautious and in- 
telligent revivalists labour to warn 
against it. Observe the anxiety of 
Dr. Sprague on this point in his 
fourth lecture on Revivals : — " There 
are those who attribute too much to 
the agency of the Spirit in revivals. 
They do this who set down to the 
account of the Holy Spirit peculiar 
tones of voice, and expressions of 
countenance, and violent gestures, 
which are supposed to indicate deep 
and strong feeling; and anything 
that is harsh, or boisterous, or in 
any respect that is irregular, even 
though it may seem to be associated 
with the greatest imaginable fervour. 
These things, no doubt, may exist 
with a true revival, but they are the 
work of men — not the ivork of God" 
This inversion of the established 
order of the Spirit's procedure with 
tlio sinner by strong appeals to the 
passions, leads the speaker to strain 



for effect, and the audience to despise 
the simplicity of the Gospel. There 
must be exaggeration — something 
extravagant — something tragical. 
Instead of reasoning on this as the 
natural effect of such a mode of 
moving sinners, we shall again cite 
the authority of revivalists of the 
first class. Dr. Francis Wayland, 
President of Brown University, Pro- 
vidence, in writing on Revivals to 
Dr. Sprague, says : — " Men who 
desire to convince others, are always 
liable to use stronger language than 
the cool consideration of the case 
will warrant. It is so here. I do 
not mean to assert that the truth is 
represented too strongly. This can- 
not be. But a stress is frequently 
laid upon trivial circumstances, for 
the sake of immediate effect; plain 
truths are often represented in so 
novel a light, or so surrounded with 
unusual imagery, that they have the 
effect, upon a plain congregation, of 
false doctrine. We can never im- 
prove upon the sayings of Christ, 
nor present the doctrines of the Gos- 
pel in a dress better adapted to the 
human mind than He has done. As 
an illustration of the nature of this 
tendency to exaggeration, I would 
remark, that I have known ministers 
urge persons to wait, after the con- 
gregation was dismissed, for the 
purpose of being prayed for, in such 
terms as would have led us to be- 
lieve that their salvation absolutely 
turned upon this very point. Now, 
I will not say that a person's salva- 
tion may not turn upon such a point 
as this, but I ask. Is this the general 
rule ? Does the Bible authorise us 
to state it thus to a congregation?" 
So far Dr. Wayland, the Revivalist ! 
To this inversion of the established 
order, by first exciting the affections, 
are clearly traceable those principles 
of SYMPATHY which accouut for com- 
motions among large assemblies of 



THE ARK. 



69 



people, and along large districts of 
country. From very many instances 
illustrative of the powerful effect of 
sympathy in connexion vrith revi- 
vals, we may select the following, as 
given in the " The History and Cha- 
racter of American Revivals," by the 
Rev. Calvin Colton, 1832 :—" "Fifty 
persons had now publicly separated 
themselves from the world, there to 
take the vows of God upon them, in 
the presence of God, of angels, and 
of this multitude of witnesses on 
earth, and then to sit down together, 
and, for the first time, to receive the 
consecrated symbols of a Saviour's 
dying love. 

" And the venerable patriarch, their 
pastor and spiritual father, descend- 
ing from the pulpit, took his station 
behind the communion table, and sup- 
ported on either hand by his elders 
and deacons, and was about to pro- 
ceed to the installation of these wait- 
ing candidates in the fellowship and 
privileges of the Church. For a mo- 
ment all was silence and rapt atten- 
tion, while that aged man of God 
stood struggling to arm his tongue 
for utterance. The sympathies of all 
hearts clustered round him, as he was 
seen labouring in vain to express his 
emotions. At last, with a trembling 
and broken voice, addressing himself 
to the oflicers and members of his 
Church, and looking upon this fresh 
company now coming up to offer 
themselves to God, he delivered him- 
self of this brief sentence : — ' This 
is the day, and this the hour, my 
brethren, which I have long wished, 
and prayed, and laboured to see.' 
And the old man could say no more. 
But, turning himself, he fell upon 
the shoulder of one of the elders who 
stood by his side, and wept aloud. 
And the whole conrjregation xoere in- 
stantly possessed of the same feeling, 
and equally convulsed hy the uncon- 
trollable power of their emotions." 



Now, w^hile we admit that this 
scene was deeply affecting, yet we 
would appeal to every well-regulated 
mind, whether this extraordinary 
effect upon the whole congregation, 
dignified by the name of a revival, was 
not one of mere animal sympathy ; 
especially as there was no exhibition 
of law or Gospel, — nothing but the 
touching exhibition of an old man in 
tears, which very few, we apprehend, 
will insist on as an appointed mean 
of conversion. 

To this same inversion of divinely- 
instituted order, or addressing the 
passions antecedently to informing 
the judgment, we may trace, in con- 
nexion with revivalism, its almost 
universal accompaniment, a tacit but 
well- understood agreement among 
the performers, to ignore certain 
doctrines as non-essential, and to 
perpetrate a breach of ecclesiastical 
government, and the dispensing with 
a regularly-ordained Christian mi- 
nistry. This is the most serious and 
capital flaw in revivalism which its 
history has largely and clearly 
brought to view. To reason in 
defence of such a breach of order, 
that large success has been the 
result, is taking a leaf out of Rome's 
book ; by pleading that " the end 
sanctifies the means," is assuming 
that the success specified is genuine, 
and, above all, confounds the neces- 
sary and salutary distinction, that 
whereas the Lord is Sovereign and 
may work as He pleases, man is 
restricted to a 2'>rescribed line of duty. 
But the gloried-in tacit agreement 
to declare only certain doctrines as 
essential, is vulnerable at every point. 
It is in formal contravention of the 
Divine commission, " teaching them 
to observe all things;" it is restrict- 
ing the inspired field of operation of 
"the Spirit of all truth;" and it 
unequivocally declares, that the de- 
nominational differences are mere 



70 



non-essentials in the conscientious 
judgment of the denominational re- 
vivalists, for which they, however, 
rend in pieces the religious Vv-orkl. 
And what is the natural effect of 
this self-stultification and self-contra- 
diction upon the unregenerate world? 
— what can it possibly be but the 
conclusion, that their denomination- 
alism is a religious farce — a mock- 
battle about confessed non-essentials? 
But, how very serious is the inroad 
made upon the doctrine and unity of 
the Church by this disorderly and 
self-contradictory procedui'e ! 

Instead of resorting to formal rea- 
soning on this subject — essential to 
the doctrines and unity of the Church 
— we shall again adduce some of the 
higliest revivalist authorities. Dr. 
Sprague, in his third lecture, says : 
— " As it is through the instrumen- 
tality of the truth that God performs 
His work upon the hearts of men, it 
is fair to conclude that, just in pro- 
portion as any part of it is kept 
laack, or is dispensed in a different 
manner from that which He has 
prescribed, it will fail of its legiti- 
mate effect. It is not at the option 
of God's ministers to select one truth 
from the Bible and omit another ; 
but they are required to preach the 
whole counsel of God : and where 
they neglect to do this, it were un- 
reasonable to expect a blessing. In 
the exercise of their own judgment 
on this subject, they may come to 
the conclusion, that particular parts 
of Divine truth are of little im- 
])ortance, and that even some of the 
j)eculiar doctrines of the Gospel may 
well enough be lightly passed over; 
but this is <m insult to the Autlior of 
the Bible, which they have good 
reason to expect He will punish by 
sending them a barren ministry." 
Let modern revivalists read their 
})opuhir ci-ecd of non-e.ssentials ia the 
light of this high revival autliority. 



The testimony of Dr. Samuel Mil- 
ler, Professor of Eccle.^iastical History 
and Church Government in the The- 
ological Seminary at Princeton, New 
Jersey, a great revivalist, gives the fol- 
lowing account of the working of the 
populardisorder alluded to: — "A love 
of excitement and of agitation seemed 
to take possession of the people. 
They began to suppose, that when 
these were absent nothing was done. 
A number of hot-headed young men, 
intoxicated with the prevailing ele- 
ment of excitement, and feeling con- 
fident of their own powers and call 
to the work, though entirely destitute 
of any suitable education, assumed 
the office of public exhorters and in- 
structors. These were soon after- 
wards licensed to preach ; a majority 
of the Presbytei-y hoping, that al- 
though not regularly qualified, they 
might he useful. When once this 
door was opened, it was found diffi- 
cult to close it. Candidate after 
candidate, of this character, and on 
this plan, Avere licensed, and subse- 
quently ordained, until this descrip- 
tion of ministers threatened to become 
a majority of the Avhole body. As 
might have been expected, a new 
source of trouble now appeared. A 
number of these raw and ignorant 
young, and a few of the older, mi- 
nisters, began to manifest great lax- 
ness as to their theological opinions. 
And a new Presbytery having been 
set off, consisting chiefly of those 
: who were friendly to the new opi- 
\ nions and measures, became a sort 
of mint for issuing, in great abun- 
I dance, dmilar coin. Candidates were 
\ freely licensed and ordained, who 
declined adopting the Confession of 
Faith of the Presbyterian ('liureh. 
• . . The consequence was, that 
Arminians and Pelagians actually 
entered the Presbyterian Church, 
and went on rapidly to multiply." 
'I'iic upshot was confusion more con- 



founded ; sects innumerable and dis- 
gracefully heretical appeared ; and 
the scene of great revivalism became ' 
the battle-field of Presbyterianism, ) 
Arrainianism, Pelagianism, Socini- , 
anism, and Sliakerism ! ! ! ; 

Although there are other and 
stronger iUustrations of the position | 
we have laid down, and of which we j 
might legitimately avail ourselves, yet, 
in consideration of the present tem- 
per of revivalists, we forbear, lest we 
should find our names enrolled among i 
" scoffers, sceptics, and infidels." I 

In concluding this article, we may i 
— and that, too, very generally — 
consider the animal excitement and 
corporeal affections of fainting and 
convulsions to which so many of the ! 
subjects of revivalism have been ex- 
posed, and with which they have 
been visited. "We have no design, ; 
and certainly no desire, to treat this - 
subject with levity, or to resort to , 
the physiological solution of it upon j 
the Mono-ideism of that science. 
The stronghold of the revivalists on 
faintings and convulsions appears to 
be the close connexion betwixt the 
mind and the body, which certainly 
makes way for the interference of 
physiology. The scriptural instances 
of Jacob at the brook Jabbok, of 
Daniel, Habakkuk, Saul of Tarsus, 
and others, we have considei'ed in 
our former number, to which we 
refer. We may, however, as a con- 
tribution to the solution of these 
revivalism phenomena, suggest the 
following considerations : — 

I. We are not aware that any of 
the more intellectual and learned of 
the revivalists, as Edwards, and those 
already named in this article, were 
themselves the subjects of such phe- 
nomena. A satisfactory explanation 
of this somewhat striking exception 
would be acceptable, and might 
throw some light on this rather 
delicate question. 



II. The instances from Scripture 
adduced by the revivalists are those 
of a dispensation which was material, 
gorgeous, and made an appeal to the 
external senses. It was, therefore, 
as it is designated, a dispensation of 
bondage and of fear. Such effects 
were in accordance with such exter- 
nal appearances and appeals. Ac- 
cordingly, the high priest and all the 
people trembled, — although we are 
not aware that they swooned away 
and had to be carried off the ground, 
— on their most solemn approaches 
to God, whose symbolic presence 
was attractive and extremely im- 
posing. 

III. We have now been intro- 
duced into a dispensation which, be- 
cause of its spirituality, and as con- 
trasted with the former, is one of 
liberty and confidence. " Having, 
therefore, brethren, boldness to enter 
into the holiest by the blood of 
Jesus." To the same purpose the 
apostle declares, " For ye have not 
received the spirit of bondage again 
to fear; but ye have received the 
spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, 
Abba, father." This new and spiri- 
tual economy has secured us against 
the fear and bondage of the former. 

IV. We desire to be informed, 
whether one instance — even from 
the Old Testament Scriptures — 
has been, or can be adduced, of 
fainting and convulsions in public. 
Jacob, in order to be alone and 
exercise familiarity with the un- 
created Angel of the covenant, car- 
ried his wives and children across 
the brook. Obvious it is, that Da- 
niel, Habakkuk, and Saul of Tarsus, 
were not in public assembly when 
corporeally affected with divine im- 
pressions. In other words, we desi- 
derate one clear instance from Scrip- 
ture of such bodily contortions in 
public as dignify or disgrace the ter- 
rible phenomena of revivalism in 



72 



America, Engluud, Scotland, and 
Ireland. 

Without prosecuting this line of 
thought, we shall now conclude with 
the matured judgment of Dr. Samuel 
Miller, Professor of Divinity, and 
keen revivalist : — " They (disorders 
of public revival meetings) have 
always appeared to me adapted to 
make religion more an affiiir of dis- 
play, of impulse, of noise, and of 
animal sympathy, than of the under- 
standing, the conscience, and the 
heart. In short, they have always 
struck me as adapted, in their ordi- 
nary form, to produce effects on our 
intellectual and moral nature analo- 
gous to those of strong drink on the 
animal economy, — that is, to excite, 
to warm, and to appear to strengthen 
for a time, but only to pave the way 
for a morhid expenditure of ' senso- 
rial power,' as we say concerning 
the animal economy, and for conse- 
quent debility and disease." This is 
clearly a revivalist expounding these 
phenomena on strict physiological 
principles. 

In striking and instructive con- 
trast with the above, we have, in the 
inspired description of Ezekiel's val- 
ley of vision, all the elements of a 
genuine revival, to which, as a scrip- 
tural model of a religious awakening, 
we would refer the reader. The sub- 
jects of it were the houses of Israel 



and Judah, who had, because of 
apostacy from their public profes- 
sion, been reduced, politically and ec- 
clesiastically, to a field of dry bones. 
The instrumentality employed was the 
prophet, who was vested with official 
authority ; the mean used was the 
word of the Lord, which he declared 
" as he was commanded ;" the agency 
that rendered this instituted instru- 
mental authority and this divinely- 
prescribed mean spiritually effectual, 
was that of the Holy Spirit, or the 
wind of heaven; and the happy result 
was characterised by unity and order. 
" So I prophesied as He commanded 
me, and the breath came into them, 
and they lived, and stood up upon 
their feet, an exceeding great army." 
Denominationalism, the professed 
glory of modern revivalism, had no 
place among those awakened in the 
valley of vision ; they stood up mar- 
shalled in order, every man in his 
own place in the ranks ; and they 
were distinguished by unity of judg- 
ment and affection as one nation and 
one church. " And I will make 
them one nation in the land upon 
the mountains of Israel ; and one 
king shall be king to them all ; and 
they shall be no more two nations, 
neither shall they be divided into 
two kingdoms any more at all : " 
" And they shall be one stick in my 
hand." 



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SEPTEMBER 1859. 



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CONTENTS. 

The Burns Centenary. 

The Ca:meronians a^rsus their Testimony. 



®Ije funis Ceuteniirg. 



We proceed to redeem the pledge | 
given in a former number, of a brief 
consideration of the object, the cha- I 
racter, and the natural effect of the 
Burns Centenary. Although the ex- | 
traordinary excitement of the com- I 
memoration has given place to the I 
absorbing concurrent events of a poli- ' 
tical and military character, yet this 
is all the more favourable to a calm 
consideration of the works and life of 
the Ayrshire bard. But although the 
unbounded enthusiasm of the Cen- 
tenary has partially subsided, yet tliat 
which raised it is in existence, and 
seeks occasions to flare up again, as in 
last month's inexplicably tessellated 
demonstration of *' Peebles to the 
Play." Both demonstrations, with 
characteristic differences, 7n{7ius en- 
vied nationality and clerical inaugu- 
ration, are of the same genus. 

But to our task. TVe have already, 
and most willingly, admitted the rare, 
the extraordinary genius of the bard, 
and that some of his poetic effusions 
are unrivalled ; yet, in order to form 
a correct estimate of the political, and 
especially moral value of his produc- 
tions, candour and sound criticism 
require that we view them as a whole, 
and expound them in the light of the 
author's ascertained creed and life. 
To this mode of conducting any in- 
quiiy of this nature, we are not aware 
that any intelligent admirer of Burns 



has objected, or, indeed, can consis- 
tently object. To those who are ever 
ready with their morally effete defence 
of, " to err is human," for inveterate 
habits of intemperance and immora- 
lity, we most decidedly object, as in 
every sense incapacitated to give a 
sound deliverance on this and all kin- 
dred questions. What, then, notwith- 
standing some few exceptional patrio- 
tic effusions, was the political creed 
of Robert Burns ? Let Burns him- 
self, his contemporaries, his patrons, 
and his warmest admirers, decide 
this question. Allan Cunningham 
writes, " That Burns was numbered 
among the republicans of Dumfries, I 
well remember. . . . It is true that 
he spoke of premiers and peers with 
contempt ; that he hesitated to take 
off his hat in the theatre to the air of 
' God save the King ;' that he refused 
to drink the health of Pitt, saying he 
preferred that of Washington — a far 
greater man ; while ' the powers that 
were ' sent an order to inquire into 
his political conduct, blaming him as 
a person disaffected to Government." 
His political principles were clearly 
of the Jacobitical cast ; and he proved 
this by attending the society that an- 
nually met on the Pretender's birth- 
day, and joined in " the toasts for the 
dismissal of the intrusive Hanoverian 
by th^ nght and might of the righteous 
and disinherited line." . This, and 



74 



much more of the same kind, as 
shewing the fixed political creed of 
Burns while in the pay of Govern- 
ment, cannot be explained away by- 
such effusions as " Scots wha bae wi' 
Wallace bled." 

But we proceed to the more serious 
question, Whatwas the religious creed 
of this unhappy son of genius ? We 
are in measure alive to the unpopu- 
larity of this theme, and have some 
acquaintance with the kind and mode 
of elaborate defence resorted to by 
bis eulogists ; but the very fact that 
such elaborate defences are requisite, 
and that the charge of scepticism is 



opposite party, the Old Lights, were 
subjected to the keenest and most 
merciless lashing which his satirical 
pen could inflict. Dr. Hetherington, 
in his " History of the Church of 
Scotland," says, "It can be proved 
beyond the power of doubt, by living 
and unimpeachable testimony, that 
Burns himself, within the last fort- 
night of his life, expressed the 
deepest remorse for what these men 
had led him to write, and an anxious 
wish that he might live a little longer 
to make some attempt to repair the 
injury he had done." 

If the above unimpeachable testi- 



met by the alleged religious bursts of [ mony be really unimpeachable, then, 
a very few of his poetic productions, | in the first place, what mean of " re- 
is a clear concession of the truth of j pairing the injury he had done " was 
the painful charge. That he was more obvious, than to request, as a 
sceptical in regard to some of the | dying man, the suppression of his 
cardinal dogmas of not only revealed, ! works ? and, in the second place, 
but even natural religion, admits not i how comes it that the dying Burns, 
of controversy. Himself has said, and within a fortnight of the eternal 
"All my fears and cares are of this ; world, should find living and literary 
world ; if there is another, an honest ' defenders of what gave him " the 
man has nothing to fear from it. I deepest remorse? " 
. . . If there is another life, it ] We must, however, view the re- 
must be only for the just, the bene- ligious creed of Burns in the light of 



volent, the amiable, and the humane 
As by these sentiments, variously 
expressed, and running throughout 
his works, he has ignored Christian- 
ity, so there is not wanting direct 
proof of his Socinianism, his denial 
of the proper deity of the Son of 
God, and the necessity of His atone- 
ment to reconcile God to the sinner 
— the corner-stones of the Christian 
system. There is not any trace 
throughout his works of a single 
hint condemnatory of his compre- 
hensive apostrophe, "Jesus Christ, 
Thou amiahlest of characters ! I trust 
Thou art no impostor," &,c. That 
Socinianism was his creed, appears 
from the fact, that the Socinian 
clergy of the West, called the New 
Light men, found in Burns their 
most valued champion ; while the 



the sceptical levity of his last mo- 
ments, of his irreligious joking when 
within sight of the eternal world. 
" His friend, the witty and accom- 
plished Mrs. Riddel, paid him a visit. 
I was struck, she said, with his 
appearance on entering the room: 
the stamp of death was impressed on 
his features. His first words were, 
' Well, madam, have you any com- 
mands for the other world ? ' " To 
the same purpose, and all the more 
condemnable as he was on the very 
frontier of eternity, is the following : 
"Turning to Gibson, one of his fel- 
low-volunteers, who stood at his bed- 
side with wet eyes, ' John,' said he, 
and a gleam of hwnour passed over 
his face, ' pray, don't let the awk- 
ward squad fire over me.' " These 
few well-authenticated, and, by his 



THE ARK. 



75 



living judicial, clerical, and literary- 
panegyrists, gloried-in facts, demon- 
strate the religious, or rather scepti- 
cal creed of the poet, whom, pro- 
fessedly religious, Scotland delights 
to honour ! 

"We know not well how to ap- 
proach his universally admitted, and 
by his admirers lamentably palliated, 
libertinism. This dark and disgrace- 
ful feature was the ruling passion of 
the poet's life, and which, despite of 
his affected recommendations of the 
purity of love, stains every page of 
his prosaic and poetic i^roductions, 
and which survived all but death it- 
self. The burst of indignation which 
he poured forth upon '• the wretch ! 
the villain ! lost to love and truth ! 

That can, with studied, sly, ensnaring art, 
Betray sweet Jenny's unsuspecting youth," 

is, when read in the light of his " son- 
sie, smirking, dear - bought Bess," 
and his infamous conduct soon after 
to " Bonnie Jean," his own portrait, 
and drawn by his own hand. When in 
the metropolis, and after married to 
Jean Armour, he could forget both 
her and her children by indulging in 
love to another, which he could not 
conceal from a friend, who was forced 
to administer a rebuke. The " Bor- 
der Tour," written by the poet, con- 
tains some most disgraceful entries, 
from which we can scarcely make a 
single extract. No gentleman who 
extended his hospitality to the poetic 
and married tourist had an hour's 



security for the chastity of his lady 
or daughters. The reader will do his 
best to pardon us for giving direct 
proof of this very heavy charge 
against Scotland's own poet, as fur- 
nished by himself. " Keturned to 
Jedburgh — when parted by the cere- 
mony of my introduction to Mr. 
Somerville, Miss met me half, to re- 
sume my situation. — Nota Bene. The 
poet within a point and a half of be- 
ing d-mnably in love — I am afraid 
my bosom is still nearly as much 
tinder as ever." Again : " Sup at 

Mr. 's; vexed that the Miss 

Lindsays are not of the supper party, 

as they only are wanting. Mrs. 

and Miss still improve infer- 
nally on my hand." In fine: " Found 
Miss Ainslie, the amiable, the sen- 
sible, the good-humoured, the sweet 
Miss Ainslie, all alone at Berryhill. 
Heavenly powers who know the 
iveahiess of human hearts, support 
mine! What happiness must I see 
only to remind me that I cannot en- 
joy it!" But we cannot proceed 
farther; and must conclude with the 
bard's indignant reprobation of the 
libertine: — 
" Is there, in human form, that bears a heart, 

A wretch! a villain ! lost to love and truth! 

That can, with studied, slj', ensnaring art. 

Betray sweet Jenny's unsuspecting youth? 

Curse on his perjured arts! dissembling 
smooth! 

Are honour, virtue, conscience, all exiled ? 

Is there no pity, no relenting ruth. 

Points to the parents fondling o'er their child ? 
Then paints the ruined maid, and their dis- 
traction wild ? " 



In considering this subject, it is not 
necessary to discuss the distinguish- 
ing anti-government dogma of the 
Cameronian Testimony ; our present 
purpose being rather to ascertain its 
native consequences, and the obvi- 
ously perplexing position into which 
it has brought its defenders. Our 



remarks are not prompted by cen- 
soriousness, but by conviction, that 
the cause of truth, as well as the 
best interests of the Reformed Pres- 
byterian brethren themselves, de- 
mand a faithful exposure of the worm 
that destroys the root of their eccle- 
siastical system, — the "little leaven" 



76 



of heresy, that leavens the whole of 
their Testimony, and renders it hurt- 
ful to the prosperity of Zion, and un- 
savoury to her King; for " the right- 
eous Lord loveth righteousness," and 
He is " of purer eyes than to behold 
evil," even when it is in connexion 
with much that is truly good. As 
our remarks are intended to be brief, 
we shall confine ourselves to a state- 
ment of the position held by the 
Cameronians at various stages of 
their history, from their origin to the 
present time, and then conclude with 
a few inferences. In tracing the 
origin of their peculiar principles, we 
shall quote the graphic account of it 
given by one of themselves in his 
speech before the Synod, last spring. 
The Rev. Mr. Bennie, in the course 
of his speech, said, "I refer to the 
statement that our Church has taken 
up a particular position in regard to 

the country And what 

has been the position this Church, or 
the body of men, has occupied to- 
wards the civil power? Why, there 
was a long time during which the 
civil Government was not only ac- 
knowledged, but in which it was 
cordially supported, and the oath of 
allegiance became something like a 
term of communion. "What were the 
covenants but the oaths of allegiance 
in the time in which they were 
framed? and most excellent oaths 
they were. These oaths were very 
carefully guarded ; but a time came 
when the king, within a very short 
time of his swearing these oaths, 
broke them, and brought in arbitrary 
power — impious and unscriptural 
power in the Church, and tyranny 
in the state. What was the position 
our forefathers took then ? We 
have sworn, said they, by this 
sacred constitution ; the king has 
sworn with us; that constitution is a 
sworn power in this free land. The 
king has rebelled against the sove- 



reign in this land; we are loyal to the 
sovereign in this land ; the king has 
broken the constitution ; we cleave 
to that constitution ; and we proclaim 
war against the rebels of that law : 
and they went in the face of day 
to proclaim war against the kingly 
rebel. But did that cure him? . . . 
God brought delivei'ance to the land. 
The tyranny of the Stuarts was put 
an end to by the Revolution. Liberty 
was given to our fathers ; and then 
they felt they must change their posi- 
tion in regard to the Government. 
They gave thanks to God for the 
liberty He had given them ; and they 
would not bear arms against the 
Revolution Government, but some of 
them were prepared to bear arms in 
favour of it. But the Revolution 
Settlement was one which was in the 
highest degree unsatisfactory. . . . 
When the Revolution authorities swept 
away the arbitrary, unconstitutional, 
unscriptural work of theStuarts' reign, 
and planted their foot upon the work 
of the second Reformation, this was 
a defection. . . . They esta- 
blished the English and Irish Epis- 
copal Churches, and that in Scot- 
land, too, — and hence our fathers 
said they could not support a Govern- 
ment that could do such things. But 
the position they took up was not one 
of war, as their fathers, but of dis- 
sent ; and they used that word in the 
full meaning of it, holding a similar 
relation to the civil power to that 
which we hold to the ecclesiastical 
establishment of this country. Hold- 
ing that position, tlwj xvould not pay 
taxes except under compulsion. They 
loould not take part in the conducting of 
any case in a court of law, whether as 
prosecutor or as defender. They would 
not offer up prayer for the governors of 
the land. They would not take the lease 
of a farm, in which there was the recog- 
nition of the Government. They tvoidd 
not speak of the sovereign power of the 



77 



land, in such a way as ivoulcl give the 
ruling title to the occupant oj the throne. 
They would not sign a petition, in which, 
of course, there is a recognition of the 
head ruler, hy the use of formal titles, 
which indicate the occupant of the throne's 
office" 

In this graphic sketch v/e have a 
view of the Cameronian position, both 
before and immediately subsequent 
to the Revolution of 1688. We have 
given the latter part in italics, as 
clearly defining their idea, at that 
period, of the practical maintenance 
of their testimony against the civil 
magistracy. And, requesting our 
readers to keep that idea clearly in 
view, in order to contrast it with the 
present practice of Cameronians, we 
now proceed to inquire how their 
Testimony has spoken in the inter- 
vening period. 

In 1761 the Reformed Presbytery 
emitted a judicial " Act, Declaration, 
and Testimony," in which the follow- 
ing passage occurs ; — 

" The Presbytery testify against, 
and condemn that principle that the 
Christian people of God ought to give 
explicit acknowledgment of, and im- 
plicit subjection to, whatever civil 
authority (though most wicked and 
unlawful) the Lord in His holy pro- 
vidence may, for the trial and punish- 
ment of His Church, permit a back- 
sliding people to constitute and set 
up, without regard to the precept of 
His Word. And they hereby reject 
whatever, in opposition to the coven- 
anted principles of the Church of 
Scotland, does justly, and in its own 
nature, imply a voluntary and real 
acknowledgment of the lawfulness of 
the title and authority of an anti- 
scriptural,unco venanted, and Erastian 
Government, constituted upon the 
ruins of our scriptural covenanted Re- 
formation. Particularly they testify 
against praying for success and pros- 
perity to such, in their stated opposi- 



\ tion to the Lord and His Anointed, or 
i in any form implying a homologation of 
\ their title as lawful, swearing oaths of 
fidelity and allegiance to such, accepting 
' «'2^ office from such, and executing these 
in their name and authority under them, 
j military associations with such, by a 
voluntary enlisting under their banner, 
and fighting for their support and esta- 
blishment. And that in regard these 
are actions, as they express a proper 
and explicit owning of the lawfulness 
of that authority, which they immedi- 
ately respect, so they are such as 
cannot be obtained without the actual 
consent of tlie party performing, and 
must, therefore, imply a deliberate 
approbation of foresaid iniquitous 
authority. Further, they testify 
I against a direct and active, free and 
I voluntary paying of tribute and other 
' dues, unto such, and that for con- 
! science sake, as unto the ordinance of 
God, according to His precept : and 
particularly when these dues are re- 
quired as a test of loyalty to such." 
(Pp. 165, 166, of Test, of 1761, 4th 
ed.) 

This was their judicial deliverance 
a century ago, and we come now to 
the latest authoritative expositions of 
their distinguishing dogma, in order 
to contrast it with the practices at 
present prevailing in the body, which 
are inconsistent with such principles. 
In the Testimony of ISIO, they de- 
clare — " Such as are in ecclesiastical 
fellowship with us cannot, without a 
breach of their testimony, hold fel- 
lowship with the civil Government, 
by composing part of the Legislature, 
or by taking those oaths for the main- 
tenance and defence of the complex 
constitution which are required of 
members of Parliament, &c. And 
as the members of our Church can- 
not sit in Parliament themselves, 
neither can they consistently sit 
there by their representatives, or 
commission others to do for them 



what it would be unwarrantable and 
immoral for them to do in their own 
persons." We quote also, as closely 
connected with this, the Act of Synod 
1833, regarding the Elective Fran- 
chise. — "The exercise of the elec- 
tive franchise is a distinct recogni- 
tion of the constitution, in virtue of 
the political identity subsisting be- 
tween the representative and his con- 
stituent, and is, therefore, inconsis- 
tent with the enjoyment of the privi- 
leges of the Church." 

These being the principles to which 
the Reformed Synod and its adherents 
are formally sworn — viz., that to 
vote for a membet of Parliament is a 
recognition of the civil power, and is, 
therefore, a breach of their testimony, 
and incurs the penalty of suspension 
from Church privileges — it is truly 
surprising to find the Synod, in May 
last, spending several long sederunts 
in discussing whether such a breach 
of their principles is worthy of dis- 
cipline or not, although their Testi- 
mony expressly declares it is. 

And it is still more astonishing, 
and painfully inconsistent, to find it 
carried, by a large majority, that no 
discipline should be administered 
upon those who might thus compro- 
mise their Testimony. In the pub- 
lished report of this discussion, it is 
stated that, in several congregations 
of the Church, members have used 
the elective franchise, and that to 
the certain knowledge of their minis- 
ters and elders, and have still re- 
mained undisturbed in the enjoy- 
ment of privileges. The Synod was 
memorialised by their Jewish mis- 
sionary in London, Dr. Cunningham, 
and his session ; and there was also 
a petition from the session of the 
Penpont congregation, to the eifect 
that the Synod should adhere stead- 
fastly to the Testimony, and bring 
oifenders to their duty by discipline ; 
but, because of this adverse decision, 



Dr. Cunningham has resigned his 
connexion with the Synod, and he 
and his flock now stand alone. The 
elder who presented the petition from 
Penpont session also dissented from 
their decision. The sentiments uttered 
by the various speakers on this oc- 
casion afford very strong evidence of 
the untenable character of their dis- 
tinctive principle, as well as present- 
ing sad proofs of their own inconsis- 
tency. We shall quote, for illustration, 
some of their remarks, beginning with 
those in the minority, who pleaded 
for the Testimony. Mr. M'Dowall, 
elder, and one of the commissioners 
from the London session, said, "If 
the question of the use of the elective 
franchise be left an open one, or if 
those who vote are allowed the pri- 
vileges of the Church, there is an 
end to our Testimony — our Church 
will be guilty of a suicidal act. She 
will have silenced her own Testimony. 
. . . . From all tliat I can see, 
our Church labours under a disease 
which will soon lay her prostrate," 
Dr. Cunningham, following up the 
address of his elder, stated that " the 
exhibition of our principles is now in 
some congregations scarcely to be 
found ; and we may now read the 
present organ of the Reformed Pres- 
byterian Church from the beginning 
to the end of any volume, and we 
would scarcely discover that there 
is such a gangrene eating into the 
Church, as her members voting for 
members of Parliament without be- 
ing called to censure on account 
thereof, or a declai-ation made ex- 
plicitly against the evil. Even in 
the very printed minutes of the 
Synod you would not be able to find 
demonstrative evidence of the fact." 
Rev. Mr. Anderson declared, " This 
is simply a question whether we shall 
continue to hold the distinctive prin- 
ciples of our Church, or give them 
up." Rev. Mr. Martin said that " Dr. 



79 



Cunningham's position is, that the 
principle is in the Testimony of the 
Church, and that it is not in the 
power of this Court to change the 
Testimony. ... I hold that every 
minister and elder here, and every 
human being is as much bound to 
adopt that principle as I am. Now, 
so long as it is the Testimony of our 
Church, we should act up to it. . . . 
I would rather be in a Church with 
no Testimony, than in a Church with 
a Testimony whose members break 
it." (Applause.) We now quote a 
few of the statements made on the 
side of the majority : — Rev. Mr. 
Binnie observed — " Such a course 
as I think would be right, does in- 
volve a change of position towards 
the civil Government. I frankly 
acknowledge that. . . . The fact is, 
that the civil constitution of this coun- 
try has undergone various changes, 
and the great body of the people of 
the covenanted Reformation have felt 
themselves compelled to change ac- 
cordingly We are now in a 

position of modified dissent. We not 
only acknowledge, but we are bound 
to take part in what our fathers would 
not do ; we have no objection to ad- 
dress the Queen by petition. Our 
members go in various capacities to 
the higher courts ; and though we 
all take care not to use forms of 
prayer in a direct way for the gover- 
nors of the land — (Applause)— yet it 
is evident that our position has 
changed. . . . We sit upon juries 

also Our Church, according 

to Dr. Cunningham, has been aposta- 
tising from the Solemn League and 
Covenant ; but there is not a single 
individual who desires to take up the 
position which was occupied by the ad- 
herents of our Church last century. 
(Applause.) .... I can only say, 
that had it not been my strong con- 
viction that this Church was not 
going to return to the attitude it once 



held towards the civil Government, I 
would not have been a minister in 
her communion." Rev. W. Syming- 
ton affirmed that, " if ever this Church 
becomes a sect distinguished from 
others by this one principle of her 
members being subjected to discipline 
for voting, then, of necessity, she will 
perish and sink, and deserve to sink." 
(Applause.) Rev. Mr. M'Lachlan 
" held it to be impossible to live in this 
country icithout recognising the British 
Government." 

According to our specified plan, 
Ave now conclude with a few observa- 
tions upon what goes before : — 

1. Let our readers compare the suc- 
cessive statements of the Cameronian 
Testimony which we have quoted, 
Avith the speeches of the majority and 
their inconsistent decision, and then 
say whether we are not warranted 
to define the present position of the 
Synod as being one of conflict with 
their own Testimony, or, in other 
words, as Cameronians versus their 
Testimony ? This is clear from their 
plain admission that, while the Testi- 
mony dissents from the civil Govern- 
ment altogether, and refuses to own 
it as such, the holders of that Testi- 
mony declare now that it is impos- 
sible to live in this country without 
acknowledging the British Govern- 
ment. They pay taxes ; they ap- 
prove of, and make use of petitioning 
the Queen ; they sit on juries ; and 
some of them vote for members of 
Parliament ; and it has been decided 
that, although their Testimony enjoins 
it, no disclipine shall be exercised 
upon those who act in this manner. 

2. The Reformed Presbyterian 
Synod presents the melancholy spec- 
tacle of a " house divided against it- 
self," and by their own verdict it can- 
not stand ; for while one member of 
the court solemnly declares that " if 
the question of voting by our mem- 
bers be left an open question, and if 



80 



those who vote are allowed the privi- 
leges of the Church, there is an end to 
our Testimony, and our Church will be 
guilty of a suicidal act." In striking 
contrast to this, another member of 
Synod avers with equal solemnity, " If 
the members of our Church be sub- 
jected to discipline for voting, then, 
of necessity, the Church will perish 
and .sink, and deserve to sink." (Ap- 
plause.) So then she is to fall in 
either case! 

3. There must be something essen- 
tially wrong in a system which in- 
volves its adherents in such inconsis- 
tency and confusion, God is not the 
author of that system. They do not 
find it in the Scriptures, nor in those 
famous standards to which they give 
their formal assent. Our space for- 
bids us to enter upon a review of their 
dogma in the light of plain scriptural 
statements ; this is already done in 
the Associate Presbytery's Answers I 
to Mr. Nairne, to which we refer our j 
readers, for a masterly exhibition of | 
the doctrine of the Word in regard to 
civil magistracy, and its claims upon 
Christians in particular. It will be 
sufficient for our purpose to suggest 
to our readers a calm consideration 
of the following passages, as obviously 
condemning the principle held by 
Cameronians. Prov. xxiv. 21 ; Eccl. 
X. 4; Luke xx. 25; Rom. xiii. 1-7; 
1 Tim. ii. 1-3 ; Tit. iii, 1 ; 1 Pet. 
ii. 13-17. The Confession of Faith 
is equally explicit upon this subject, 
see chap, xxiii., sect. 4. 

4. Their principle is not only un- 
scriptural, but most unnatural; for 
man is a social creature, and govern- 
ment is essential to society ; and see- 
ing the "powers that be" are an 
ordinance of God in nature, and not 
in grace, it belongs to our nature as 



a principle to acknowledge the just 
claims of these powers so ordained. 
It is not essential to civil government 
that it should be Christian and cove- 
nanted (although we cordially wish 
that every government were so), and 
therefore to disown it for want of 
these qualifications is unreasonable, 
unnatural, and unscriptural. If there 
were no government but such as the 
Cameronians will recognise, then, in 
the present state of things, we could 
have no civil society — no security — 
no peace ; the Avorld would be one 
wide field of strife and anarchy, an 
immense arena of gladiatt>rs, in which 
might would be right, and every man 
an Ishmael. 

In present circumstances, therefore, 
their Testimony is, as they themselves 
say, an impossibility in practice ; for 
they are necessitated to yield obe- 
dience and all due honour to the civil 
Government, and that is to acknow- 
ledge it. In order to maintain their 
peculiar views they ''must needs go 
out of the world," for there is no such 
Government as they require " under 
the whole heaven." There is no really 
Christian and covenanted state upon 
earth ; are we, therefore, by becoming 
Christians, to be transformed into 
a herd of lawless rebels, voluntarily 
cutting ourselves off from the immu- 
nities and the duties of orderly society? 
Is this the liberty that Christ has 
purchased for His professed followers? 
How different His own practice, and 
that of the apostles, martyrs, and 
confessors of the early Cliurch ! How 
different the conduct of the Eeformers, 
both on the Continent and in this 
country ! How different the practice 
of the Covenanters themselves when 
they acted in accordance with their 
own sworn principles ! 



Edinburgh : Printed and Published for the Proprietors b}' Patox and Ritchie, 81 Princes 
Street (to whom all Communications, prepaid, may be addressed). Glasgow : Thomas 
Murray aku Son; and sold by all Booksellers. 



€\t %xh 



Vol. II-No. 11. 



OCTOBER 1859. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 
The Edinbtjrgh Annuity-tax. 
Martha and Mary. 
Archibald Campbell, Marquis of Argylf* 



^( €MnIrttrfl6 gimuitg4a^. 



Our readers are aware that we hold 
the principle of a National Establish- 
ment of the religion of Christ, as de- 
fined in the symbolic books of all the 
Continental and British Reformed 
Churches. It is not, therefore, from 
any desire to mingle in the late un- 
seemly fray of enforcing payment of 
the Edinburgh Annuity-tax that we 
venture to offer a few suggestions on 
the awkward predicament into which 
both parties have put themselves ; 
but simply because we apprehend the 
above sacred Reformation principle is 
deeply involved and disreputably 
struck at. What we specially de- 
precate in the discussion of this ques- 
tion, as occasioned by this impost, is, 
that those who offer resistance to it 
do so, by a species of travesty, on the 
ground of what is designated Volun- 
taryism. This appears from the 
speeches, lay, legal, and clerical, 
which were lately delivered in our 
city. We may, then, without mean- 
ing to give unnecessary oiFence, and 
without committing ourselves very 
deeply on either side, throw out the 
hint, that the free use made of such 
Voluntary vocables as " impolitic, 
unjust, and unscriptural," was beside, 
and in contravention of, the adver- 
tised object of the meeting, as well as 
an impolitic attempt to resuscitate 
the defunct Voluntary league. We 
do submit that such was not the ad- 



vertised object of the late public 
meeting, and that the long effete rea- 
soning resorted to drew very deep on 
the consistency of, especially, the 
clerical orators. Declining to form- 
ally and critically discuss the ques- 
tion of Establishments in the light of 
these speeches, or to make the most 
of small things by indulging a carp- 
ing spirit, we may, nevertheless, call 
attention to the few following re- 
marks. 

I. The clerical speeches referred 
to, while publicly advertised to be 
against the rude enforcement of the 
obnoxious impost, were avowedly le- 
velled against the Establishedj^Church 
of Scotland, as such — were against the 
principle of an Establishment. Now, 
consistency required that such speak- 
ers should have publicly announced 
that they repudiated the bill of Mr. 
Adam Black, which formally admits 
the principle, and merely professes to 
make an arrangement regarding the 
impost by a specified compromise. Is 
this even Koman virtue ? 

II. The plea of conscience, espe- 
cially in matters that affect religion, 
is entitled to a fair hearing. But 
surely, in thi& case, conscience was 
not asleep in making the definite 
compact, whether in purchasing or 
leasing the property. And if con- 
science were clear and voluntary in 
striking the bargain, we cannot see 



THE ARK. 



why it should be involuntary in per- 
forming the specified and well under- 
stood conditions. To claim the pri- 
vileges and deny the necessary con- 
ditions, does put such a conscientious 
recusant in a very extraordinary 
fix, which it is not easy to under- 
stand. 

III. We profess not to be able 
clearly to see the point or application 
of the quid pro quo Voluntary ar- 
gument to the case of the recusant. 
It is a specially popular plea in the 
declamatory department, " The Dis- 
senter who contributes to the sup- 
port of his own minister receives 
from the Established minister no re- 
ligious service as a return for his 
money." Surely a little calm reflec- 
tion on the argument, as thus put, 
will shew that it carries with it its 
own confutation. A Dissenter claim- 
ing religious service from the Estab- 
lished minister ! how absurd, how 
inconceivable ! Because he is a Dis- 
senter, he never expected such service, 
and never took his office or shop with 
such an expectation. But he did, on 
taking his house, calculate on a com- 
pensation for the conditional Annuity- 
tax ; and the question is. What did he 
expect by fixing on a particular house 
for his business? Was it not that 
the locality chosen was favourable for 
his secular business? That was the 
quid pro quo, and that he receives 
while prosecuting his trade. We 
have more respect for the conscience 
of the Dissenting recusant than to 
suppose that Mr. Hunter, or any of 
his compeers, ever rented his pre- 
mises on the understanding that he 
should receive spiritual services as 
the proper compensation for his pay- 
ment of the Annuity-tax. 

IV. Theconcluding actof those who 
sported their Voluntaryism against 
the principle of Establislaments at the 
public meeting referred to, was 
equally humiliating and self-contra- 



dictory. It was suggested, and the 
suggestion was practically adopted, 
that the very straitest sect of the Vol- 
untaries should subscribe the amount 
for which the incarcerated martyr 
was liable. Whither had conscience, 
in regard to what was stigmatised as 
"impolitic, unjust, and unscriptural," 
then fled? And the incarcerated 
recusant, unlike the high-minded 
apostle of the Gentiles, who refused 
to leave his prison in any clandestine 
or disreputable manner, rejoiced to 
take advantage of " this lame and 
impotent conclusion." After such a 
flourish of trumpets upon conscience, 
we cannot help exclaiming, " What 
a fall was there, my countrymen!" 

V. It is far from a satisfactory re- 
ply to the crushing objection, that we 
should obey the law of the land, that 
this is an old objection. Surely its 
age does not argue its unsoundness. 
Declamation to the effect that patriots 
andCliristians have refused obedience 
to some civil laws, is quite inept, and 
not to be dignified, because of its 
vagueness, with the name of sober 
and sound reasoning. Let the re- 
cusant shew that such a law is 
the Annuity -tax, for the payment 
of which the recusant entered into a 
compact, and he shall have reasoned 
to some purpose. But the summary 
solution of the problem by formally 
resisting payment has been suggested 
by advocates, members of Parliament, 
and ministers of the Gospel! Whether 
the impost, or clerical excitement of 
the subjects to form rebellion, be the 
more " impolitic, unjust, and unscrip- 
tural," let wise men judge. 

VI. In the above general remarks, 
the intelligent reader will not fail to 
see that we have not for once, or by 
insinuation, granted that the tax is 
not odious, or that the Established 
clergy of Edinburgh have a just, a 
legal claim in the case. We are bold 
enough to think that the main, the 



83 



alleged hardest objection to the recu- 
sant bj the civil court and by the 
clergy, is not well founded ; and 
should this be proved, then the re- 
cusant is not a transgressor of the 
law of the land. What is the law of 
the land upon which the Established 
clergy found their claim to this im- 
post? Unlike those laws 'that rest 
solely on the authority of the sove- 
reign and the legislature, and unlike 
those that specify merely political 
conditions, this law, or legislative 
act, specifies moral, ecclesiastical con- 
ditions, the possession and perform- 
ance of which constitute the claimant's 
legal right, and the lack of which 
invalidates his claim. Without being 
unnecessarily particular, this law by | 
no means says that the mere circum- I 
stance of being the Established clergy { 
gives the claim to the tax; it defines | 
the constitution of the Established i 
Church in point of government, wor- 
ship, doctrine, and discipline, and 
gives the claim only to the clergy of 
such an Established Church. Such 
an ecclesiastical constitution may be 
right, or it may be wrong; but none 
save the clergy- of a Church so con- 
stituted, and who perform the speci- 
fied ecclesiastical stipulations, have a 
legal claim, or the shadow of such a 
claim, to the Annuity-tax. While, 
on the one hand, those declared by 
law liable to pay are under obligation 
to pay ; yet, on the other, they are 



entitled to have it shewn that the 
Established clergy have the legal 
right to receive it ; and we apprehend 
that not a single Established minister 
of the city can make it clear that he 
has the legal right. In bringing the 
question to a fair trial and practical 
issue, it is not necessary that the re- 
cusants should set themselves to shew, 
that some of the Edinburgh clergy, 
and that too with the knowledge of 
all their co-presbyters, ignore some 
of the leading doctrines of the Con- 
fession of Faith, and that specified 
discipline is not only relaxed, but dis- 
pensed with ; it is quite enough to 
shew, what cannot be denied, that 
the uniformity of worship which is 
essential to Presbytery, as distin- 
guished from Independency, is not 
only not practised, but declared im- 
practicable by a decision of the last 
General Assembly. The rightness 
or the wrongness of the decision is 
not the question at law ; it is, whether 
such a decision is not ultra vires the 
Established Church, and whether it 
has not broken the law of the land 
and invalidated their claim to this 
impost? We feel something like 
confidence in saying, that were the 
case to be tried on this issue, the 
civil law would decide that whoever 
had the legal right to this tax, most 
certainly it could not be claimed by 
the clergy of the Established Church 
of Scotland in Edinbur^ih. 



" Now Jesus loved Martha 

In perusing the Word of God, not a 
little occupation of a very pleasing 
and profitable nature may be found in 
making a study of the numerous and 
highly diversified characters which 
are so vividly portrayed in its in- 
spired pages. In dispensing natural 
and spiritual gifts, God divides to 



and her sister." — John xi. 5. 

every man severally as He wills; 
hence we find, in the world of hu- 
manity, clear, unmistakable evidence 
of that same Divine mind that planned 
and apportioned the universe; assign- 
ing to each perfect part its place and 
functions in the glorious whole ; pre- 
I senting to God, angels, and men, a 



84 



THE ARK. 



vision of supreme wisdom and con- 
summate beauty. To each member 
of His Church, God has given a pecu- 
liar spiritual beauty, — a beauty that 
is not only singularly attractive in its 
possessor, but forms part of a perfect 
ideal of holy beauty, which God him- 
self has devised for His own especial 
glory and delight. As each carved 
stone in a majestic structure contri- 
butes to the ornate beauty of the 
whole, so all who a^i-e in Christ, rest- 
ing on the true foundation, like 
" lively stones, are built up a spi- 
ritual house," " a holy temple," " a 
habitation of God through the Spirit." 
Because of innate corruption, this 
spiritual beauty is too frequently ob- 
scured and marred ; but if it be in a 
stone of God's building, the adum- 
bration can be but temporary ; for 
when the glorious Sun of Righteous- 
ness lits its dimmed surface with His 
kindling ray, its delicate sculptur- 
esques will stand out in clear-cut 
outUne, disclosing to God's eye His 
own image, chiselled by His own 
Divine finger. 

As much spiritual insight may be 
gained by a patient investigation of 
the peculiar beauties of God's chil- 
dren, — -which, though but dim and 
imperfect reflections of the peerless 
beauty of Emmanuel, may yet stir us 
up to "covet earnestly the best gifts," 
and especially that divine charity by 
far more excellent, because inclusive 
of all, — we now propose to contem- 
plate, for a short time, two very 
graceful pillars in the house of God, 
viz., Martha and her sister Mary. 
These sisters were members of an 
interesting family of three, dwelling 
with their brother Lazarus in Chris- 
tian harmony and affection, in the 
small village of Bethany, at the foot 
of Mount Olivet, about two miles to 
the east of Jerusalem. That this 
family was a singularly lovely and 
well-regulated one, we may learn 



from the fact, that our blessed Lord, 
who had nowhere on earth to lay 
His sacred head, frequently made 
their house His home, where His pre- 
sence was uniformly hailed with 
warmest welcome, and where He 
and His disciples never failed to ex- 
perience a Christian hospitality, all 
the more praiseworthy because of the 
straitened circumstances of the enter- 
tainers. Of them it is said, "Now 
Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, 
and Lazarus." How rare ! A whole 
family beloved of, and loving the 
Lord ! During his visits, there was 
no dissentient voice to disturb the 
holy converse : a little heaven on 
earth, they enjoyed communion with 
their Lord and one another. Equally 
they honoured and adored His Divine 
person, as, we believe, they are now 
doing in tlie realms of glory, clothed 
in white, crowned with gold, and 
having harps in their hands. He who 
refused to enter the marble halls of 
Hei'od, to gratify the vain curiosity 
of a proud and wicked monarch, did 
not disdain to call Lazurus His friend, 
and to honour and gladden with His 
presence the lowly cottage of these 
humble saints of Bethany. 

Although Martha and Mary were 
both distinguished followers of our 
Lord, and dignified with most honour- 
able mention in the Word of God, 
yet we find that the sisters were, in 
natural disposition and temperament, 
widely different, and that to the one 
higher and rarer spiritual gifts were 
intrusted than to the other. Of 
Martha, we read in Luke x. 38, that 
she received our Lord into her house, 
she being, probably, the member of 
the family to whom it belonged. On 
more than one occasion she enter- 
tained Him and the disciples ; and to 
secure the comfort of her guests, she 
waited personally upon them. Here 
we have a fine, healthy, active, gener- 
ous nature — a nature broadly op- 



85 



posed to every form of selfishness 
and indolence. She minded not her 
own things, but the things of others. 
Her especial gift was obviously that 
of saintly ministration ; and she mani- 
fested her love to God by spending 
and being spent in Christ and the 
Church's behalf. She cheerfully gave 
her means, and esteemed it an honour 
to render the service of her body. 
No work is menial that is done from 
love to the Lord. The humble spirit 
that bends to wash the saints' feet is 
higher and nobler far than the blood- 
stained victor of a hundred battles, 
or the haughty monarch of many 
conquered kingdoms. When God 
tried the sisters in the fiery ordeal of 
affliction, by laying upon theii- beloved 
brother severe sickness and death, 
Martha was the first to hear of her 
absent Lord's approach, to go forth 
to meet Him, and exclaim, " Lord, if 
Thou hadst been here, my brother 
had not died !" The Lord directs 
her wavering faith to a contemplation 
of His all-powerful Divine nature ; 
and, strengthened by His life-giving 
words, she makes her noble confes- 
sion — "Yea, Lord, I believe that 
Thou art the Christ, the Son of God, 
which should come into the world." 

As regards the distinguishing cha- 
racteristic of Mary, we read that she 
"sat at Jesus' feet, and heard His 
word " — the most noble and elevated 
position that created intelligence ever 
occupied ! Gifted with a quick ap- 
prehension of spiritual truth, a fine 
receptive mind, a disposition natu- 
rally inclined to high and prolonged 
contemplation, with affections whose 
intense ardour had been sublimated 
by God the Spirit from much earthly 
dross, Mary's highest joy was to sit 
^t the feet of Christ, and learn the 
law at His mouth. She sat down 
under His shadow with great delight, 
and His fruit was sweet to her taste. 
Though her Lord was despised and 



rejected among the great men of 
Jerusalem, He was to her the chief 
among ten thousand, and altogether 
lovely. She knew well the voice of 
her Beloved, and His love was to her 
better than wine. Eloquently silent, 
she ever sat and listened, and, by 
so doing, learned more, and loved 
more, than any other member of the 
Church. The blessed Emmanuel was 
to her an ever fk-esh and glorious con- 
templation ; and riD marvel, for His 
banner over her was love. So soul- 
absorbing was her ecstasy when Jesus 
spake, that she forgot both meat and 
drink, and was even unmindful of 
the human necessities of her Lord. 
Such intense abstraction accorded 
not well with the active hospitality 
of Martha ; who, in her estimable 
work of ministering to the temporal 
wants of her Lord, was tempted to 
place that which we are to make use 
of as a necessity to fit us for duty to 
God in the place of that higher work. 
Instead of listening to Cln-ist's most 
precious exhibition of Himself, she 
bestowed her special care and atten- 
tion upon the preparation of a suit- 
able repast and attendance for her 
Lord ; — like those who, in modern 
times, cannot hear Christ speak till 
they first secure a lofty vaulted struc- 
ture, gorgeous priestly vestments, and 
■siren-voiced music, that they may put 
honour upon His name. Vain and 
soul-destoying delusion ! Cumbering 
their souls and sealing their ears to 
Christ's gracious words ! Martha 
abruptly breaks in upon the discourse 
by saying, " Lord, dost thou not care 
that my sister hath left me to serve 
alone? bid her therefore that she 
help me." Our Loi-d, whose meat 
was to do the will of Him that sent 
Him, and who, when conversing with 
the woman of Samaria, remembered 
neither weariness, hunger, nor burn- 
ing thirst, mildly rebuked Martha, 
informing her that Mary's occupation 



86 



was far more honouring to Him, as 
well as beneficial to her own soul, ■ 
than Martha's too great care for the [ 
body. Meat and driiili, like the | 
heavens, shall pass away, but Christ's j 
words endure for ever. " Martha, 
Martha, thou art careful and troubled ■ 
about many things; but one thing is 
needful: and Mary hath chosen that i 
good part, which shall not be taken 
away from her." After the death 
and burial of Lazarus, when many 
Jews had assembled to comfort the 
sisters, Mary was so absorbed in her 
grief, that she heard not of Jesus' 
approach till Martha informed her of 
it, bringing with her a kind message 
from Himself. As the first beam of 
sunshine lit into radiance the assuag- 
ing waters of the deluge, so fell the 
glad tidings on Mary's grief-stricken 
soul. With willing steps she hasted 
to meet him, and stayed not till she 
fell down at His feet, and poured 
forth her sorrows there. The sight of 
such intense grief unmoved the sym- 
pathetic human soul of Emmanuel, 
especially as many of her friends, 
missing her loved presence, had fol- ; 
lowed her, and joined in her gushing ' 
wail. "Jesus wept;" the man of 
like human passions, made up of sor- 
rows, and acquainted with grief ! A 
weeping company, they proceed to 
the tomb of Lazarus ; and our Lord- j 
now gives them a visible proof of the 
glorious doctrine He had given forth, j 
in comfort to Martha, " I am the \ 
Resurrection and the Life." The 
iiaith of Martha again wavers ; but j 
Mary's expectant eyes are turned to | 
the Lord. The command is issued, ; 
'• Lazarus, come forth," and he who 
was dead comes forth, quickened by 
the life-giving words. The Jews, 
with amazement and joy, receive 
a";ain their friend : the sisters a twice- 



bestowed brother, in whom Mary sees 
a living type of a risen Kedeemer. 

To Mary God had given no com- 
mon portion of that divine love, 
which, in its depth, breadth, and in- 
tensity, comprehends every high and 
holy gift. Nor was she awanting in 
a temporal offering to her Lord, and 
that one of a deep spiritual meaning; 
she had a most precious and costly 
box of ointment to bestow upon His 
sacred person, wherewith to anoint, 
before His burial. Him, whose name 
was as ointment poured forth, there 
fore did she, the pure in spirit, love 
Him. She esteemed herself un- 
worthy to wait upon her Lord at 
table, for, while Martha served, she 
washed His feet with her tears, and 
wiped them with her hair. Hum- 
ble, contrite in heart, teachable as a 
little child, gentle when wrongfully 
found fault with, Mary bears out 
the beautiful character which Paul 
has given us of divine charity : — 
" Charity suffereth long, and is kind; 
charity envieth not; charity vaunteth 
not itself, is not puffed up, doth 
not behave itself unseemly, seeketh 
not her own, is not easily provoked, 
thinketh no evil ; rejoiceth not in 
iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; 
beareth all things, believeth all things, 
hopeth all things, eudureth all things. 
Charity never faileth." 

Such seem to us the principal 
points in the characters of these two 
estimable women. Though mingled 
with much sin, for they were human 
as well as we, their graces, of God's 
planting, were well-pleasing in His 
sight. While theKingsat at His table, 
their spikenard sent forth the smell 
thereof 1 They were lovely and plea- 
sant in their lives, and in their death 
they were not divided. " Go thou 
and do likewise." 



87 



gtrrljiklir CEmikU, glarpis of %XQ^lt 



As all nations have their heroes 
whose memory they delight to cherish, 
and as science and literature can 
boast a goodly array of names asso- 
ciated with talent of the first order ; 
so the Church of God has her great 
cloud of witnesses whom she honours 
in the only way in which these wor- 
I thies would receive honour — viz., 
adopting and carrying out their prin- 
ciples, rather than the more popular 
way of raising monumental piles and 
preaching at their tombs. We pro- 
pose, in this and the other sketches 
which may follow, considering not 
the history of the individuals ab- 
stractly ; but rather their history as 
connected with that of the Church in 
Scotland, and their sayings and do- 
ings in defence of the principles of 
that Church. 

The subject of this sketch was 
from his early years concerned for 
Christ's cause. We find him in 1636 
using his most strenuous efforts on 
behalf of the Rev. Samuel Ruther- 
ford, who was brought before the 
civil court, and succeeded in his en- 
deavours, as appears from one of Mr. 
Rutherford's letters. When the fa- 
mous Glasgow Assembly of 1638 
was sitting, no person was more re- 
gular at every session than the Earl of 
Argyle, which circumstance attracted 
the notice of the Moderator, Mr. 
Alex. Henderson, who, in suitable 
terms, thanked the noble Earl for giv- 
ing them his countenance at such a 
time. The Earl of Argyle was very 
active in Scotland in defending tlie 
claims of royalty; was a principal 
hand in bringing home Charles II., on 
whose head he set the crown at Scone 
in 1651. About this time Charles 
gave him many fair promises, which 
he bound himself to implement on his 
accession to the throne, the sectaries 



being at this time the ruling power. 
How much dependence Charles put 
on the " word of a king " appears 
from the sequel. On his accession in 
1660, Charles sent for Argyle, who 
immediately repaired to London, 
much, however, against the persua- 
sion of his friends. On his arrival, 
instead of being honoured by the 
King as his warmest friend in Scot- 
land, he was apprehended and lodged 
in the Tower ; whence he was con- 
veyed to Edinburgh a prisoner, 
charged with high treason. We may 
state here that Argyle had, before the 
civil courts of his couutry, cleared his 
character from the charge now re- 
newed against him several years pre- 
viously ; Avhen a man named Stuart 
was condemned and executed for cir- 
culating the very report, which now 
took the form of a criminal indict- 
ment against him. The real cause, 
however, of so sudden a change in 
the affairs of the noble peer was his 
boldness and faithfulness in reproving 
the King for his gross immoralities. 
Like Herod, in the case of John the 
Baptist, Charles could not allow the 
Earl's tongue to speak so freely. 

Little remains to be told: — Argyle 
was found guilty and condemned to 
be beheaded ; which was put in force 
on the 17th of May 1661. Thus 
died the noble Marquis of Argyle ; 
the first victim to Prelacy in Scotland, 
and the prey of an ungrateful, per- 
fidious, treacherous monarch, who, 
having broken a solemn oath to God, 
counted it a small matter to break 
his word to his friend. Wodrow 
states that there was no warrant 
; given or signed for his execution, 
j commonly called the dead warrant, 
so great a haste were the managers 
of this bloody design in. 
j One or two observations we would 



88 



make on his character and ac- \ 
tions. 

I. The Marquis of Argyle was an 
eminently pious Christian — "enemies 
themselves," says Wodrow, "must 
allow the Marquis to have been a 
person of extraordinary piety." No 
one who reads his life can fail to per- 
ceive this. As we already stated, 
he was early noted for his concern 
for the cause of God in this land, 
which continued unabated till the 
day of his death. Many of his re- 
corded words exemplify this, a few of 
which we will specify. When in the 
Assembly of 1638, the Moderator 
having expressed the wish that he 
had joined them sooner, these were 
his words: "And whereas you wished 
I had joined you sooner, truly it was 
not the want of affection for the good 
of religion and my country which de- 
tained me; but a desire and hope 
that by staying with the court I might 
have been able to bring a redress of 
grievances ; and when I saw that I 
could no longer stay without proving 
unfaithful to my God and my country, 
I thought good to do as I have done." 
This is the language of a true patriot, 
and let those who can curl up the 
lip at the mention of Presbyterianism 
pause and consider the character of 
its defenders, of whom the Marquis 
of Argyle Avas a noble specimen. On 
receiving his sentence he rose and 
said: " I had the honour to set the 
crown on the King's head, and now 
he hastens me to a better crown than 
his own ;" the crown of glory which 
God the righteous Judge bestows on 
all those who love the appearing of 
the Lord Jesus Christ. This senti- 
ment shews the absence of anything 
like anger at the ingratitude of the 
King, and a large measure of that 



charity, which " suffereth long and is 
kind." When in the Tolbooth pre- 
vious to his execution, he enjoyed 
the sweets of communion with God. 
Having served his God to the utmost 
of his power in every circumstance 
in which he was placed, he was not 
I forsaken in this his extremity. Ac- 
j cordingly we find him saying : " They 
j may shut me in where they please ; 
I but they cannot shut out God from 
! me : for my part I am as content to 
j be here as in the Castle, and as con- 
tent in the Castle as in the Tower of 
London, and as content there as when 
! at liberty, and I hope to be as con- 
j tent on the scaffold as any of them 
all." In speaking of his death he 
gave utterance to the following : " I 
I could die like a Roman ; but I chose 
rather to die like a Christian." Such 
language needs no comment. 
I II. This nobleman, in delivering 
his last speech on earth, declares his 
I obligation and the nation's by virtue 
of the Covenant. We quote the 
second section of his dying speech, 
with which we couclude. " Others, 
they are not openly profane, every 
one will not allow that ; but yet they 
are Gallios in these matters. If things 
go well as to their private interests, 
tjiey care not whether religion and 
the Church of God sink or swim. 
I But whatever they think, God. hath 
[ laid engagements npon Scotland; we 
i are tied hy covenant to religion and re- 
formation. Those that were then unborn 
are engaged to it, and in our bajjtism 
ive are engaged to it, and it passes the 
power of any under heaven to absolve a 
man from the oath of God— they de- 
ceive themselves, and it may be will 
deceive others, tliat think otherwise." 
This is a mirror into which a modern 
I Argv'le might look with profit. 



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CONTENTS. 
The Pope's Temporal Authoeitt. 
Biographical Sketch of John M'Clelland. 
The Purity of Divine Worship. 



^^ d^l^t's %m^oxul |iut|0ritg. 



Could we, in the event of tke nation 
electing as its Sovereign the Pope, ; 
yield him obedience in civil matters ? { 
■ This question, in as far as there is j 
any probability, or even possibility of | 
such an event taking place, is, per- i 
haps, of no importance. But when I 
we consider the present agitated state 
of Italy, and of the European nation- 
alities, anent the question of the 
Pope's temporal supremacy, it is in- 
vested with European interest, and 
assumes a magnitude which demands 
our serious consideration. In order 
to reach an accurate solution of this ' 
grand problem, it is necessary that we t 
give it such a form as will bring to 
view the foundation upon which it i 
rests, and which will comprehend its j 
every variety of phase. The above 
form is inadequate for this, being 
merely a corollary to the grand ques- \ 
tion, and may assume this shape — Is ! 
the ecclesiastical authority of the 
Pope essential to, and inseparably 
connected with, his civil authority ? 
Is the one an essential part of the 
other, as necessary to constitute a 
Pope? It is not our intention, nor 
do we deem it necessary for our 
argument, to prove at the outset the 
injustice of the claim to exercise 
spiritual authority by a civil magis- 
trate, nor that of an ecclesiastic to 
exercise civil authority : this has 
been done already, and we shall 



make use of it in its proper place. 
What we have to do is, in the first 
place, simply to prove what we now 
assert, — that the two characteristics 
of the Pope are inseparable. If we 
are able to establish this, then it must 
follow that we cannot acknowledge 
the one without acknowledging the 
other. That the two are inseparable, 
appears for the following reasons : — 
I. That the right to the exercise 
of both has been claimed by all Popes 
from the earliest times, in their bulls, 
manifestoes, and nuncios ; that this 
claim has been acknowledged and 
confirmed by councils and synods, 
and defended in the writings of the 
most eminent men in the Church of 
Rome ; and further, that this right 
has been exercised, except when pre- 
vented by foreign power (as in the 
case of Napoleon I.). Then the 
severance of the two was effected 
only de facto, and not de jure, merely 
by force of circumstances. In proof 
of this we refer you to Bruce's " Free 
Thoughts," p. 30, where, speaking of 
the Pope's temporal supremacy, he 
says, " We begin with the temporal 
dignity, power, and dominion, inlaid 
and interwoven with the Papal con- 
stitution, and made an essential part 
of it." " As to this," he continues, 
it is well known that the Papacy is a 
species of universal monarchy of a 
mixed nature, partly ecclesiastical 



90 



and partly civil, and founded upon 
the pretence of divine right." And 
in the notes he says, " That this 
doctrine of the temporal supremacy 
of the Pope has been admitted, and 
defended for ages, by Popes, consis- 
tories, doctors, casuists, synods, and 
councils, is abundantly evident. The 
tvpenty-seven sentences of Gregory 
VII., and his council, called Dictatus 
Papce, are express to this purpose, in 
w^hich it is declared, ' That the Pope 
ought to be called the universal 
bishop ; that his name alone ought to 
be recited in the Church ; that he 
alone ought to wear tlie tokens of im- 
perial dignity ; that all princes ought 
to kiss his feet ; that he is to be 
judged by none ; and that he has 
power to depose emperors and kings.'" 
But, in p. 31, Innocent III, is quoted 
as saying, " The Church, my spouse, 
is not married to me without bringing 
me something. She hath given me a 
dowry of a price beyond all price, the 
plenitude of spiritual things, and the 
extent of things temporal {plenitud- 
inem spiritualium et latitudinem tem- 
poralium), the greatness and abund- 
ance of both. She hath given me 
the mitre in token of things spiritual, 
the crown in token of the temporal ; 
the mitre for the priesthood, and the 
crown for the kingdom." " And the 
same Pope," says Bruce, " in the 
bull granting the kingdoms of Eng- 
land and Ireland to King John, thus 
describes the authority of the Papacy. 
' Jesus Christ, the King of kings and 
Lord of lords, and priest according 
to the order of Melchizedek, hath so 
united the royal and sacerdotal power 
in the Church, that the kingdom is 
but a royal priesthood, and the priest- 
hood the royal power.' " We might 
quote many other passages from the 
same authorities, and to the same 
effect; but neither time nor space per- 
mits. That the Popes have exercised 
this double power, is a fact which, we 



presume, will not be questioned by 
any intelligent reader of European 
history. " There is no state," says 
Bruce, " where the Papal supremacy 
was at all owned, but the temporal 
authority has also been tried and ex- 
ercised." And we have no reason to 
suppose, that in the present day it 
would be otherwise. Popery never 
concedes what she has once acquired, 
nor repudiates what she has practised 
for ages, otherwise she would be 
committing a suicidal act, in thus 
practically denying her infallibility; 
and no Pope can ever repudiate what 
has been claimed as a right by all 
his predecessors. He knows too 
well the charm which is lent to the 
system by such a mysterious union ; 
and he also knows too Avell the effect 
of such upon depraved human na- 
ture to yield up any part of his power. 
The Papacy is one grand politico- 
ecclesiastical system, incapable of 
disseveration without entire destruc- 
tion ; and this Scripture has declared 
never can take place till the millennial 
era, when " the kingdoms of this 
world shall become the kingdoms of 
our Lord and of His Christ." " The 
temporal supremacy of the Pope," 
says the same author from whom we 
have so largely quoted, " direct or 
indirect, hath been so long avowed, 
it enters so deeply into all their acts, 
and appears so much in the whole 
tenor of their administration, and 
has been so often established and 
ratified by the highest authority of 
their Church, that it rests on the 
same bottom with any other article 
of her, and it cannot be renounced 
without endangering the whole sys- 
tem." 

II. The inseparability of the two 
appears from the fact, that he wears 
the symbols of spiritual authority en- 
twined with the emblems of regal 
power. He does not appear with 
the mitre one day and the crown the 



91 



next; but he wears the mitre en 
circled with, and surmounted by, the 
crown, welded, as it were, insepar- 
ably together ; so that, by attempt- 
ing to take off the one, you take off 
the other. Not only does he hold in 
his hand the sword of civil justice, 
but with the same hand he grasps the 
symbolic key of St. Peter, like the 
sword of the spirit, adopting as his 
own the motto of a former Pope 
(Boniface VIII.), '■'■ Ecce duo gladii," 
and assuming such titles as, " The 
most holy and most blessed, who is 
invested with heavenly power, who 
is lord on earth ; " " King of kings 
and Lord of lords ; " " The Lord of 
the universe ; " " The Light of the 
world ; " " God upon earth ; " " The 
Christ, or Anointed of the Lord," 
and many others of an equally des- 
potic and blasphemous character. 

III. The inseparability of the two, 
and the essentiality of the ecclesias- 
tical to the civil authority, appears ! 
for this reason, and we consider it j 
the main argument ; viz., the eccle- 
siastical is primary to the civil, which 
latter is founded upon, and owes its 
very existence to, the former. In 
other words, it is in virtue of his ec- 
clesiastical, that he lays claim to the 
civil authority. In proof of this, we 
again refer you to the authorities al- 
ready cited. " As to this, it is well 
known that the Papacy is a species 
of universal monarchy, partly eccle- 
siastical and partly civil, jounded 
upon the pretence of divine rights And 
in the words of Innocent III., " The 
Church, my spouse, is not married 
to me without bringing me some- 
thing ; she hath given me a dowry," 
&c. ; thus shewing that it is the 
Church which gives him this autho- 
rity : and observe, that in setting 
forth this claim, the spiritual is al- 
ways put before the temporal; the 
mitre before the crown, &c. But we 
further refer you to Barrow's " Trea- 



tise of the Pope's Supremacy," p. 4. 
" This is the doctrine," says he, 
" which Barronius, with a Eoman 
confidence, doth so often assert and 
drive forward, saying, ' That there 
can be no doubt but that the civil 
principality is subject to the sacer- 
dotal, and that God hath made the 
political government subject to the 
dominion of the spiritual Church.' " 
And he adds — " Fi*om that doctrine 
the opinion in effect doth not differ, 
which Belarmine voucheth for the 
common of Catholics, that ' By rea- 
son of the spiritual power, the Pope, 
at least indirectly, has a supreme 
power even in temporal matters.'" 
But let us hear what saith the Scrip- 
tures. The man of sin is here repre- 
sented as sitting, not in the royal 
palace, but " in the temple of God," 
&c. Now, in the nature of things, 
we cannot accept a secondary if we 
reject a primaiy, because the secon- 
dary is contained in, and is founded 
upon, the primary. This is a first 
principle in nature, and requires no 
reasoning to prove its soundness. 
Can we have a house without foun- 
dation % Can we have a superstruc- 
ture without a basis ? Can we sup- 
pose anything to exist, if we deny 
the principle upon which it does ex- 
ist % The idea is inconceivable, and, 
to us, appears to carry its own confu- 
tation. Let us take an analogous 
case. Try to conceive of the pro- 
perties of matter as existing apart 
from matter. Try to conceive of 
hardness or blackness as existing in- 
dependently of something which is 
hard or black. The thing is impos- 
sible. Matter is quite distinct from 
its properties, yet we never find them 
apart ; it is only in combination that 
we are conscious of the existence of 
either. How absurd, then, must it 
appear to any one reflecting on these 
things, to tiy to conceive of a Pope 
independently of the two very cha- 



92 



racteristics which constitute him a ', 
Pope. What is a Pope? How is I 
he distinguished from any official 
whether in Church or State ? He is 
not simply a. King, else Francis- 
Joseph, or any other crowned head ' 
in Europe, is so for the same rea- 
son. Nor is he simply the head of I 
the Church, else the head of the 1 
Greek Church is also the Pope. The 
Pope is the man who pretends to be 
vested with supreme authority in 
both Church and State. Then if 
these two prerogatives are severed, 
it follows that he is no longer a Pope, 
but simply either a King or a Pontiff. 
Having thus proved the inseparabi- 
lity of the two prerogatives, we are 
able to answer the corollary question 
in the negative. If we acknowledge 
the Pope in his civil character, we 
must also acknowledge him in his 
ecclesiastical, as Supreme Pontiff. 
And having proved the wrong foun- 
dation of his civil power, we are 
warranted in coming to the conclu- 
sion that he has no right to exercise 
it. 

But some have accused us of in- 
consistency in acknowledging the 
civil authority of the Queen, who is 
also head of the English Church, and 
who, according to our definition of a 
pope, stands in the same position as 
the Pope ; while they overlook the 
distinction between what is primary 
and what is secondary. The Queen's 
primary cliaracter is not ecclesiastical, 
but civil. She is not queen in virtue 
of her ecclesiastical character, nor is 
she acknowledged by the nation as 
such — no mention of her position 
in the Church being made in the 
national oaths. Whereas, on the 
other hand, the Pope's primary char- 
acter is ecclesiastical, and is founded 
not in nature, as is the civil, but in 
grace ; hereby inverting the proper 
order, as nature is antecedent to 
grace ; while in Victoria's case this 



order is preserved. And therefore 
do we acknowledge her in her civil 
capacity. We may have a society 
which acknowledges as its president 
a professor of a university. Are we 
therefore to suppose that he holds his 
professorship in virtue of his position 
in that society? Again, suppose we 
have a case pending in the civil 
courts, where, it may be, a cardinal, 
or a Jewish rabbi, is the presiding 
magistrate. We are at perfect liberty 
to be judged of him, simply as a 
civil magistrate ; but if he presume 
to occupy the judicial bench robed 
in his canonicals, then Scripture and 
reason dictate a firm protest. Other- 
wise, we would be acknowledging 
the right of a cardinal, or rabbi, as 
such, to judge us in civil matters. 
But, say our opponents, are there 
not bishops who sit in parliament as 
such ? There are ; but there is also 
I a protest against acknowledging them 
; as civil magistrates. We must ob- 
serve the distinction between a ruler, 
j whether king or inferior magistrate, 
I professing a false religion, and one 
. who founds his claim to the exercise 
of civil authority upon the position 
he holds from that religion. "Be 
subject unto the higher powers," it 
is true ; but these are the civil 
powers, and not a monstrous combi- 
nation of the ecclesiastical and civil. 
But the last miserable shift of 
those W'ho take the opposite view is : 
We must live somewhere, and, if 
I the Pope allow us liberty of con- 
' science — if he grant us toleration, — 
! is it not better that we take the 
benefit of this pi-ivilege, even under 
! a Pope, rather than fly to a foreign 
i countr}^ governed by a Roman 
j Catholic king, who would not per- 
haps grant this toleration and liberty 
I of conscience ? This, we say, is their 
j last shift, and a miserable one too, 
j and is resolvable into mere expedi- 
ency. We reply, in the first place. 



93 



that we are not called upon to live in 
the world any longer than is consistent 
with the truth, and our duty to God. 
If we cannot serve God according 
to appointed means and instituted 
ordinances, we must endure affliction, 
persecution, and even death, rather 
than acknowledge what is sinful. 
We are not at liberty to take advan- 
tage of what may to us appear privi- 
leges, when they can only be ob- 
tained in contravention of His re- 
vealed will. We are not to seek for 
good in a wrong system ; it is then 
like " a gold ring in a swine's snout." j 
Can a fountain send forth, at the I 
same place, sweet waters and bitter ? 
But, in the next place, the hypothesis 
is absurd. The Pope grant tolera- 
tion ! He who professes to have 
power over the consciences of all 
men, to allow a man a liberty of con- 
science, in believing that he is " The 
Man of Sin," and that the system of 
which he is the head is "The Mystery 
OF Iniquity!" When did Popery 
ever allow liberty of conscience ? 
When did she ever tolerate Protes- 
tantism ? When did ever " Anti- 
christ" suffer a man to follow 
Christ? Ask the question of the 
dungeons of the Inquisition, and you 
will hear the answer in the yells of 
the victim expiring in exquisite 
agony under the torture ! Ask the 
St. Bartholomews, and you may 
hear it in the shriek of midnight mas- 
sacre, at the very description of which 
the heart sickens, and the brain 
reels ! Ask it of the English Smith- 
fields, or Scottish Grassmarkets, and 
you may hear the answer in the 



crackling flames ! Ask it of the in- 
famous Star-chamber, and read it in 
the boots and thumb-screws, and the 
other appliances of torture, contrived 
by hellish ingenuity ! Behold it in the 
gliastly array of whitened skidls 
which surmounted the archways ol 
Scotland's metroplis ! Hear it in the 
ringing of the trooper's carabine, as 
the poor persecuted people of God 
are hunted like game upon the moun- 
tains and muirlands of our native 
land ! Ask it of the Word of God, 
and you will there get an answer 
which will satisfy you, as to whether, 
even at her latest hour, her character 
is changed. " She was drunken with 
the blood of the saints of God," and 
" in her was found the blood of 
prophets, and of saints, and of all that 
were slain upon the earth." And is 
this the system from which we might 
expect toleration and liberty of con- 
science ? Verily, it Avere madness 
to expect it ! Psei;c/o-Protestantism 
may tolerate an antagonistic system, 
but Popery — Never ! Popery is a 
system upon which is traced, in cha- 
racters of fire and blood, No Tolera- 
tion ! 

But, in conclusion, we should thank 
God that our lot is cast in a land of 
liberty, where we are subject neither 
to despotism nor tyranny, nor to the 
religious thraldom of "Thk Man of 
Sin." And we would therefore, in 
the enjoyment of such inestimable 
privileges, denied to thousands of our 
race, be the more deeply impressed 
with our responsibility in the im- 
provement of them, working while 
with us it is the day. 



The name of this worthy servant of , who laboured, during the earlier 
Christ is associated with those of , part of the seventeenth century, in 
Cunningham, Livingstone, Blair, the north of Ireland. Their minis- 
and other eminent Scottish ministers trations were remarkably blessed, so 



94 



that multitudes were added to the 1 
Church, whose sincerity in holding | 
the profession of the faith was soon 
tested by the fiery ordeal of a Popish 
and Prelatic persecution. 

Mr. M'Clelland entered on his pub- 
lic career as a teacher at Newton, in 
the county of Down ; and after being 
duly ordained by the laying on of the 
hands of the Presbytery, he preached 
in the same district with such a mea- 
sure of power and success as to incur 
the heavy displeasure of the Episcopal 
bishops, who forthwith ordered him 
to cease from preaching, and after- 
wards inflicted the more severe sen- | 
tences of deposition and excommuni- I 
cation. Many of his brethren around 
him were treated in the same manner; 
and, being forced into concealment to 
avoid the pursuit of the Prelatic 
bloodhounds, their poor flocks were 
devoured by the wolves in sheep's 
clothing. These faithful, suflfering 
witnesses of Christ, seeing no oppor- 
tunity of usefulness at home, resolved ; 
to seek a refuge in New England, 
where they might preach the Gospel 
without molestation. Accordingly, 
having raised sufficient funds, they 
got a vessel built, of 115 tons, called 
the " Eaglewings," in which they 
embarked, and sailed about 400 
leagues across the Atlantic, when a 
terrible hurricane forced them to put 
back to Ii'eland. Viewing this as a 
plain intimation that Providence had 
other work for them at home, they 
hazarded their safety, and preached 
in private houses throughout tlie 
counties of Down, Tyrone, and Don- 
egal, until, by the increasing fury of 
the bishops, they were obliged to 
escape in disguise to Scotland, where 
they assisted in promoting that great 
work of Covenanting, which resulted 
in the deliverance of a crushed people 
in the memorable year 1C38. " Then 
had the Churches rest, and were 
edified ; and, walking in the fear of 



the Lord, and in the comfort of the 
Holy Ghost, were multiplied." In 
the same year IVIr. M'Clelland was 
called to be pastor of the Church in 
Kirkcudbright, where he continued 
till he was translated to "the heavenly 
Jerusalem — to the general assembly 
and church of the firstborn that are 
written in heaven," &c. 

He was married to the sister-in-law 
of Mr. John Livingston, his com- 
panion in tribulation. Of his mini- 
stry in Kirkcudbright, it is recorded 
that " he discovered more than ordi- 
nary diligence, not only in testifying 
against the corruptions of the time, 
but also for his own singular walk 
and conversation; being one who 
was set for the advancement of all 
practical parts of religion, as well in 
private duties as in jjublic." As an 
instance of his faithfulness in this 
latter respect, we here give his 
famous letter to Lord Kirkcud- 
bright : — 

" My NOBLE Lord, — I have re- 
ceived yours, and do acknowledge 
my obligation to your Lordship is 
redoubled. I long much to hear 
what decision followed on that de- 
bate concerning patronages. Upon 
the most exact trial they will be 
found a great plague to the Kirk — 
an obstruction to the propagation of 

religion I can say no 

more but what Christ said to the 
Pharisees — ' It was not so from the 
beginning,' — the primitive Churcli 
knew nothing of it (patronage). But, 
as for their pernicious disposition to 
a rupture among sectaries, I can say 
nothing to them ; only this, I con- 
clude their judgement sleeps not. 
' Shall they escape, shall they break 
the covenant and be delivered?' 
(Ezek. xvii. IG, &c.), which I dare 
apply to England, I hope, without 
wresting of Scripture : 'And therefore 
thus saith the Lord God, As I live, 
surely nnne oath which he hath 



95 



despised, and my covenant that he j 
hath broken, even it will I recom- 
pense on his own head,' &c. This [ 
covenant was made with Nebuchad- 
nezzar ; the matter was civil, but the 
tie was religious ; wherefore the Lord 
owns it as His covenant, because 
God's name was invoked and inter- 
poned in it. And He calls England 
to witness ; England's covenant was 
not made with Scotland only, but j 
with the high and mighty God, prin- ! 
cipally for the reformation of His ' 
house, and it was received in the most j 
solemn manner that I have heard ; so j 
that they may call it God's covenant ! 
both formally and materially ; and | 
the Lord did second the making of 
it with more than ordinaiy success to 
that nation. Now, it is manifestly 
despised and broken in the sight of 
all nations ; therefore, it remains 
that the Lord avenge the quarrel of | 
His covenant. England hath had to ' 
do with the Scots, French, Danes, 
Picts, Normans, and Ilomans, but 
she never had such a party to deal \ 
with as the Lord of armies, pleading [ 
for the violation of His covenant. I 
Englishmen shall be made a spec- j 
tacle to all nations for a broken cove- 
nant, when the living God swears, , 
' As I live, even the covenant that 
he hath despised, and the oath that 
he hath broken, will I recompense : 
upon liis own head/ There is no 
place left for doubting. ' Hath the 
Lord said it, hath the Lord sworn it? 
and will He not do it ? ' His asser- 
tion is a ground of faith ; His oath a 
ground of full assurance of faith. If ! 
all England were as one man united 
in judgment and affection ; and if it 
had a wall round about it reaching to 
the sun ; and if it had as many armies 
as it has men, and every soldier had 
the strength of Goliah ; and if their 



navies could cover the ocean ; and if 
there were none to peep out or move 
the tongue against them, — yet I dare 
not doubt of their destruction, when 
the Lord hath sworn by His life that 
He will avenge the breach of His 
covenant. When, and by whom, 
and in what manner He will do it, I 
do profess ignorance, and leave it to 
His glorious Majesty, His own lati- 
tude, and will commit it to Him. 
My Lord, I live and will die ; and if 
I be called home before that time, I 
am in the assured hope of the ruin of 
all God's enemies in the land ; so I 
commit your Lordship and your Lady 
to the grace of God. 

" JoH>f M'Clelland." 
This letter was written in Feb- 
ruary 1649, and early in the follow- 
ing year he was, as he familiarly ex- 
presses it, "called home," after twelve 
years of faithful service in Kirkcud- 
bright. Although this witness was 
not called upon to seal his testimony 
witli his blood, yet it breathes the 
same spirit, and is substantially the 
same language, as that of all the illus- 
trious cloud of witnesses who suffered 
during that trying period of the 
Church's history. They all died in 
the firm persuasion that our Cove- 
nants were scriptural, and permanent 
in their obligations, and that, conse- 
quently, the violation of them must, 
sooner or later, be visited with signal 
vengeance by the God of truth. And 
in these days of anxiety regarding our 
national defences, it would be well to 
ponder the solemn language of the 
preceding letter, and to consider what 
defence is able to secure our guilty 
nation from the wrath of Him who 
hath said, " Shall I not visit for these 
things? saith the Lord; and shall not 
my soul be avenged on such a nation 
as this ? " 



d'o 



THE AEK. 



Ut iuntii fft §xU\xc »rsl]i^. 



" A GODLY man is very exact and I 
curious about the worship of God; i 
the Greek word for godly, signifies a t 
right worshipper of God. A godly { 
man doth reverence Divine institu- ' 
tions, and is more for the purity of | 
worship than the pomp. Mixture in I 
sacred things is like a dash in the [ 
wine, wliich, though it gives it a 
colour, yet doth but adultei'ate it. 1 
The Lord would have Moses make ! 
the tabernacle according to the pat- i 
tern in the Mount (Exod. xxv. 40). I 
If Moses had left out anything in 
the pattern, or added anything to it, 
it would have been very provoking. 
The Lord hath always given testi- 
monies of His displeasure, against 
such as have corrupted His worship. 
Nadab and Abihu otTered strange 
fire (other than God had sanctified i 
on the altar), and fire went out from ' 
the Lord and devoured them. What- I 
soever is not of God's own appoint- , 
ment in His worship, that He looks 
upon as strange fire : and no wonder 
He is so highly incensed at it; for, as 
if God were not wise enough to ap- 
point the manner how He will be 
served, men will go to prescribe 
Him ; and, as if the rules for His 
worship were defective, they will at- 
tempt to mend the copy, and super- 
add their inventions. JBy this char- , 
acter we may try ourselves, whether ! 
we are godly : Are we tender about 
the things of God ? Do we observe 
that mode of worship which hath the 
stamp of Divine authority upon it? 
'Tis of dangerous consequence to 
make a medley in religion. 1st. 
Those wlio will add to one part of 



God's worship, will be as ready to 
take away from another. " Laying 
aside the commandment of God, ye 
hold the traditions of men." They 
who will bring in a tradition, will in 
time lay aside a command. This the 
Papists are highly guilty of; they 
bring in altars and crucifixes, and 
lay aside the second commandment ; 
they bring in oil and cream in bap- 
tism, and leave out the cup in the 
Lord's Supper ; they bring in pray- 
ing for the dead, and lay aside read- 
ing the Scriptures intelligibly to the 
living. They who will introduce 
that into God's worship which He 
hath not commanded, will be as ready 
to blot out that which He hath com- 
manded. 2d. Those who are for 
outward commixtures in God's wor- 
ship, are usually regardless of the 
vitals of religion; living by faith, 
leading a strict, mortified life, these 
tilings are less minded by them. 
Wasps have their combs, but no 
honey in them. The religion of 
many, may be likened to those ears 
which run all into straw. 3d. Sup- 
erstition and profaneness kiss each 
other. Hath it not been known, 
that those who have kneeled at a 
pillar, have reeled against a post ? 
4th. Such as are devoted to super- 
stition, are seldom or never con- 
verted. 

Let us, then, as we would demon- 
strate ourselves godly, keep close to 
the rule of worship, and in the things 
of Jehovah go no further than we 
can say, 'It is written.'" — Eev. 
Thomas Watson. 

London, 1666. 



Edinburgh : Printed and Published for the Proprietors hy Paton and Ritchie, 81 Princes 
Street (to whom all Communications, prepaid, mav be addressed). Glasgow: Thomas 
MuKKAY AND SoN ; and sold bv all Booksellers. 



CJe %xt 



Vol. II. -No. 13. 



DECEMBER 1859. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 
Original Sen. 
Antecedents of Napoleon the Third. 



SriginiTl ^m. 



First alike in importance and posi- 
tion in the inspired volume, Original 
Sin stands forth in solemn majesty, 
indicative and decisive of man's real 
and relative position before God. 
Without an accurately theoretic per- 
ception and personal sense of this 
foundation doctrine of revelation, we 
cannot understand or appreciate 
many of the special doctrines of a 
purely supernatural kind, which con- 
stitute the Christian system, as the 
mediatorial character of the Re- 
deemer, the specific nature of His 
work, or the instrument, faith, by 
which any of our family can he inter- 
ested in His great salvation. In con- 
sideration of the number, variety, 
and magnitude of the evils which af- 
fect the moi'al world, it consists with 
sound reason that we calmly and at- 
tentively examine whether the Divine 
record has thrown any light on the 
cause of this extraordinary moral 
derangement. While theologians of 
every age and every country per- 
sistently refer us to what they call 
original sin, as the alone but satis- 
factory solution of this deeply inter- 
esting problem, it is of the last im- 
portance that we ascertain the pre- 
cise meaning of these terms as used 
by them. As we are not now 
reasoning with professed infidels, 
but with professors who acknow- 
ledge the inspiration of Scripture, 
and who, nevertheless, conflict seri- 



ously in their views of this question ; 
so it is almost supererogation to add, 
that we must appeal to Holy Writ — 
" to the law and to the testimony ; 
if they speak not according to this 
word, it is because there is no light 
in them." 

Original sin, although not a Scrip- 
ture phrase, is generally used in ap- 
plication to the first sin of Adam ; 
and has respect, not so much to that 
sin, of itself considered, as in regard 
to the whole human family, or all 
Adam's natural posterity. Those 
who are said to deny original sin are 
therefore said to deny it in the latter 
sense, or as it aifects mankind. 
This sin has been explained by those 
reputed orthodox, as including the 
two elements of depravity and guilt. 
By depravity they mean the corrup- 
tion, or depi-avation, of the whole 
moral constitution of man, including 
the darkening of the intellect, in re- 
gard to purely spiritual objects, the 
perversion of the will, and the car- 
nality of the affections. This moral 
depravation of the inner man natu- 
rally and necessarily affects all the 
members of the body, as they cannot 
but be in ready obedience to the 
volitions of the will : " Know ye not, 
that to whom ye yield yourselves 
servants to obey, his servants ye are 
to whom ye obey ; whether of sin 
unto death, or of obedience unto 
i righteousness." 



98 



The second element in original sin 
is guilt ; by which is understood ob- 
ligation to punishment, the penalty 
of the law, or, in Scripture phrase, 
condemnation, and the curse of God. 
*' Now we know, that what things 
soever the law saith, it saith to them 
who are under the law, that every 
mouth may be stopped, and all the 
world may become guilty before God." 
Leaving for another and early occa- 
sion a consideration of the first ele- 
ment of original sin, the corruption 
of the moral man, especially the de- 
pravation of the intellect in i-egard to 
those objects that lie within the spi- 
ritual province, as brought out in the 
case of Professor Gibson and the stu- 
dents of the Free Church College of 
Glasgow, we propose addressing our- 
selves very briefly, in this article, to 
the second element of original sin, 
" the guilt of Adam's first sin," as 
affecting all his natural seed. We 
may premise that we profess not to 
add anything to the elucidation of 
this subject ; but inasmuch as of late 
there has been a gi-owing antipathy 
to the hitherto reputed orthodox view 
of the question, our object is to esta- 
blish in the faith those who are daily 
exposed to the showy plausibilities 
of a modern and painfully popular 
heresy. This strong language is jus- 
tifiable in the light of the fact, that 
perhaps no theological production is 
at present more popular than " Pre- 
sident Dwight's System of Divinity," 
a production which not only admits, 
but also clearly illustrates and solidly 
defends, the doctrine of universal de- 
pravity ; while, on the other hand, it 
formally denies, as contrary to equity, 
the guilt of Adam's first sin. With 
the view of removing from the 
threshold of the question this much- 
lauded objection, we may state that it 
rests on the assumption that guilt, 
like depravity, is transmitted, or im- 
parted, to the represented ; whereas 



guilt is not imparted, but imputed, or 
charged to the account of the repre- 
sented ; in other words, the depravity 
is certainly ours, but the guilt is per- 
sonally Adam's, and ours only by im- 
putation. This is the Scripture doc- 
trine to which President Dwight has 
not addressed himself, and which he 
has not perceived, by confounding the 
distinction betwixt imparting and im- 
puting. Moreover, his reasoning on 
depravity and guilt does not cohere, 
does not stand with sound reason, or 
with itself. How is it possible aright 
to conceive of an innocent person 
totally depraved? or where is the 
Divine equity in regard to a thou- 
roughly depraved, yet perfectly guilt- 
less moral being ? Does not the very 
fact of his depravity demonstrate his 
guilt ? Let any of Dwight's admirers 
and defenders calmly address them- 
selves to the solution of this problem. 
But to proceed to the establishment 
of the doctrine of the imputation of 
the guilt of Adam's first sin to all his 
natural seed, we place it on the firm 
ground of Adam's representative cha- 
racter, that he stood not only for him- 
self, but also for the whole human 
race. On the ground of Adam's re- 
presentative character must the battle 
between heresy and orthodoxy be 
fairly fought out. If Adam's repre- 
sentative character be admitted, the 
imputation of his guilt follows of ne- 
cessity, and the controversy ceases. 
The subsequent remarks are sub- 
mitted in proof of the doctrine, that 
Adam was a federal head, or sus- 
tained a representative character. 

I. That Adam was a public repre- 
sentative appears from the recorded 
fact, that a covenant of life was made 
with him. It is a disreputable mode 
of reasoning resorted to by those who 
deny imputed guilt, that the transac- 
tion betwixt God and Adam was a 
mere dispensation or arrangement, 
when the Divine record specifies all 



the essentials of a true and proper | 
federal transaction or covenant, and 
especially when the transaction, or 
dispensation, is expressly styled a 
covenant. " But they, like men (like 
Adam), have transgressed the cove- 
nant : there have they dealt treacher- 
ously against me." A denial of a 
covenant of works v^ith Adam impli- 
cates in a denial of a covenant of 
grace with Christ, the second Adam. 
" As in Adam all die, so in Christ shall 
all be made alive." And that the 
covenant made with Adam affected 
not only himself, but also all his na- 
tural seed, appears from the con- 
ceded fact that all his natural seed 
have inherited his depraved moral 
constitution. 

ir. That Adam sustained a repre- 
sentative character is manifest from 
the Apostle's professed contrast be- 
twixt him and Christ, in his Epistle 
to the Romans. And let it be care- 
fully noted, that in this portion of the 
inspired volume the Apostle is not 
throwing out incidental remarks on 
this question, but is treating of it in 
a formal — professedly formal — and 
dogmatic manner. Here, then, if 
anywhere, we may expect the decis- 
ive dictum of inspiration. The af- 
firmation is, " Wherefore, as by one 
man sin entered into the world, and 
death by sin ; and so death passed 
upon all men, for that all have 
sinned," or, according to the ori- 
ginal, in whom all have sinned. 
Now this passage brings under the 
eye of the intelligent reader, the fol- 
lowing obvious and not to be ex- 
plained away facts: — 1. That sin 
entered into the world by one man, 
and only by one man. 2. That this 
sin of the one man was only one sin, 
and not the other and subsequent 
sins of that one man ; and, we may 
ask, if this was only the one sin of 
the one man, what could possibly 
that one sin be, save eating the for- 



bidden fruit ? 3. This one sin of 
the one man became the sin of all 
men; "in whom all have sinned." 
4. That this one sin implicated in 
guilt, or secured death. "And so 
death " — the wages of sin — " passed 
upon all men." This restricts the 
sin to Adam's first sin, his covenant 
sin, according to the threatening, 
" In the day thou eatest thereof thou 
shalt surely die." And, 5. These 
words declare that universal guilt is 
incurred, and is imputed by this 
first sin of Adam, to the exclusion of 
any other conceivable cause, " And 
so death passed upon all men." With 
all deference we submit that this 
very simple reasoning is irrefragable, 
and demonstrates Adam's representa- 
tive character. 

III. The same doctrine appears 
from the usual apostolic phraseology 
of Adam as the first man and Christ 
the second man, 1 Cor. xv. 45, 47, 
49, " And so it is written. The first 
man Adam was made a living soul, 
the last Adam was made a quicken- 
ing spirit. The first man is of the 
earth, earthy ; the second man is the 
Lord from heaven. And as we have 
borne the image of the earthy, we 
shall also bear the image of the 
heavenly." In this Divine testimony 
it is affirmed, not only that Adam 
was the^rs^ man and that Christ was 
the second man, but the first man was 
the first Adam and the second man 
was the second Adam ; moreover, 
that the first Adam was made, or 
constituted, a living soul, and that the 
second Adam was made, or constitu- 
ted, a quickening spirit. No kind or 
mode of exposition that may or can 
be resorted to shall be adequate to 
obscure or explain away the domi- 
nant doctrine in these passages, — that 
each of these persons was a federal 
head, or sustained a representative 
character ; and that, consequently, 
the guilt contracted by the one was 



100 



absolved by the expiatory sacrifice 
of tiie other, as affected all the re- 
presented seed. In illustration of 
this doctrine, which pervades the 
volume of inspiration, we read, that 
" As in Adam all die, so in Christ 
shall all be made alive." 

IV. In prosecution of, and in close 
connexion with the above, we read 
the state in which the Gospel finds 
every child of Adam to whom it is 
addressed. It takes for granted that 
all men are not only depraved, but 
in a state of guilt, are under the 
sentence of the broken law, are under 
the curse of the law, or in a state of 
condemnation. And while the 
Gospel, which is simply a declaration 
of the doctrine of reconciliation, as- 
sumes that we are in a state of con- 
demnation, it tenders to us a free, 
full, and sincere offer of justification, 
or deliverance from condemnation. 
Such Scripture passages as the fol- 
lowing, to which the intelligent 
reader of the Bible can add many 
others of the same import and simi- 
lar phraseology, evince and establish 
the same doctrine : — " He redeemed 
us from the curse of the law, being 
made a curse for us ; " but unless we 
had been under the curse of the law, 
it is not possible to understand hov/ 
He could have redeemed us from it ? 
*' There is therefore now no con- 
demnation to them that are in Christ 
Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, 
but after the Spirit." And surely it 
requires not to be formally shewn, 
that the adverbial term now implies, 
that previously to the sinner's justifi- 
cation he was in a state of condem- 
nation. But this line of exposition 
can readily be prosecuted by any man 
of ordinary capacity. 

V. The doctrine of imputed guilt 
appears from the pains and death of 
many, if not the majority, of our 
race, Avhile in a state of infancy. 
This is the inference which the 



Apostle states as natively flowing 
from the first sin of the first man, 
Rom. V. 13, U, "For until the law 
[from Adam to Moses] sin was in 
the world ; but sin is not imputed 
when there is no law. Nevertheless 
death reigned from Ad:im to Moses, 
even over them that had not sinned 
after the similitude of Adam's trans- 
gression, who is the figure of Him 
that was to come." Although ac- 
quainted with the miserable shifts 
resorted to, with a view to evade the 
obviously contextual meaning of the 
passage now cited, yet, instead of 
formally combating objections, we 
confidently appeal to the unpreju- 
diced, whether any other exposition, 
in accordance with the preceding and 
subsequent contexts, and the analogy 
of faith, can be given, than that from 
Adam to Moses, from tiie date of the 
covenant of works till the giving of 
the Decalogue, sin and death reigned 
over not only adults, which required 
no proof, but over even infants who 
had not sinned after the similitude of 
Adam's transgression ; for in regard 
to them alone is this phraseology at all 
intelligible. Now this scripturally 
recorded fact, confirmed by daily ob- 
servation, we do submit cannot be 
consistently and satisfactorily ex- 
plained, apart from the guilt of the 
sufferer. How, without admitting 
guilt, reconcile with Divine equity 
the agonised sufferings of the little 

j immortal that has just oped its eyes 
to close them in death ? How re- 
concile with the first principles of 
justice the abortions of so large a 

, number of our family, and of so many 
" strangled in life's porch," who find 
their sepulchre in the womb, Avithout 
admitting the guilt of the subject ? 
\Ye desiderate any intelligible and 
consistent exposition of this divinely 
recorded, and not to be denied, moral 
phenomenon on any other principle 
than the imputation of the guilt of 



101 



the first man's first sin, wliile sus- 
taining a representative character. 
And if the alternative be chosen, that 
the babe is an abortion, or passes 
away into the eternal world by con- 
vulsions that wring the hearts of 
parents and spectators with agony, 
while he is innocent, is guiltless, then 
we do think that the merciful abettor 
of the heresy combated will have a 
hard task in vindicating the equity of 
God towards infants, and demonstrat- 
ing that their death is not tyranny 
and murder. 

VI. In fine, the doctrine of Adam's 
representative character, and conse- 
quently of imputed guilt to his re- 
presented seed, appears from the re- 
ligious fears and anxieties of the 
parents of their suflfering and dying 
infants. This parental anxiety mani- 
fests its reality and strength in the 
bosoms, and supplicatory efforts, of 
the most abandoned of our race. 
We would fail to give a thoroughly 
true representation of the feelings of 
the parent, were we to attempt a de- 
scription of his supplications to God 
for his dying child, and of his efforts 
to enlist any reputedly righteous in- 
dividual to make intercession. But 
if the child be innocent, if he be 
without guilt, it will not be easy to 



explain these ardent supplications for 
its spiritual and eternal interests. The 
summation of the heresy under con- 
sideration is, that parental anxieties 
for the suffering and dying babe 
are a condemnable Aveakness, that 
praying for such is not a duty, and 
that such prayers are an insult to 
the Divine Majesty, who must re- 
ceive into glory every innocent, 
every guiltless moral being. 

These remarks, to which the in- 
telligent reader of Scripture may add 
others of a cognate character, go to 
shew our deep rooted conviction, 
that the extensively popular denial of 
the imputed guilt of Adam's first sin 
to the human race, notwithstanding 
its pretensions to mercy, is thoroughly 
antiscriptural, is indefensible by right 
reason, is at variance with the first 
principles of Divine equity, is obscu- 
rative of the glory of the mediatorial 
character and finished work of the 
second Adam, and converts the 
mercy of God into tyranny and mur- 
der. If the modern heretics on 
this central doctrine of revelation 
can shake the above propositions, 
taken especially in cumulo, we shall 
be glad to do honourable battle with 
them in the pages of our little perio- 
dical. 



Iint^akiits oi ga^olcoii; il^t ^xx}l, 



Right or wrong, mankind speculate 
on the future of a man by his ante- 
cedents. This phrase has assumed 
the form of an aphorism, and con- 
tains that principle on which we act 
in forming friendships, in engaging 
servants, and in contracting marriages. 
Upon its assumed accuracy, poets 
have sung that " coming events cast 
their shadows before them," " that 
we learn the future by the past," and 
" that the boy is father to the man." 
Although it would be contrary to 



fact to assume the universal truth of 
these well-known proverbs, yet, as 
; their proverbial popularity suffers no 
' abatement, we may safely affirm, for 
' all practical purposes, that the very 
! rare exceptional cases only all the 
! more clearly and firmly establish the 
rule. 
I By way of preparation for a calm 
I and somewhat foi'mal consideration 
of the absorbing question of the 
day — the probabilities of a French in- 
vasion of our country— we propose, 



102 



in this brief article, setting before the 
reader a few of the prominent ante- 
cedents of Napoleon IIL, as the 
greatest political good, or the greatest 
political curse, to Britain and to 
Europe. And by adopting this 
method of approaching the solution 
of the deeply-interesting problem, we 
apprehend we shall disentangle from 
its discussion much popular, but irre- 
levant matter. At present, then, we 
have nothing to do with an examina- 
tion of Elliott's, Cumming's, and Lord 
Carlyle's prophetic visions of the near 
and tremendous future, and as little 
to do with the political speculations 
of the English Thunderer, and the 
counter-mimic thunder of the Scot- 
tish journals; our object is to hold up 
the past of Napoleon as the accu- 
rately reflecting mirror of the future, 
or shewing the antecedents of the 
man in whose hands are laid the des- 
tinies of England and Europe. 

Charles Louis Napoleon Bona- 
parte is the son of Hortense de Beau- 
harmais, married by the emperor to 
Louis Napoleon, king of Holland. 
He was born at Paris 20th April 
1808, and is now fifty-one years of 
age. His appearance — very little, in- 
deed, resembling that of his uncle, 
Napoleon the Great — is described, 
especially when he occupied the tri- 
bune on the 20th December 1848, as 
having " a face wan and pallid, its 
angles bony and emaciated ; his nose 
large and long ; the upper lip covered 
with moustaches ; a lock of hair wav- 
ing over a narrow forehead ; his eyes 
small and dull; and his attitude 
timid and anxious." What such an 
exterior betokenswe leave to physiog- 
nomists and phrenologists ; but those 
initiated in the regnant principles of 
these systems might have difficulty in 
extracting therefrom a policy that 
despises low cunning, an open- 
breasted confidence that rises supe- 
rior to seltishnesSj and a patriotism 



that would scorn to reach its object 
by the use of illegitimate means, and 
tlie sacrifice of friends. But, leaving 
the region of speculation, we proceed 
to that of stern facts in the actual 
history of the man. 

In October 1836, he hatched a 
plot, and laboured hard to give it a 
sanguinary realisation, to overthrow 
the government of the citizen king, 
Louis Philippe. On his failure at 
Strasbourg, the king whose dynasty 
he attempted to submerge, from mer- 
ciful considerations, pardoned the de- 
tected culprit, whoembarked for Ame- 
rica, leaving behind him for rigid 
public trial, his accomplices whom he 
had duped and betrayed. From a 
letter read in the Court of Assize by 
Parquin the advocate, we have Na- 
poleon's professed regret for his po- 
litical crime against the Government 
of the generous Louis Philippe. In 
this letter, he says, " Certainly we 
are all culpable towards the Govern- 
ment, in having taken up arms 
against it, and the most culpable per- 
son was myself." He concludes with, 
" I was guilty against the Govern- 
ment, therefore the state has been 
generous towards me." Thus wrote 
Napoleon when safe with his pardon, 
but when his deceived friends were 
on their trial for their heads. On 
returning from America, he was ap- 
pointed a captain of artillery at 
Berne, the capital of Switzerland. 
When at Berne, the equivocal policy, 
indicated by his low forehead, caused 
diplomatic complications, from which 
there was no evasion save by his re- 
fusal to acknowledge himself either 
a Swiss or a PVenchman, and his 
letter, dated 20th August 1838, to 
the French Government, in which he 
says, " I live almost alone in the 
house where my mother died, and 
3,m finally resolved to live in quiet." 

Exactly two years after " his final 
resolution to live in quiet," or in 



THE ARK. 



103 



August 1840, he disembarked at 
Boulogne, " carrying a gilt eagle at 
the head of a flag, a live eagle in a 
cage, a whole bundle of proclama- 
tions, and sixty valets, cooks, and 
grooms, disguised as French soldiers, 
•with uniforms bought at the Temple, 
and buttons of the 42d regiment, 
made in London. He scatters large 
monies among all passengers in the 
streets of Boulogne, sticks his hat on 
the point of his sword, and cries, 
' Vive I'Empereur,' and fires a 
pistol shot at an officer, which se- 
verely wounds him." The peers 
having sentenced him to perpetual 
imprisonment, he was confined at 
Ham. While in the fortress of Ham, ^ 
and keeping steadily in view his ! 
great and ulterior object of supreme 1 
domination, he threw off such pro- ! 
ductions as, " The Extinction of I 
Pauperism," " The Analogies of the 
Sugar Question," " The Ideas of Na- 
poleon," and " Historical Frag- j 
ments," in which last he says, " I | 
am a citizen before being a Bona- i 
parte." After five years' captivity in 
Ham, he effected his escape disguised 
as a mason, and arrived in Britain, | 
the land of freedom for refugees. In i 
February of the memorable 1848, he 
threw away his police baton which 
he wielded in London, crossed the 
Channel, declared for the infant Re- 
public, took his seat as the people's 
representative in the Constituent As- ' 
sembly, and, mounting the tribune in 
September 1848, delivered himself of 
this brief and characteristic speech : 
— " All my life shall be devoted to 
the confirmation of the Republic." 
With a view to engaging in the con- 
test for the Presidency, and out- 
generaling Cavaignac, he published 
his manifesto, which France thus ex- 
pounded : " Liberty, progress, democ- 
racy., amnesty, abolition of the decrees 
of proscription and banishment." 
The result of the contest was, 



Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte 
is elected President by 7,500,000 
votes of the French people. 

On the 20th December 1848, the 
President of the National Constituent 
Assembly, the gi-eat body of whose 
nine hundred representatives were 
present, solemnly read the result of 
the scrutiny of the votes for the 
President of the Republic. Napoleon, 
whose election was declared, ad- 
vanced to the tribune, when he lifted 
up his right hand, and swore the fol- 
lowing oath, administered by Armand 
Marrast : — " In presence of God, 
and before the French people, repre- 
sented by the National Assembly, I 
swear to remain faithful to the demo- 
cratic republic, one and indivisible, 
and fulfil all the duties imposed on 
me by the Constitution." Although 
the formal solemnities of the inaugu- 
ration of the democratic republic 
were completed, yet the newly elected 
President, to shew that France might 
repose confidence in his integrity, re- 
quested liberty to speak. Armand 
Marrast said, " Speak ; you are in 
possession of the tribune." And then 
Napoleon, amid intensest attention, 
read the following words : — "I 
desire, in common with yourselves, 
citizen representatives, to consolidate 
society upon its true basis, to esta- 
blish democratic institutions, and 
earnestly to devise the means cal- 
culated to relieve the sufferings of 
the generous and intelligent people 
who have just bestowed on me so 
signal a proof of their confidence." 

But we now proceed to consider 
what history reveals of the fulfilment 
of these formal pledges and solemn 
oaths, during the subsequent tri- 
ennial Presidency of Napoleon III , 
elevated from the special constable- 
ship of London to the highest office 
in France by 7,500,000 of his 
countrymen. That Popery which 
in 1831 he had fought, sword in 



104 



hand, to destroy'-, he restored in 1849, 
by the restoration of his Holiness ; 
and that democratic republicanism 
which he had solemnly sworn to up- 
hold, " before God and the represen- 
tatives of France," he effectually put 
down by his troops at Kome, the 
subsequent year. As a summation 
of his administration, planned and 
especially executed by himself, 
history — and because of a gagged 
press, the half is not yet told — in- 
forms us that, " On the 2d December 
1851, he assailed the legislative 
power, arrested the representatives, 
drove oat the Assembly, dissolved the 
Council of State, expelled the High 
Court of Justice, suppressed the laws, 
took 25,000,000 francs from the 
bank, gorged the army with gold, 
swept the streets of Paris with grape- 
shot, and terrorised France. Since 
then, he has proscribed eighty-four J 
representatives of the people ; stolen , 
from the princes of Orleans the pro- 
perty of their father, Louis Philippe, 
to whom he owed his life ; decreed 
despotism in fifty-eight articles, under 
the name of Constitution ; garrotted 
the Republic; made the sword ofi 
France a gag in the mouth of liberty ; 
pawned the railways ; picked the 
pockets of the people ; regulated the 
budget by ukase ; transported into 
Africa 10,000 democrats ; banislied 
into Belgium, Spain, Piedmont, 
Switzerland, and England 40,000 
republicans ; filled all souls with 
sorrow ; covered all foreheads with 
a blush." Into the items of this 
historic summation of what some 
designate Napoleon's " necessary 
acts," and others, " his grand acts," 
with their treacherous, perjured, and 
sanguinary glories, consummated in 
his infernal coup d'etat of 2d Decem- 
ber 1851, and the subsequent three 



days, we have no heart to enter. 
Under this head it may suffice to 
I say, that the planned, heartless, in- 
discriminate massacre of man, 
woman, and child by a soldiery 
brutalised by ardent spirits to fit 
them for the freaks of devilry, baffles 
'■ all description. While implored 
: every half-hour of that dreadful day 
to command a cessation of the 
j murder, the one, the unvarying, the 
! monotonous reply of the impertur- 
! bable hero of the tragedy was, 

" Execute my orders." 
j Do we require to fill up this his- 
toric sketch of the prominent antece- 
I dents of Napoleon by requesting the 
reader to expound, in the light of im- 
perial subsequent acts, his famous and 
much-lauded saying, " Tiie empire is 
peace?" How does this read when 
placed side by side with his, since 
that date, sanguinary expeditions, his 
conduct in the affair of Italy, Portu- 
gal, Spain, and Morocco ; with his 
Cherbourg fortifications, immense 
military and naval preparations ; — 
preparations for what ? Surely not 
for defending his colonial dependen- 
cies, which are few, and stand not in 
need of defence ? 

This is the historic sketch of Eng- 
land's " faithful ally," of the firmest 
friend of European liberty, of the 
man who is willing to sacrifice self on 
the altar of sworn to " democratic 
constitutions," and who is lauded for 
saying, "The empire is peace." We 
shall not now address ourselves to 
the defence set up for the infernally 
grand coup d'etat as an act of political . 
necessity — a defence which is the 
very core of Pome's regnant dogma, 
that " the end sanctifies the means," 
and a defence which outrages the 
commonest principles of Scripture 
and reason. 



I Edinburgh : Printed and Published for the Proprietors by Paton and Eitchie, 81 Princes 
I Street (to whom all Communications, prepaid, may be addressed). Glasgow : Thomas 

MunRAY AND SoN ; and sold bv all Booksellers. 



CIj^ %xt 



Vol, III-Ho. 1. JANUARY 1860. Price Id. 

CONTENTS. 
Peefatoet Kemaeks. 
" The Pope and the Congress." 



irefittarg f cmarks. 

We are happy to congratulate our Correspondents, Subscribers, and Read- 
ers, on our little bark having accomplished her second annual voyage ; and 
that, in prospect of again weighing anchor, she is not only afloat, but is 
much improved, from the respectable firm of Paton & Ritchie, under 
whose auspices she is published, and also from the valuable cargo already 
on board, the pilotage under which she is conducted, and the experienced 
crew engaged. 

We boast not when we thus advertise, that we guarantee for the comfort 
and benefit of all concerned, notwithstanding "breakers ahead," a safe and" 
prosperous vovage for the next twelve months. We are not to he under- 
stood as saying that we claim to be prophets, or the sons of prophets, or 
that we are possessed of the gifts of editors of " almanacks for the ensuing 
year ;" yet, from the signs that glare in the political and ecclesiastical sky, 
it is scarcely possible to avoid predicting that our next run will be one of 
serious concern to Britain and the continent of Europe. Without, especi- 
ally within the usual limits of a Prospectus, hazarding even a conjectural 
solution of the many tangled questions that engage European intellect and 
anxiety, we may be allowed to say, that we shall have to use utmost cauti<^ 
and skill in sailing near sunken rocks, and cruising along coasts wjios.^ 
quicksands have engulfed more pretending craft. 

To some of these portentous signs, as indicative of what should, and is, 
in large measure, engaging the serious attention of the soberly thinking por-. 
tion of the community, we propose very generally adverting, not with a 
view to comment, but to fix attention upon them. 

Not a few of the greater and more complicated questions which ha,ve 
absorbed public attention, are still left without a satisfactory solution. 
Notwithstanding the reduction of Sebastopol, Turkey is not yet saved ; 
and the " habit and repute " ambition of the Czar upon the South is not 
yet set at rest. The result of the Stutgard Imperial understanding or plot, 
has never yet been explained or seen. The rebellion of the vast empire of 
India, the vaunted suppression of Avhich has cost the country so many mil- 
lions of money and so much British blood, is not yet suppressed. Chinese 
treachery, so murderously revealed of late, is being tardily avenged, and at 
the expense of witlidrawing our troops from needed employment nearer 
home. This deep game, in which our imperial ally professes readiness to 
try liis hand, sincerely or covertly we do not say, is not yet played out. 

But new and startling questions of a continental and most complicated 

\ 



character, are absorbing tbe attention of not only alarmists, but of the usually 
calm and indifferent of rulers and ruled. What continental crowned head, 
statesman, ecclesiastic, or intelligent artisan, is not tremulously sensitive 
about the next two or three moves on the political chess-board ? As de- 
monstrative of the feverishly anxious mind in this direction, we may point 
to the unproductive results of the Zurich conferences, the shyly conceded 
necessity for a Congress of the leading continental powers, and the fruit- 
lessly projected solution of the two irreconcilable elements — the independ- 
ence of Central Italy, and the temporal supremacy of the Pope ! In close 
connexion with this knottiest of questions, we have the seriously debated 
probability of a French invasion of our country, ridiculed by those who 
affect to smile at the freely expressed threats of French colonels, ignore the 
fact of the French press being under the imperial censorship, which is re- 
sponsible for its anti-English ebullitions, and craftily ignore the antecedents 
of the author of the coup d'etat, and the self-glorying man of destiny. 

The questions of a home character, both political and ecclesiastical, em- 
bracing the extension of the franchise, the perplexing misunderstanding 
betwixt employers and employed, and ill-assorted conjunctions of quondam 
ecclesiastical antagonists in prospect of an adverse legal decision on the 
spiritual jurisdiction of the Church, portend for the year 1860 a heavy 
tempest that will test the soundness of the British bark. 

Might we, in conclusion, repeat our last year's recommendation, that the 
friends of The Ark are expected to use their influence, by donations 
and otherwise, to enable us to steer her through adverse and heavy storms, 
which she is now prepared to encounter. 



The London Times of December 22, ates the ruling policy of Napoleon 
1859 has published a translation of a III., in regard to the Popedom, Italy, 
most remarkable pamphlet, bearing and Europe, for the year 1860. This 
the imposing title, " The Pope and the inference gives tremendous signifi- 
Congress." Irrespectively of its de- i cance, in the present extremely critical 
clared object, the political informa- j juncture of European politics, to this 
tion it communicates, and the means j imperial brochure. Notwithstanding 
of compassing the end proposed, it is the startling magnitude of the objects 
ominous in point of authorship. It : of these two pamphlets of the Em- 
is ascribed to the pen of M. Laguer- i peror of the French, there is one sig- 
ronierre, while its inspiration is most nificant and clearly marked point of 
obviously Napoleonic. This literary \ difference ; for whereas Napoleon 
gentleman was the author of the j was competent and fully adequate to 
pamphlet " Napoleon III. et ITtalie," | reach his object in the late Italian 
written in January 1859, and which war against Austria, without consult- 
fully and intelligibly forshadowed the ing with or seeking aid from others ; 
late and sanguinary campaign in, yet in dealing with, and virtually 
Italy, which was interrupted by the cutting down to the roots, the tree of 
treaty of Villafranca. It is scarcely the temporal power of the Pope, the 
possible in these circumstances to err confederated monarchs of Europe may 
in inferi'ing that this pamphlet deline- | lack competency. But as to the Na- 



3 



poleonic theory itself, it is astute, 
specious, and sufficiently intelligible, 
although not without hazard to 
Europe and the crown of the Em- 
peror. None but one who enjoys 
the hallucination that he is " a man 
of destiny;" that he is charged with 
" a Divine mission ;" none but a Na- 
poleon, and who is religiously bent 
on following out to the letter the 
policy of the great Buonaparte, would 
dare run the risk of formally propos- 
ing such a measure to the most im- 
posing Congress of Europe for deli- 
beration, acceptance, and execution. 

The theory advocated in the pam- 
phlet for cutting the European Gor- 
dian knot, is not what Napoleon 
proposed in accordance with the 
Villafranca treaty — to^ create an 
Italian federation having the Pope as 
its president ; but to relieve the Pope 
of his temporal power, which has 
proved to him and all his prede- 
cessors a source of serious annoyance, 
and thrown merited obloquy on his 
far higher, holier, and more influ- 
ential character. The principle of 
his temporal power as essential to 
his office is so fur conceded by re- 
stricting its exercise to the municipal 
functions of a kind of Lord Provost- 
ship of " the eternal city " of Rome. 
And as a valuable solatium for this 
merciful deprivation of heavy poli- 
tical honours, Napoleon, the eldest 
and most affectionate son of the 
Church, proposes that the Catholic 
states of Europe should be chai-ged 
with the burden and the honour of 
contributing for the material support 
of the Vicar of Christ. 

This is Napoleon's theory for quiet- 
ing Italy, preventing a European 
crash, honouring the Pope, and se- 
curing the popularity of the holy 
Church of Rome ; while he more 
than insinuates that this imperial 
programme for the coming Congress 
is demanded by the exigencies of the 



age and the animus of Europe. Pre- 
paratory to a more formal consider- 
ation of the measure, a ray of light 
as to the future of this extraordinary 
man may be got by viewing his more 
prominent antecedents in contrast 
with the career of his more extraor- 
I dinary uncle, whom he glories in 
i imitating. Both uncle and nephew 
: were remarkable for taciturnity, 
especially before some startling man- 
oeuvre ; both unblushingly disre- 
! garded their most solemn protesta- 
j tions in favour of republicanism ; 
I both ardently coveted military glory, 
, and hazarded the stability and per- 
petuity of their dynasty on the army 
and the priests ; both reached the 
I imperial crown by very questionable 
means and sanguinary measures ; 
I and both professed sincerest attach- 
j ment to the Church of Rome and 
1 her darkest ecclesiastical dogmas. 
Moreover, these two personages pro- 
I jected and executed an Italian cam- 
; paign, dyed the rich fields of that 
j peninsula with a sea of human blood, 
I drove out the Austrians, and sub- 
I mitted to the Pope the most humili- 
ating conditions in regard to his tem- 
poral power. Hitherto this contrast, 
or rather comparison, is remarkably 
striking, if not, indeed, ominous, 
especially when we state what fol- 
lowed upon the Pope's rejection of 
this last measure of reform proposed 
by Napoleon I. He declared and 
carried on a sanguinary war against 
the court of Rome, and compelled 
Pius VI. to sign a very humiliating 
concordat. In order to consolidate 
his triumph over Italy and Rome, 
the First Consul revisited the pen- 
insula with his slaughtering troops, 
and was crowned king of Italy. He 
was then in condition to follow out 
his expedition to Egypt, to embroil 
all Europe, to aim at universal sove- 
reignty, and to bring out the strength 
of his subdolous policy for the 



complete subjugation of Bi'itain. \ 
Thus the present measure of reform i 
for Italy and Europe, especially when \ 
proposed to the coming Congress by j 
him who glories in styling himself the [ 
heir of Napoleon I., is very signifi- ; 
cant in the present complicated state 
of European politics. And, without ' 
addressing ourselves, in these days of 
extraordinary rifle corps excitement, { 
to the contrasted military and naval j 
statistics of Britain and France, we 1 
would invite calm attention to the i 
concluding paragraph of the pam- j 
phlet of Napoleon III. — " The Em- 1 
peror Na[)oleon I., by the concordat 
with Rome, reconciled a new society 
and the ftiith. AVith the genius of 
a statesman, and the conscience of 
an honest man, he raised the altar, 
and restored a worship in this noble { 
France, humiliated by the scepticism, i 
and degraded by the anarchy which, I 
at a period of madness, called itself [ 
the goddess Reason. May his heir : 
have the honour, in his turn, to re- 
concile the Pope, as temporal sove- 
reign, with his subjects and his age. 
This is what all hearts, sincerely 
Catholic, ought to ask of Heaven." 

The present Emperor of France 
confesses himself the heir of the man 
who, with all his solemn professions 
of sincere attachment to the altar and 
worship of the Church of Rome, was, 
as it served his purpose, " a Catholic, 
a Mussulman, and a Protestant," and 
who " compelled the Pope to give up 
all his allies, to part with a prodigi- 
ous treasure, to renounce the whole 
of his temporal dominion, securing 
nothing but the territory of Rome : 
and his own personal safety." But [ 
without dwelling upon the identical ; 
ruling policy of these two personages 
up to the date of this last imperial ' 
pamphlet, we may now submit a few \ 
genei-al remarks on the theory affect- ^ 
ing the Popedom proposed for adop- I 
tion by the Congress, as the panacea 



for Europe's organic disease, and 
hailed as such by not only the 
French, but also the British press. 

From the above compaiison, the 
intelligent reader will not fail to see, 
that the same game has been played 
with Rome ; and that although the 
Empei'or was tlie winner for a time, 
yet his temporary success only all the 
more deeply complicated Italian and 
European politics ; while the high 
contracting powers in tlie treaty of 
1815 were under the necessity of re- 
poning his Holiness of Rome in his 
former political character and power. 
If this measure of reform eventually 
failed in the hands of Napoleon I., is 
it too much to question its success in 
the hands of his nephew and heir? 
Making all due allowance for new 
circumstances and a new era, still it 
is a grave question, whether the pre- 
sent Emperor of the French has the 
same " genius of a statesman " with 
his uncle, to solve this hardest of 
European political problems? The 
propounding of this scheme, and es- 
pecially inviting to its calmest con- 
sideration and adoption the coming 
Congress, clearly shews, that the 
Papacy is at the bottom of all 
Europe's intrigues and disasters, and 
that unless, and until, the question 
of the Pope's temporal power is 
formally settled and abolished, Euro- 
pean sovereigns cannot advance in 
adjusting "the balance of power." 
This is the deep rooted conviction of 
Napoleon III., the eldest son of the 
Church of Rome ; and it would be 
wise in nominally Protestant Britain 
to improve this imperial hint ! And 
it is important to note, that an ap- 
proving French and British journal- 
ism confirms the same long ignored 
and repudiated dogma. But the pre- 
sent question recurs. Is Napoleon 
III., or the Congress itself, adequate 
to solve this problem which France 
and Napoleon I. failed to accom- 



THE AKK. 



plish? This, we repeat, is the ques- 
tion. 

But while the snppression of the 
temporal power of the Pope is the 
tleclared mean of reaching the liberty 
of Italy, and of securing the vibrat- 
ing balance of Europe's political 
power, what is the ulterior end of 
Napoleon's scheme ? In the pam- 
phlet under review, Napoleon iterates 
and reiterates, that his one and com- 
prehensive end is to consolidate and 
elevate the ecclesiastical character of 
the Pope. We must allow Napoleon, 
on this vital question, to be his own 
interpreter. " It is equally impor- 
tant for England, Russia, and Prussia, 
as it is for France and Austria, that 
the august representative of Catholic 
unity should neither be constrained, 
nor humiliated, nor subordinate. 
Rome is the centre of a moral power 
too universal for it not to be in the 
interests of all Governments and all 
peoples, that it should not incline to 
any side, and that it should remain 
immovable on the sacred rock which 
no human power can overthrow." 

As by this formal and most intelli- 
gible declaration the whole secret 
policy of the Emperor is let out, we 
may ask, on what assumption did Na- 
poleon place England first in the list 
of European powers as willing to sub- 
scribe to this central, this main, this 
comprehensive dogma of Popery ? 
Is it possible, is it conceivable, with- 
out some secret understanding, that 
England's pen, in the coming Con- 
gress, should be employed in signing 
the anti-Protestant, the suicidal 
dogma, that " Rome is the centre of 
moral power, and that the august 
representative of Catholic unity 
should remain immovable on the 
sacred rock which no human power 
can overthrow f " Could the French 
Catholic Emperor have the hardi- 
hood, without some good, but not 
yet explained reason, to expect that 



j England shall sign away her rema- 
j nent Protestant political constitu- 
tion ? Are we to discover the secret 
' of this imperial calculation in the 
I practically and contemptuously abor- 
I tive Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, in the 
I ominously popular Anglican Pusey- 
ism, in the substantial provision ibr 
Popish seminaries and chaplains, 
and in the irrational and antiscrip- 
tural, but popular theory, that 
Popery's virus consists in its poli- 
tical, and not in its spiritual char- 
acter and claims? This aspect of 
Napoleon's present scheme merits 
gravest consideration from the Con- 
gress, but especially from England's 
plenipotentiaries ; for although we 
have been left to commit numerous 
and serious blunders since 1829, yet 
such a national act would constitute 
the crown of our degradation, and 
precipitate a crushing blow, from 
Avhieh no national defences could 
shield us. 

Napoleon himself, in this resusci- 
tated scheme of European reform, has 
taught modern and diluted Protes- 
tantism the true theory of the strength 
of Rome, as consisting in the Pope's 
ecclesiastical character and power ; 
for he proposes its glory and efficiency 
by stripping it of its unseemly and 
self-dishonouring temporal supre- 
macy ; whereas modern effete Pro- 
testantism hails this deprivation of 
political power as equivalent to ex- 
ti'acting its sanguinary fangs. Here- 
in has the Emperor proved himself 
the sounder reasoner, whether we 
consider the mystery of iniquity in 
the light of European history, or ac- 
cording to its own nature. 

How masculine the measure of the 
two Napoleons for confirming the 
spiritual power of the Pope, when 
compared with the rhapsodical effu- 
sions of some Scottish journals that 
profess to witness for Protestant 
truth, by heading their leading 



articles in 1848 with, " Bablyon the i 
great is fallen, is fallen," and by com- 
menting on the Emperor's present | 
pamphlet in such terras as, " The era ; 
seems actually to have arrived when I 
the temporal power of the Papacy is [ 
to come to an end." And what i 
although " the temporal power of the 
Papacy " were at an end ? Would the I 
spiritual and far more dangerous i 
power of the Roman Pontiff be less 
influential with the morals, the poli- i 
tics, and the consciences of Catholic j 
monarchs and peoples ? Is his direct ! 
and resistless spiritual power over i 
the conscience not more formidable j 
than his oft resisted literal sword ? ' 
Has he no influence by Jesuits and i 
confessors over the political cabinets I 
of Europe, by pressing hard the con- ] 
sciences of influential queens and 1 
even French empresses ? And does ; 
not the volume of inspiration declare ^ 
that it is by his spiritual power as a 
pontiff, and not by his political power I 
as a king, the last grand European 
conflict is to be brought about ? 
" And I saw three unclean spirits 
like frogs come out of the mouth of \ 
the dragon, and out of the mouth of j 
the beast, and out of the mouth of the j 
false prophet. For they are the 
spirits of devils, working miracles, 
which go forth unto the kings of the 
earth and of the whole world, to 
gather them to the battle of that 
great day of God Almighty." 

But apart from the moral aspect 
of this scheme, we may be permitted 
to examine it with the eyes of poli- 
ticians. Is the measure practicable ? 
Is even Napoleon III. — is the Con- ; 
gress itself — adequate to carry it 
out? Can the Pope submit to its I 
humiliating conditions, and retain 
his terrible attribute of infallibility ? ' 
and does the Pope lack means and ] 
instrumentality for refusing to de- I 
nude himself of what Napoleon con- I 
cedes he has by right of European 



treaty, and as essential to the Pope- 
dom ? The practicable character, the 
probability, the possibility of carry- 
ing out this projected scheme of re- 
form, will tax the profoundest states- 
manship of the coming Congress. 

Napoleon counts, but perhaps 
without his host, that the Congress 
is competent and able to settle this 
question ; and he assumes, in rea- 
soning this view of it, that the com- 
ing Congress of 1860 is as compe- 
tent to abolish the Pope's temporal 
power, as was the European Con- 
gress of 1815 to re-establish it. 
This, we do submit, is not sound 
reasoning. How great and manifest 
the difference betwixt destruction 
and redintegration ! The European 
Congress of 1815 formally con- 
demned this Napoleonic scheme, 
upon wliat it judged to be the 
soundest principles of policy and 
right, and consequently restored to 
the Pope what the French Direc- 
tory and Napoleon I. had abolished. 
The adoption of the present scheme, 
by the Congress of 1860, would be 
an European felo de se, and would 
be converted into an ii-refragable 
argument for removing the vacillat- 
ing thrones of the continent, and in- 
troducing a new order of govern- 
ment. Neither would it be an easy 
matter for the statesmen of all the 
continental powers to convince the 
fretted nationalities, that so sudden 
and thoroughly antagonistic Euro- 
pean policy warranted confidence 
from the ruled in the rulers. The 
projected scheme, admitting it to be 
right in itself, is far too gross and 
glaring a specimen of European 
policy, of the most contradictory 
kind, to be lost on political ultra- 
montanists and speculating insurrec- 
tionists. In the event of the success 
of the measure, we may be preparing 
for a deep, ferocious, and dangerous 
howl from Catholic Europe, which 



THE ARK. 



the English Boanerges -will fail to 
put down. It was to assuage the 
boiling tide raised by the ultramon- 
tane spirit, that the Congress of 
1815 reponed the Pope in his politi- 
cal character, power, and honours. 
Better far let France and Austria 
fight it out, than involve Europe, 
and especially England, in this 
scheme, Avhich puts in peril the 
peace of Europe and the world. 

It is also an important element in 
the discussion of this question, whether 
the Pope, in the event of adopting 
the imperial theory, is competent to 
renounce his temporal power ? If, as 
the theory admits — and herein it is 
somewhat self- contradictory — tliis 
power belongs to the Popedom, then 
how is it possible for the Pope to 
voluntarily renounce what, as an 
individual pontiff, does not belong to 
him? That the Congress may forcibly 
strip him of it, is not the question ; 
has he the competency, the right in 
himself, to renounce it? And what 
if Cardinal Antonelli demonstrate in 
the Congress that the Pope's right to 
his regal character rests upon as 
sound a political foundation as the 
majority of the thrones in Europe? f 
And such a discussion in the Congress 
might elicit some very startling illus- 
trations, not too favourable for " the 
Divine right to govern wrong," 
Should, then, the theory propounded 
and advocated in this pamphlet be 
carried in the Congi-ess, and should 
the Pope refuse, as his predecessor 
Pius VI., to accept it, the tre- 
mendous question is, "What next?" 
Is his Holiness to be forced to sub- 
mission ? Is Napoleon III. to shew 
himself the heir of Napoleon I., who, 
upon finding more self-will and dogged 
resistance in the occupant of St. 
Peter's chair tlian he anticipated, 
drew up and signed the following 
declaration of war: "I therefore 
declare war between the French Re- 



: public and the Court of Rome. 
J Buonaparte ? " Is it possible to con- 
1 ceive of the deliberate and formally 
declared judgment of the Congress 
' becoming a dead letter, because of 
the adverse dictum of Pio Nono? 
j And if the supposed decree of the 
Congress is to be practically carried 
out, in what other way can it be so 
save by the naked sword? The 
pamphlet under review supposes this 
dread alternative, and professes to 
meet it by shewing the Pope, much 
after the conduct of Ham to his 
father, his utter helplessness in at- 
tempting to ofi'er any resistance. 
Might we entertain the hope that 
some of the first Protestant powers 
represented in Congress, especially 
England, shall hesitate and refuse to 
subscribe this imperial measure, on 
which Napoleon has set his whole 
\ heart. What then ? Would such 
an obstruction be interpreted as 
sufficient cause, or plausible pretext, 
for the two regnant powers of Europe 
coming into serious collision? and 
setting in a painfully clear light the 
reason of the gigantic military and 
naval preparations on both sides of 
the channel? 

This theory, in whatever aspect 
we may choose to view it, is beset 
with difficulties and perils; and the 
very fact that the Emperor of the 
French has not only given it ventila- 
tion, but has formally submitted it 
by anticipation to the coming Con- 
gress, sufficiently indicates that the 
year 1860 will be pi'olific of mar- 
vellous political events, that we have 
at length reached a dreadful crisis, 
and that the students of Apocalyptic 
prophetic numbers may find in the 
events of this year a practical ex- 
position of what mere politicians 
have converted into ridicule, and 
what saints and confessors have 
sounded in the unwilling ears of 
apostate nations. 



In attempting to form a practically 
accurate estimate of the programme of 
the year 1860, the intelligent moral 
calculator will not omit from his ac- 
count other and important elements j 
that are vegetating, and threaten j 
early and bitter fruit. To a few of I 
the more prominent and dangerous ! 
of these, as pressing forward upon 1 
public notice, we may merely advert ! 
in a suggestive form, | 

The leaders of her Majesty's pre- ; 
sent Government are committed to | 
produce, and use their most stren- 
uous efforts to cariy, a measure 
which will extend the franchise to 
the masses of the people, who are 
not in the best temper for conserving 
ihe religious constitutionalism of the 
country, which taxed the wisdom 
and experience of our fathers to rear 
and consolidate. What may be the 
issue of such a measure of popular 
power, especially in the present di- 
vided and immoral state of society, 
the Government itself cannot di- 
vine. 

In juxtaposition with the above, 
we have, what has ever proved in our 
country a bone of most serious con- 
tention, and not unfreqnently led to 
persecution, — a direct and determined 
antagonism of the law and the 
Church courts. Without, in this 
article, addressing ourselves to the 
merits of the question of ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction, or to the precise idea 
popularly attached to the vague 
phrase "Spiritual Independence " of 
the Church, Ave simply allude to the 
fact of the collision. As it is not 
easy to discover how the Court of 
Session, the highest civil Court of 
Scotland, can, with honour to itself 
or safety to society, resile from its 
unanimous decison ; so we learn the 



projected resistance of the Free 
Church by the unanimously carried 
motion of the metropolitan presby- 
tery. If this call of the Free Church 
of Scotland to all the Non-confor- 
mists, to join her in resisting the 
legal decision alluded to, be responded 
to, we cannot see anything of a prac- 
tical result, save a breach of the 
public peace, and recourse being had 
to an enforcement of the law. And 
it is not without significance, that of 
late, not a few of the reputed leading 
ministers of the Free Church have 
published discourses, purporting to 
be expository of the distinctive prin- 
ciples and position of the Church, 
and yet manifestly antagonistic. If 
the Cardross case is one of discipline, 
and independent jurisdiction for the 
exercise of discipline be the occasion 
of the stern struggle, some may in- 
quire why the glaring case of con- 
tradictory discourses should pass 
without being subjected to discipline. 

In conclusion, the same metropolitan 
presbytery, which is reputed to be a 
kind of ecclesiastical foreman, over- 
tured its General Assembly to use 
additional preparatory means regard- 
ing the tri-centenary of the Refor- 
mation ; when it was agreed to ac- 
commodate the ruling principles and 
measures of the Eeforinod Church of 
Scotland to "the spirit of the age!" 
And what is the spirit of the age in 
regard to the Reformation ? 

These are some few of the com- 
bustible elements in the European 
retort, by their ebullition generating 
detonating gases, which only require 
the application of an electric spark to 
explode the laboratory, and bury in 
its ruins the impolitic chemists of 
a morally impolitic age. "There is 
death in the pot." 



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Vol. III-No. 2. 



FEBRUARY 1860. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

The Cardross Case. 



^t darbr^ss €mt 



The Cardross case is no ordinary one, 
in whatever aspect we may view it. 
The bickerings of journalism in the 
United I^ingdom, the conflict betwixt 
the civil and ecclesiastical jurisdic- 



the specific, the sole ground upon 
which the Free Church pleads for 
what she designates " the spiritual 
independence of the Church of 
Christ." This, which is her special 



tions, and the serious diversity of I and comprehensive plea, is thus ex 
opinion among all classes of society 
in regard to its merits, to which it 
has given rise, point it out as the 
question of the day for Christendom. 
As it affects the personal interests of 
Mr. M'Millan, the case is one of 
mere bagatelle; but as involving a 
great principle of civil jurisdiction 
affecting the spiritual independence 
of the Church of Christ, the Cardross 
case touches the chief corner-stone of 

civil and religious liberty. This is a | may be supposed to ascribe to the 
satisfactory reason for not embarrass- civil magistrate in regard to the 
ing this great principle, lying, as it j Church, yet clear it is beyond all 
does, -at the bottom of this case, with , dispute, that the passage cited does 
any references to Mr. M'Millan'sper- ascribe to the Church of Christ an 
sonal character, the alleged breach of exclusive spiritual jurisdiction in 
.the forms of procedure by the last spiritual matters. Opposition of any 
General Assembly, the speeches of kind, of any form, or coming from 



in the sufficiently intelligible 
language of her leading standard, 
the Confession of Faith, " The Lord 
Jesus, as King and Head of His 
Church, hath therein appointed a 
government in the hand of Church 
officers, distinct from the civil magis- 
trate." 

Whatever casuists may say of the 
power or authority which other pas- 
of the same symbolic book 



the Lords of the First Division of the 
Court of Session, or the ecclesiasti- 
cal review of these speeches by the 
leaders of the recent Special Com- 
mission of the Free Assembly. From 
all these entangling adjuncts, all these 
technicalities of the case, we are 
anxious to sail clear, and thus to 
view, apart from invidious distinc- 
tions betwixt the litigants, the main, 



any quarter, to this leading and dis- 
tinct proposition of the Confession of 
Faith, is veriest sophistry, is against 
the otherwise oft-enunciated ruling 
principle, and long and consistently 
acted out principle, of the Reformed 
Church of Scotland. And to reason 
with those who would even hesitate 
to admit this as a first principle in 
the constitution of the free, spiritual, 



10 



and independent kingdom of Christ, 
and as dogmatically affirmed and 
practically carried out by the re- 
formers, Ave would consider a painful 
superfluity. In debate, we might 
speculate whether this principle be 
scriptural — whether it does not be- 
long to the arrogant claim of the 
Church of Rome — and whether it 
does not lay prostrate at its feet the 
just power of the magistrate, and the 
civil liberty of the subject? but to 
deny that it was the dominant prin- 
ciple of the organised Church of 
Christ during the era of the Refor- 
mation, is superlative trifling. 

In thus conscientiously and most 
frankly admitting the soundness and 
righteousness of the plea urged by 
the Free Church in the Cardross 
case, still it is a serious question, 
whether she urges it in the same 
sense, on the same ground, and with 
a view to the same end, as the Re- 
formed Church of Scotland, viewed 
in the light of her standards, and 
her luminous and fiery history. But 
as the formal discussion of this 
deeply interesting question would 
require more time and space than 
we can now afford, our subsequent re- 
mai'ks are designed to be of a rather 
suggestive kind. 

The sense in which the Free 
Church understands her present plea 
for the spiritual independence of the 
Church of Christ, and the ground 
upon Avhich she now puts it, are 
*' toleration and liberty of conscience," 
and, accordingly, she hails, as her 
allies in this conflict, all the Non- 
conformists of the kingdom, all the 
modern sectaries, especially those 
designated Voluntaries. We shall 
forbear bringing before the public 
those highly burning vocables hurled 
by the leaders of the Free Church 
against their new allies as protl'ssing 
and working out the voluntary creed, 
which involved in national atheism, 



and led to the plucking of the crown 
of Christ from His sacred head. But 
if the parties are faithful to their re- 
spective creeds, it will not be an easy 
task satisfactorily to explain the pre- 
sent warm fraternisation, or how, in 
the event of a legal decision meeting 
their wishes, this strange evangelical 
alliance could afterwards regenerate 
the world. But we love not to dwell 
on this strange, and striking, and 
confidence-rupturing phenomenon in 
the ecclesiastical world, headed, as it 
is, by the Free Church, which claims 
historical identification with the Re- 
formed Church of Scotland, and 
which, immediately before the special 
meeting of last Commission, called on 
Scotland again to rally round " the 
banner of Christ's crown and cove- 
nant." 

That the plea for the spiritual in- 
dependence of the Church is laid on 
toleration and liberty of conscience, 
appears from all the defences at the 
I bar of the civil court, all the explana- 
j tions in the ecclesiastical courts, and 
I all the articles of the journals on both 
] sides of the question. At the special 
meeting of theCommission last month, 
the procurator of the Church, Mr. 
I Dunlop, M.P., is reported as saying, 
j " He thought they might take a lower, 
I though much broader platform — one 
which they might take, not only in 
reference to their own body, but in 
reference to all religious denominations, 
j in regard even to the Roman Catholic 
I Church, and to all religious communi- 
I ties, Jew and Gentile as well as 
Christian. That ground was, that 
I they were entitled to toleration." 
j " In regard to all religious associa- 
j tions — to all bodies of men associated 
together for the worship of God, and 
the exercise of discipline according to 
their views of the Word of God — or 
of men who, uniting together for re- 
ligious worship, though not as a Chris- 
tian comiminion at all — in regard to 



n 



them all, conscience was the founda- 
tion stone — liberty of conscience was 
essential to their existence, and it was 
on the ground of liberty of conscience 
that the civil courts could not inter- 
fere with any of their proceedings in 
reference to status or membership. 
(Hear, hear, and ajsplause.)" This 
plainest speaking, in illustration and 
defence of unlimited toleration and 
freedom of conscience in religious 
matters in a Cliristian countiy, which 
foi-med the burden and staple of all 
the speeches delivered on that occa- 
sion, and which was formally homo- 
logated by the Commision, is con- 
verted by the learned Procurator into 
a telling declamatory peroration: — 
" Altogether, this is an alarming pro- 
position to be maintained, and I feel 
confident, that, although we may have 
a battle to fight, yet we will fight in 
conjunction with all sects and denomi- 
nations. (Hear, hear.) And I think 
that the ultimate result, whatever 
trials we may have to go through, 
will be to place the true principles of 
toleration on an impregnable basis 
which no civil courts can dislodge. 
(Applause.)" We think it not at all 
necessary to shew, by an array of 
proof, that the toleration and liberty 
of conscience, so variously and boast- 
ingly stated as the ground on which 
the Free Church hazards her plea for 
the spiritual independence of the 
Church of Christ, was the same with I 
that chosen by the Donatists, the 
Anabaptists of Germany, the Illumi- 
nati of the continent, the worshippers 
of Reason in France, the Sectaries in ; 
England under the Protectorate, and i 
has been, as it still is, the idol of the 
Voluntaries. Need we tell the learned 
Procurator of the Free Church, and 
the author of her Claim of Rights, that I 
the compilers of the Westminster stan- j 
dards, all the Scotch commissioners to 
that assembly, and the three nations 
that solemnly adopted these stan- 



dards, not only ignored, but provided 
against, formally repudiated, and ad- 
dressed themselves to the confutation 
of the arguments of the abettors of 
toleration and liberty of conscience? 
The Confession of Faith, in all those 
portions of it which respect the na- 
ture, constitution, and jurisdiction of 
the visible, the organised Church of 
Christ, was a protest, a formal con- 
demnation of the toleration and li- 
berty of conscience which Mr. Dunlop 
defends, which the Commission ap- 
plauds, and which the whole Free 
Church homologates, and glories in 
staking ofi' as her battle-field. We 
might, and that, too, without boast- 
ing, challenge Mr. Dunlop, and any 
member of the late Commission, to 
name a single Reformer, from Knox 
down to James Renwick, who, at any 
time, or in any circumstances, pled 
for the spiritual independence of the 
Church, on the ground of Mr. Dun- 
lop's toleration and liberty of con- 
science. And we might go farther, 
and demand the name of any of the 
Reformers who did not positively con- 
demn such a ground as belonging to 
human legislation and magistratical 
authority. What act of Assembly 
during the Reformation era, is that 
which allows such a plea, or rather 
which does not formally condemn 
it? In any attempt to accept this 
challenge we have a right to demand 
that the acceptor " satisfy the pro- 
duction," and not sound a flourish of 
trumpets about the opinions of Lord 
Mansfield, and other civil judges, 
since the era of the Reformation, 
when the Confession of Faith was 
part and parcel of the law of the 
land. For, let the reader observe, 
we are not now reasoning upon what 
is the present law of toleration and 
liberty of conscience, but whether 
that law is in accordance with the 
symbolic books of the Reformed 
Church of Scotland, and the formally 



12 



adopted creed of the three nations 
with which the Free Church claims 
historic identification. We submit 
that this is the question to which 
the Free General Assembly must 
address itself in her present defence 
of her claimed spiritual independence; 
she is bound to shew, that by using 
her present plea for independence on 
the ground of this toleration, she 
can also claim to be the historical 
Reformed Church delineated in her 
standards, and practically demon- 
strated in her other writings and 
protracted struggles. This, we are 
inclined to view, is not only a neces- 
sary duty to herself and the country 
in prospect of the probable future 
conflict, and to give substantial 
proof of her consistency in claiming 
identification with the Reformers, 
but as necessary, should we be called 
on to fight over again the battle of 
the leading principles of the Reforma- 
tion. 

We might render the position we 
take completely invulnerable, by stat- 
ing the well-known, and by the Pres- 
byterians in the Westminster As- 
sembly, deeply-lamented fact, that 
the persistency of the toleration and 
liberty of conscience advocates was 
successful in preventing the civil 
ratification of an important part of 
the Confession of Faith, and by 
shewing from the writings of the 
Edwards, Rutherfords, Gillespies, 
and others of the same stamp, that 
they ascribed the overthrow of the 
Reformed cause to the toleration and 
liberty of conscience creed of the 
Sectaries, the same creed now 
formally adopted and gloried in by 
the Free Church. But every at- 
tempt to shew the repudiation and 
strong condemnation by the Re- 
formers of the new toleration creed 
of the Free Church is rendered un- 
necessary in the light of the fact, 
that the Reformers are held to have 



I been not enlightened on the subject 
I of civil and religious liberty, that 
their views could not be carried out 
j without persecution. To this Sec- 
I tarian invention and calumny the 
reported speech of Dr. Buchanan, in 
\ the late Commission, may have re- 
spect: — "The question of the right 
I relation to each other of the civil and 
the spiritual jurisdiction is one which, 
rts yet, is comparatively little under- 
stood." This oracular utterance of 
one of the magnates, and deservedly 
so, of the Free Church, warrants the 
following remarks. If the question 
of the right relation of the civil and 
spiritual jurisdiction is, as yet, com- 
paratively little understood, is this to 
be explained by any lack of clearness 
of stating it in the Confession of 
' Faith ? is this ignorance of the ques- 
tion to be ascribed to the condemna- 
tion by that symbolic book of Dr. 
1 Buchanan's new creed of toleration 
and liberty of conscience? and if this 
I question is, as yet, comparatively 
1 little understood, then wherefore so 
! much ire against those who claim 
liberty of conscience in looking at it 
with other eyes than Dr. Buchanan's? 
Does not the liberty of conscience 
claimed by the Free Church cut a 
somewhat awkward figure when 
fiercely applied by her to those who 
claim to take a view different from 
her own ? In short, does not her 
favourite plea of liberty of conscience 
prevent a cry of persecution should 
the Cardross case be decided against 
her by the judges of the land, and 
especially by those without her pale? 
And this suggests what we would 
propose as a most momentous pro- 
blem, whether there could possibly 
exist either a political or ecclesiastical 
society on the principle assumed in 
the phrase " toleration and liberty of 
conscience ? " for as the phrase sup- 
poses and implies not only different 
but antagonistic elements, it follows 



13 



that antagonism and society are im- 
possible. Neither will the vulgar 
adage, " that we may agree to differ," 
furnish a satisfactory solution of our 
problem, because undefined toleration 
and thorough liberty of conscience 
must suppose "that we may agree to , 
oppose." And the surmise or objec- 
tion, that without such toleration and 
liberty of conscience there could not 
possibly be either political or ecclesi- 
astical society, is, by way of assump- 
tion, admitting that there cannot be 
society of any kind without unity, 
Avhich toleration implies does not 
exist. How poor a solution of the 
problem is it to tell us, that the pre- 
sent alliance between the Free Church 
and " all religious sects and denomi- 
nations" is a practical proof of liberty 
of conscience among themselves, in- 
asmuch as their present or projected 
alliance shews an agreement, and ex- 
cludes toleration. Moreover, history, 
both sacred and profane, demonstrates 
that wherever the toleration creed was 
attempted to be practically cai'ried 
out it invariably failed, because its 
antagonistic principles cari'ied its own 
dissolution. What intelligent reader 
of the Divine Word has forgotten the I 
dissolving state of the kingdom and j 
church of Israel, when, by way of! 
explanation, it was said, " In those j 
days there was no king in Israel, but | 
every man did that which was right ! 
in his own ejjes?" And who requires 
to be informed of the outstanding and ; 
instructive fact which British history 
has taught, that although the Crom- 
wellian sectaries were united against ! 
the Reformation and the reformers, i 
yet their creed of toleration and 
liberty of conscience left them, not 
only a divided, but a self-conflicting 
body, which rendered the restoration 
of Charles II. a very easy and wel- 
come affair? 

It is a somewhat curious and also 
instructive fact, that the toleration 



and liberty of conscience now pled 
for by the Free Church was never 
granted by prince or parliament in 
this country, but with a view to fetter 
the Church and to advance her ad- 
versaries. The design of each of the 
three indulgences granted to the 
Presbyterians of Scotland by Charles 
II. — and a design which was accom- 
plished — was to divide the sworn 
friends of that civil liberty and that 
spiritual independence of the Church 
which her standards defined against 
liberty of conscience ; to receive a 
partial and practical acknowledg- 
ment of the king's right to interfere 
in spiritual matters ; and to secure 
the national approbation of the pre- 
latic supremacy. Although a small 
but patriotic band of enlightened 
Scotsmen faithfully counterworked 
the indulgence policy of Chaides II., 
yet, with the exception of one mini- 
ster, the whole Church of Scotland 
succumbed to the toleration of the 
Duke of York, which declared that, 
" by his sovereign authority, prero- 
gative, and absolute power," he sus- 
pended and disabled all laws or acts 
of parliament against the free exer- 
cise of the Popish religion, and a- 
gainst moderate Presbyterians meet- 
ting for religious worship in their 
own houses. Even this large mea- 
sure of toleration met with resistance 
from the sore exhausted friends of 
the independence of the Reformed 
Church of Scotland ; but, with the 
honourable exception of James Ren- 
wick alluded to above, the second 
royal toleration reached its designed 
end. This second toleration, by vir- 
tue of the same prerogative, disabled 
all the laws made against non-con- 
formity to the established religion ; 
and " gave liberty to all the subjects 
to meet and serve God in their own 
way and manner, privately or pub- 
licly." In regard to this toleration, 
which is the very same as that de- 



14 



clared by Mr. Dunlop, and pled by 
the Free Church, the late Dr. M'Crie 
says, — " Though this toleration 
flowed from the absolute power of 
the Crown, was granted in the way 
of dispensing with the laws of the 
land, overthrew the legal bulwarks 
of the Protestant religion, and was 
calculated as well as intended to pre- 
pare the way for the introduction and 
establishment of Popery; yet it is 
deeply to be lamented that the most 
of the Presbyterian ministers in 
Scotland accepted of it." And Pro- 
fessor Bruce, Dr. Bl'Crie's instructor 
and guide, says, " To the insidious 
and impolitic toleration granted by 
Queen Anne's Tory ministry to the 
Episcopalians, and to the relaxation 
of the laws against the Non-jurants 
and Papists, may, in a great measure, 
be iniputed the rebellion which broke 
out soon after." Under the same 
toleration and liberty of conscience 
may be ranked the so-called Relief 
Bill of 1829, which has wrought so 
disastrous consequences to tl\e poli- 
tical and ecclesiastical institutions of 
the country, by shearing away the 
locks of the Protestant Samson, 
How ominous the change of senti- 
ment in the quondam able defenders 
of the establishment principle in now 
adopting the regnant dogma of the 
Voluntary creed — liberty of con- 
science tolerated bylaw to "Jews and 
Gentiles, Roman Catholics and Chris- 
tians." And this, forsooth, is a Re- 
formation principle, and must be the 
bulwark of the spiritual indepen- 
dence of the Church of Christ ! The 
Church with which doctrinal, go- 
vernmental, and historical identifi- 
cation is claimed, indignantly dis- 
claimed every such plea. " Non eget 
tali aimliu." 

Having shewn, and we do think, 
beyond the possibility of confutation, 
that the Reformed Church positively 
condemned this toleration and liberty 



of conscience, it is matter of fair 
speculation, and may not be without 
interest to inquire, what may have led 
the Free Church to adopt so Anti- 
reformation a creed. And lest we 
should be subjected to the charge of 
rejoicing in exposing even adversaries 
we shall not venture upon the surmise, 
that from the predicted and growing 
popularity of Voluntaryism, the Free 
Church has drifted towards it from 
her establishment anchorage of 1843, 
and shews an inclination for a con- 
junction with it, in order to secure a 
national education at the expense of 
all religious tests, and to sweep away 
the last religious test of an Established 
Church. This, it cannot be refused, 
has for some years back been the 
tendency of the public movements of 
the Free Church. We would rather, 
however, attempt to account for this 
new phase of her politics, by ascribing 
it to her lax exposition of her leading 
standard, the Confession of Faith. 

The phrase, "liberty of conscience," 
has a very prominent place assigned 
it in that document ; and chapter xx. 
is devoted to a definition of its nature, 
a description of its responsibility, and 
a caveat against its abuse. Its lan- 
guage is clear and firm : — " God alone 
is Lord of the conscience, and hath 
left it free from the doctrines and com- 
mandments of men which are in 
anything contrary to His Word, or 
hedde it, in matters of faith and icorship. 
So that to believe such doctrines, or 
to obey such commandments out of 
conscience, is to betray true liberty 
of conscience." This section implies 
that there is a false, as well as a true 
liberty of conscience ; that God alone 
is the Lord of the latter ; and that not 
man's views of the Word, but the 
Divine Word itself, irrespectively of 
these views, is the rule of the con- 
science. Now, the popular meaning 
of liberty of conscience is altogether 
beside this description of it. Accord- 



15 



ingly, the Reformers were wont to 
give their leading proposition this 
well-known shape, " Conscientia est 
regula regidata, non regula regulans" 

But while some readily admit that 
the Divine Word is the only rule of 
conscience to those who possess it, yet 
it is in no sense subject to civil or 
ecclesiastical authority. Now, as this 
is the sense in which Mr. Dunlop and 
the Free Church understand the 
plirase " liberty of conscience," we 
would invite their calm attention to 
the well weighed utterance of the 
Confession in chapter xx., sect. 4. 
" And because the powers which God 
hath ordained, and the liberty which 
Christ hath purchased, are not in- 
tended by God to destroy, but mut- 
ually to uphold and preserve one an- 
other ; they who, upon pretence of 
Christian liberty, shall oppose any law- 
ful power, or the lawful exercise of it, 
whether it be civil or ecclesiastical, re- 
sist the ordinance of God. And for 
their publishing of such opinions, or 
maintaining of such practices, as are 
contrary to the light of nature, or to 
the known principles of Christianity, 
whether concerning faith, worship, or 
conversation, or to the power of god- 
liness, they may lawfully be called 
to account, and proceeded against by 
the censures of the Church, and by the 
power of the civil magistrate.'" Placing 
this definition of liberty of conscience 
side by side with that given by Mr. 
Dunlop, and adopted by the Free 
Church, we cannot for the lives of us 
see how mortal man can satisfactorily 
reconcile them, or how both can be 
conscientiously held " without betraying 
true liberty of conscience." But we 
forbear further reasoning on this 
serious fix, this awkward predica- 
ment into which the leaders of the 
Free Church have put her, for in 
such a case we would be necessitated 
to demand how, upon this vague and 
unlimited liberty of conscience, there 



possibly could be national religion at 
all, how rampant Voluntaryism could 
be dislodged, how the sovereign should 
be denied the benefit of the plea urged 
as a riuht for her Hindu, Moham- 
medan, Jewish, Popish, and Unitarian 
subjects. If the plea is right in prin- 
ciple, then we musfngo through with 
it ; but reason, consistency, and 
fidelity to "true liberty of conscience" 
conspire in demanding that we for- 
mally renounce the Conlession of Faith 
and all claim to identification with 
the Church of the Reformers. And 
how, in such an event, we might ask, 
could we call on Presbyterian Scotland 
to flock to " the raised banner of 
Christ's crown and covenant % " 
I But this somewhat contradictory 
I creed of the Free Church has been 
pressed into her service by the laxest 
J view of another of the cardinal doc- 
j trines of the same leading standard, 
1 and which has suffered rather rough- 
ly at the hands of its professed 
' friends. We allude to the frequent 
use in this Cardross case of the 
phrase " the Church of Christ." The 
burden in the pleadings in the late 
j special Commission obviously resolves 
> itself into "the spiritual independence 
! of the Church of Christ," as distin- 
! tinguished from every other associa- 
tion. Now, all reasoning about 
spiritual independence and exclusive 
jurisdiction is valueless until we have 
first ascertained what is precisely 
meant by the phrase "the Church of 
Christ." When, therefore, this is the 
central plea, and is held to compre- 
hend and sustain the alleged spiritual 
independence and exclusive jurisdic- 
tion, Ave must be necessarily precise, 
and accurate, and intelligible in our 
definition of the corporate body that 
urges such a claim. We submit that 
the popular and vague definition of 
this body will not stand the measur- 
ing rod of the standards of the 
Reformed Church, to which the 



IG 



THE ARK. 



Free Church professes solemn adher- 
ence. 

The orfranised, the visible Church 
of Christ, is defined by the nbove 
standards as "consisting of all those 
who profess the true religion ;" while 
this true religion in doctrine, discip- 
line, worship, and government, must 
necessarily be understood of what 
this Reformed Church delineated in 
her standards. The Westminster 
Confession recognises the Scots Con- 
fession, which declares of " the true 
Kirk of Christ," that unity of profes- 
sion, embracing doctrine, worship, 
and polity, is but one visible, organ- 
ised body. And it sums up with, 
" Wheresoever, then, these former 
notes are seen, and of any time con- 
tinue, be the number never so few, 
about two or three, there, without 
all doubt, is the true Church of 
Christ." Is it possible, then, that 
the Reformers could so contradict 
their main doctrine as to include the 
sectaries, or in modern and modish 
phrase, all the sections, all the religi- 
ous denominations, with their neces- 
sarily antagonistic professions, under 
the one corporate society — the 
Church of Christ? For no such hete- 
rogeneous association, no such amalga- 
mated and antagonistic conglomera- 
tions, did the Reformed Church even 
for once claim spiritual independence 
and exclusive jurisdiction, and never 
did a man of them suffer any loss for 
such an opinion. But if this plea of 
the Free Church can be shewn to 
have been urged by them in their 



i struggles for spiritual independence 
I and exclusive jurisdiction, whether 
I as individuals or collectively, by all 
means let Mr. Dunlop, or any mem- 
ber of the late Commission, "satisfy 
pi'oduction" to that efiect. 
i The intelligent reader will not fail 
to distinguish in our treating this 
' subject betwixt the spiritual inde- 
I pendence of the Church of Christ, 
which we firmly hold as a Bible prin- 
ciple, and one rendered luminous in 
; the Reformation cause, and that claim 
i as urged by those who ignore the 
j distinctive character of the visible 
j Church of Christ. And to address 
ourselves to reason the question of 
the scriptural character of Christ's 
I Church, until the defenders in the 
Cardross case shall have reconciled 
their claim and position with their 
I professed adherence to the West- 
\ minster standards, we would deem a 
j work of supererogation. 
' Having some acquaintance with 
! the weapons used, and with the mode 
I of Avarfare practised by the Reformers 
I in conducting this controversy, we 
shall be happy to find that the above 
historical argument shall prove hon- 
ourably provocative of calm reason- 
ing upon a question that involves 
j the first principles of civil and reli- 
gious liberty. We scarcely require 
to say, that our pages will be open 
to any, within or without the Free 
Church, who may feel inclined to 
accept the challenge, which we give 
with a desire to ascertain the truth, 
I and not in a boastful spirit. 



Europe's Crisis, 2d Edition. " Tlie Book of the Day." By Rev. James Wright. Price 5s. 

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James Wood, 132 George Street. 



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Cljf l^rli 



Vol, III.-No. 3. 



MARCH 1860. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 
The Sabbath. 
On Works of Fictiox. 
Capital Punishment. 



©Ir> ^alrlratt 



Late occurrences of an ecclesiastical I 
character in the metropolis of Scot- 
land, have given a special importance | 
to the Sabbath question, inasmuch ! 
as views in regard to its scriptural 
observance have been given out in a 
quarter not expected, and of a kind 
not in accordance with those that 
once characterised our country, and 
especially the Secession Church. To 
what portion of the religious com- 
munity alluded to, whether the cleri- 
cal or the lay, the guilt of so novel 
a discussion specially attaches, we are 
not at present careful to investigate ; j 
but we cannot help reminding our 
readers of the slighted vaticinations ' 
of such defenders of national religion . 
as the elder M'Crie, that Voluntary- 
ism involved elements that, sooner or 
later, would ignore the proper ob- 
servance of the Sabbath. As proof 
that such reasoners were Seers in 
Israel, we have merely to point to 
the startling discussion of this ques- 
tion in the last meeting of the Volun- 
tary metropolitan Presbytery, and ! 
public debates since that time j 
throughout the city. 

The time and occasion of this ' 
discussion are ominously instructive. ! 
A conviction of the prevalency of i 
Sabbath desecration, and in various ' 



startling forms, had induced the 
different religious bodies to resolve 
upon some legitimate measure for 
suppressing the clamant evil; and it 
was deemed an opportune season to 
work the newly constructed machin- 
ery, when the reality of revivalism 
was almost universally acknowledged. 
And, whether the views on the Sab- 
bath, thrown out on the discussion 
alluded to, are to be viewed as 
expository of the character of the 
modern revivals, is a serious pro- 
blem, and one to which we would 
invite calmest attention. 

As there was no direct and formal 
assault on the original institution 
of the Sabbath, or on the change 
of the day from the seventh to the 
first day of the week, so our subse- 
quent remarks are designed to bear 
more especially on its observance, 
and that, too, not so much by way of 
contrasting continental with British, 
or English with Scottish Sabbaths, 
but with the Sabbath of Scripture. 

I. Those who charge Phariseeism 
upon the strict observance of the 
Sabbath, assume the comparative 
mildness of the Christian over the 
Jewish Sabbath. We demand proof 
of this purest assumption, and we are 
referred to the conduct of our Lord 



18 



in the cures He performed on the 
Sabbath-day, in refutation of the self- 

i imposed dogmas of the Pharisees. 

■ Have we to inform the self-compla- 
cent objector that tlie Christian Sab- 
bath, instituted in commemoration of 
the resurrection of Christ, was not 
then introduced ; and that He per- 
formed no miracles, healed no sick, 
and -walked through no corn-fields on 
ti:e Christian Sabbath ? All these 
miraculous cures were effected on the 
Jewish Sabbath-day. And this un- 
doubted fact warrants two important 
inferences — 1st, that the change of the 
day affected not the nature or charac- 
ter of its moral observance ; and, 2d, 
that, according to the evangelical re- 
cord, the observance of the Christian 
was stricter than of the Jewish ; to 
wdiich we might add a third, the 
culpable ignorance of the would-be- 
wise objector. 

H. Modern objectors of an ecclesi- 
astical character have claimed the 
venerable name of Calvin as a high 
authority for lax views of Sabbath 
observance. Were it not that the 
subject is too serious to admit of 
joking, we might enjoy ourselves on 
tlie strange conduct of some who 
deny the essentials of his creed, and 
accuse him of murderous severity, 
yet claiming on this subject the 
friendship and support of the great 

' reformer. But, unhappily for both 
them and their argument, Calvin, as 
an authority, is on the other side ; 
for who is ignorant of the fact, that 
our stern Sabbatarian, John Knox, 
followed his counsel in every critical 
case, and adopted for Scotland Cal- 
vin's Genevan Confession of Faith ? 
But the serious mistake of chtiming 
Calvin as an authority for anii-Sab- 
batarian views will more fully ap- 

I pear from our next observation. 

' HI. The modein objector to strict 

Salil)ath observance refers us to Col. 
ii. 1 (1. 1 7, '• Let no man therefore judge 



you in meat, or in drink, or in respect 
of an holiday, or of the new moon, 
or of the Sabbatli-days ; which are 
a shadow of things to come : but the 
bo(hj is of Christ." The reasoning of 
the anti-Sabbatarian on this passage 
— and it is, be it observed, the passage 
on whicli Calvin is commenting — is, 
j that these Colossians were not to be 
[judLzed of man for keeping Jewish 
rites and Sabbath-days, notwithstand- 
ing their profession of the Christian 
' system. Now, it requires no formal 
! reasoning to shew that this, instead 
[ of bringing out the mind of the 
[ Apostle, in point of fact positively 
i contradicts it. Judaising teachers, 
j whose policy it was to entangle pro- 
' fessing Christians in the observance 
of the Jewish holidays, had visited 
Colosse, and passed severe judgment 
on its Christian inhabitants. To 
caution and preserve the Colossian 
; Christians against such crafty policy, 
the Apostle declares that they should 
value the substance of which Jewish 
I ceremonies were but the sliadow, and 
j that their duty and privilege lay in 
1 setting aside such opinions of Jewish 
1 judges. Unless we adopt this view, 
it will be impossible intelligently to 
read the context, which declares that, 
by the death and resurrection of 
I Christ, .Jewish meats and Sabbaths 
were abolished. And is not the in- 
] ference native, that the anti-Sabba- 
1 tarians, by citing this passage, instead 
of finding themselves in the company 
' of John Calvin, are in the same 
ranks with the censorious Jews? 

IV. The modern anti-Sabbatarians 
congratulate themselves in the alleged 
support of their views by the recorded 
, conduct of our Lord. Accordingly, 
] Ave are treated to every kind of com- 
j mendatory comments on the nume- 
I rous instances of those cured by 
I Christ on the Sabbath-day, as in- 
I stances of special mercy. And how 
' do such instances favour the cause of 



THK ARK. 



19 



anti-Sabbatarianisai ? 1. Do they 
not formally prove that tlicre is a 
Sabbath-day, which not a few of the 
objectors take the liberty of question- 
ing, if not formally denying ? 2. Do 
they not prove that the f)eople ceased 
from their secular employment, and 
assembled in a body, when the Sab- 
bath furnished such an opportunity of 
publicly performing these cures? For, 
if the people had eittier been at tlieir 
ordinary servile work, or walking in 
the fields, it belongs to anti-Sabbata- 
rians to explain the publicity of these 
instances of cure. 3. It cannot have 
escaped careful and intelligent readers 
of the inspired record, that the in- 
stances cited, and insisted on as de- 
cisive, almost all, if indeed not all, 
occurred in connexion with the temple 
service. Chri.-t found them either in 
the synagogue, or when he was on 
his way to or from the place of pub- 
lic worship. 11 we understand the 
objectors, they reason from these in- 
stances on a licence to enjoy them- 
selves apart from public worship, 
whereas tlie instances shew that the 
mercy performed was in connexion 
with public Sabbath worship. How 
the objector, whose main plea is 
liberty to enjoy himself by strolling 
in the fields, or along the public high- 
ways, can wring out of such instances 
an argument for his anti-Sabbatarian 
propensities and practices, exceeds 
our comprehension. In this category 
we would place the instance of His 
disciples plucking, rubbing in their 
hands, and eating the ears of corn ; 



for, besides the act being allowed by 
tlie law of the Sabbath, we must not 
omit to mention that they were hun- 
gry, and were on their way to the 
house of God. And surely the ob- 
jectors will not insist that the liberty 
they crave is of the same kind and 
for the same purpose. If such bo 
their plea, then we hail them as 
possessed of better hearts than 
heads, and as bound to aid us in 
raising the morality of Sabbath ob- 
servance. 

V. The Christian Sabbath was in- 
stituted by Christ for public religious 
service. Formal proof of this, as 
springing from the nature and cha- 
racter of the institution, is deemed 
superfluous ; and if so, it follows that 
mere animal or intellectual gratifica- 
tion is beside, and in contravention 
of the spiritually sublimated sancti- 
ties of the Christian Sabbath. All 
the popular objections of modern anti- 
Sabbatarians are met and refuted by 
the intelligible dictates of revelation 
(Isa. Iviii. 13, 14), " If thou turn away 
thy foot from the Sabbath, from doing 
thy pleasure on my holy day ; and 
call the Sabbath a delight, the holy 
ot the Lord, honourable ; and shalt 
honour Him, not doing thine own 
ways, nor finding thine own pleasui'e, 
nor speaking thine own words : 
then shalt thou delight thyself in the 
Lord ; and I will cause thee to ride 
upon the high places of the earth, 
and fieed thee with the heritage of 
Jacob thy father : for the mouth of 
Lord hath spoken it." 



#n MoxU oi lictiun. 

In the few remarks we are now to and mode of construction ; neither 
make on one of the most prevalent { shall we attempt to overthrow the 
dissipations of the day — viz., novel : many arguments advanced in their 
reading — it is not our intention to; favour; but we propose considering 
condemn works of fiction on the i them in an entirely practical point of 
theoretical ground of their nature I view, by offering a few objections to 



20 



THE ARK. 



this species of literature on the ground j 
of its pernicious effects on the single 
individual, and on society at large. 

That excessive love of novel read- 
ing is one of the many unholy appe- 
tites of the unholy times in which 
we live, novel readers, novel writers, 
and novel sellers all unite to attest. 
The first complains that nothing else 
is so easily and pleasurably read. 
The second defends himself by saying 
that no other kind of writing pays 
him so handsomely; and the third 
asserts that nothing else will sell. 
All ranks of society are the diseased 
victims of this gross appetite, which, 
the more it is indulged, obtains a yet 
more powerful and debasing sway 
over its possessor ; and, if he does 
not, like Matthew in " The Pilgrim's 
Progress," fall sick of the forbidden 
fruit, and have a timely antidote ad- 
ministered him, accompanied by fast- 
ing mingled with the tears of repent- 
ance, he will, in time, lose sight of 
the narrow way of life, and revel at 
will among the specious sweets of 
Beelzebub's garden. 

As the practice of novel reading is 
liable to many and serious objections, 
involving the discussion of subjects 
of vastest importance, our limited 
space compels us to restrict ourselves 
to three, which will be necessarily of 
a very general and comprehensive 
character. These we now proceed 
to state, and shall afterwards endea- 
vour satisfactorily to establish them. 

In \\\& first place, then, we remark 
that works of fiction can never elevate 
nor benefit the human race, inasmuch 
as they have a tendency to destroy 
the healthy balance of man's consti- 
tution, by developing the sensuous, at 
the expense of the intellectual and the 
spiritual. 

Secondbj, That works of fiction, 
because of their exciting and absorb- 
ing nature, are calculated to dissipate 
and degrade the mind, acting as an 



opiate on its vigorous powers, and 
completely unfitting them for their 
lawful and noble exercise. 

Thirdly, That works of fiction, 
because they are works of fiction, 
can never guide the soul to truth, ad- 
vance the cause of Christ, and fulfil 
the end of all that is true, healthy, 
and beautiful — the glory of God. 

In establishing our first position, 
that works of fiction have a tendency 
to destroy the healthy balance of man's 
constitution, we remark that God 
has distinguished man from the brute 
creation by giving him, in addition to 
his body, which he possesses in com- 
mon with them, a mind and a soul, 
each of which, as gifts of God, he 
must employ equally, and in its as- 
signed place, in the service of the 
Almighty Giver. Further, man being 
created lord of a visible and material 
world, necessarily required a body 
that he might have communion with 
it through the medium of his senses ; 
but, that he might rise beyond that 
universe, and intelligently obey his 
Divine Creator, he was furnished 
with the powers of reason ; and 
lastly, that this glorious work of 
God might eternally fulfil His will, 
he received the God-like endowment 
of an immortal soul. Whatever, 
then, has a tendency to develop man's 
lowest nature, or to contribute to the 
mere enjoyment of the senses without 
exercising the powers of the mind — 
and that, too, in a manner so as to 
aid the soul in glorifying its Creator — 
must necessarily defeat the intention 
of God, who created man in His own 
image, by making him a hideous 
monstrosity, producing a predomin- 
ance of the animal in his nature over 
the angelic and God-like. Now, can 
this be said in truth of works of 
fiction ? Let us hear how a modern 
vindicator of light literature charac- 
terises the end and aim of the novelist : 
" The presiding aim of the novelist," 



THE ARK. 



21 



says Mr. Robert Chambers, in his 
" History of English Literature," "is 
to introduce his readers to circum- 
stances, which excite interest, either 
by their intrinsic nature, or by their 
combination and arrangement. And, 
to procure this excitement, it seems 
to be requisite that these circum- 
stances should be different from those 
which the reader is accustomed to 
contemplate. Thus, the stories which 
Sir Walter Scott has narrated of 
Highland robbers and the civil war, 
derive their charm in a great mea- 
sure from their being read in the quiet 
and security of a civilised age. Hence 
it is that a young lady, happy within 
the walls of a boarding-school, delights 
to follow a fictitious heroine through 
every kind of danger and distress. 
Tlie highly educated gentleman solaces 
liirnself with tales exhibiting the vari- 
ous passions of the human breast; and 
the wealthy citizen, who never feels the 
want of any comfort, and is scrupulous 
to give no alms for which he is not 
rated, glows over pictures of un- 
merited poverty and agonising hard- 
ship. Even the poor, it would ap- 
pear, have no sympathy with a 
literature referring to the poor ; they 
wish, when they read, to be intro- 
duced to scenes which they will pro- 
bably never see in reality, and to 
luxuries which they will never en- 
joy." How can such a literature, 
we may ask, develop, or in any wise 
benefit the highest nature of man? 
Is there any mention here of the 
powers of the intellect, or of the 
noblest qualities of the soul? Not 
at all : the chief aim of the novelist is 
to excite the senses and feelings only, 
which, when the tale is pure, is yet 
highly dangerous to the healthy well- 
being of the individual. But how shall 
we characterise its effects when that 
tale is made the vehicle, as it most 
frequently is, to convey profane, 
blasphemous, and impure thoughts to 



the heated imagination of the reader? 
But, further, to what good are these 
senses and feelings excited? Does 
the young lady grow up within the walls 
of her boarding-school, a wiser and 
nobler woman, hj following a fictitious 
heroine through every kind of danger 
and distress? We leave the vapid 
conversation, indolent habits, and 
shamefully extravagant costume of 
our modei'n belles to answer that. 
Does the glowing of the wealthy citizen 
over imaginary poverty prompt him 
to alleviate the wants and cravings 
of real necessity ? Our heavy poors' 
rates may settle that. And are these 
lower ranks of society, who seek to be 
initiated through the pages of a novel 
into the unmeaning frivolities and 
fashionable wickedness of high life, 
made thereby more fit to fulfil the 
duties of the lowly station in which 
Providence has placed them ? Look 
to our streets, and you will there 
see, in the tawdry finery and tinsel 
ornamentation of the poorer classes, 
how they have profited by the exam- 
ple of those whom they have been 
taught to call their betters ! 

But we hasten to take up our second 
objection, which was, that works of 
fiction dissipate and degrade the 
mind. If a person could read the 
pages of a novel with the same 
clear-headed calmness that he must 
exercise in studying Mill's " Logic," 
or some of Sir William Hamilton's 
papers, we would not apprehend 
serious injury to his mental powers 
from their perusal. But such a novel, 
if it could be written, would not suit 
the taste of the devourers of this un- 
wholesome and tainted food ; for, 
without the excitement of the all- 
absorbing passion, we rather fear 
such works would be pronounced 
dull and insipid. But are these 
works as easily laid down as they are 
taken up? Let us look for a little 
upon a victim of this species of literary 



dissipation. The moment he comes 
into the house he greedily seizes his 
volume, sinks into a chair, where he 
remains till he ai'rives at probably the 
most interesting part of the story, 
when he is interrupted by the signal 
summoning him to join his family at 
table. Reluctantly he obeys, but 
hrini^s his book with him, Avliich he 
is ill-bred enough to place beside him 
on the table, despite the unsympath- 
ising remonstrances of his friends, 
who little know the agony it would 
cost him to leave this his most 
tempting food. The meal is over, he 
seeks agnin into his corner, and, I 
buried in his world of fiction, is dead | 
to all those sweet and lovely home 
influences that contribute so mucli 
to cheer and strengthen us in com- 
bating the stern realities of life. One 
after another drops away, but he re- 
mains ; and it is not till he has 
finished the volume that he observes 
the fire has long since become cold 
and black, and that the brilliant gas- 
light is paling in the morning beams. 
With a hot brain and a shivering 
body he creeps prayerless to bed. 

But again, are such habits not 
easily thrown otf ? We can answer, 
from personal observation, they are 
not ; for we know many who confess 
that all other reading is now to them 
dry and distasteful ; and, alas ! too, 
we know the old and grey-haired 
who cannot exist without this un- 
seemly excitement. What then, we 
may ask, must be the effect on the 
intellectual powers of those who in- 
dulge in the perusal of works of 
fiction ? Yet, besides all this, there 
is an ensnaring character belonging 
to this species of literature, which so 
befools its misguided votaries that 
they believe they are gaining useful 
knowledge by gathering up a few 
historic truths, arrayed in artistic 
drapery, that are sometimes scattered 
over the pages of our so-called first- 



class novels. We pity much those 
who would attempt to study history 
in such a fragmentary way. They 
may, doubtless, pick up a few focts, 
but facts torn from tlieir connexion, 
and irequently misrepresented and 
distorted to suit the design or ca- 
price of the novelist. What is the 
true end of the study of all history ? 
Is it not to trace the footsteps of God 
in the world, and learn that what He 
has done before, He will, in similar 
circumstances, assuredly do again ? 
^uch unintcllectual individuals meta- 
phorically resemble those whom the 
poet has depicted as the followers of 
Comus, who taste his cup 

" Throu'^h fond intemperate thirst. 
Soon as the potion works, their human 

countenance, 
Th' express resemblance of the gods, is changed 
Into some some brutish form, of wolf, or bear, 
Or ounce, or tiger, hog, or bearded goat, 
Ail other parts remaining as they were; 
And they, so perfect is their misery. 
Not once perceive their foul disfigurement. 
But boast themselves more comely than 

before." 

In considering our third and last 
objection, that works of fiction, be- 
c:iuse of their nature, cannot guide 
the soul to truth, advance the cause 
of Christ, and thereby glorify God, 
we would remark, that no man can 
fulfil the end for which he was cre- 
ated, unless he attain to a knowledge 
of the truth. Man, by the fall, has 
lost all innate sense of it, and must 
therefore diligently search till lie find 
it. Now there is but one fountain 
from which saving and eternal truth 
may be drawn, and that fountain is 
the Word of God. No doubt, we 
have, apart from this, the true in na- 
ture and in art, which we cannot ex- 
pect of course to find in the Bible, 
it being written for an infinitely high- 
er purpose ; but, for all that, no na- 
tural truth can be opposed to tlie 
eternal truth of the Word of God, else 
one or other must cease to be truth. 
One truth contrary to another, in- 



23 



volves an absurdity. Now, can we 
find truth in works of fiction, har- 
monising witli the trutli of God? 
To shew that this is impossible, we 
shall contrast the aim of the writer 
of fiction with the aim of the Spirit 
of truth. The novelist seeks first to 
excite the feelings ; the Spirit to en- 
lighten the understanding. The no- 
velist allures the senses, to the obscur- 
ation of man's noblest endowments ; 
the Spirit teaches to crucify the flesh, 
that he may ennoble and save the soul. 
The novelist introduces his reader to a 
fictitious world, fictitious persons, and 
fictitious events, the creation of his 
own depraved imagination, which 
must necessarily lead to error ; but 
the Spirit guides to all saving truth 
by offering for consideration the only 
realities that can profitably interest 
the soul in time, and secure for it a 
blessed and glorious immortality by 
an eternal union with the God and 
Father of truth. But we forbear to 
multiply instances of contrast which I 
will naturally suggest themselves to 
every candid and unprejudiced mind. 
From what we have now said, it 
may be remarked, in conclusion, that 



works of fiction can never advance 
the cause of Christ, for it is no other 
than the cause of truth. On the con- 
trary, they must build up a Babel of 
error, that God will some morning 
come down to destroy^ to the confu- 
sion and dispersion of its impious 
builders. To all indulgers in this 
species of reading, we would say that 
the signs of the times bear abundant 
and threatening evidence that, ere 
long, our country will be introduced 
to sterner and more dreadful reali- 
ties than she has ever yet witnessed. 
Exalted by her superior privileges 
among the nations, Britain stands 
out the foremost and the wickedest 
of that guilty group ; and while wily 
monarehs are plotting and counter- 
plotting — while Europe pauses breath- 
less on her arms, awaiting the first 
aggressive onslaught — while difiiL:ul- 
ties increase, whose Gordian knot no 
crafty Alexander will be able to un- 
loose — and while there is a righteous 
and an avenging God on high, — who 
dare, within her walls, waste his pre- 
cious moments in a delusive dream of 
fiction, from which he may get a 
fearful and an eternal awaking ? 



Capital iwnisljtiunt 



It cannot be questioned that, during the last 
thirtj' years, the current of public opinion has 
been gradually and strongly setting in against 
capital punishment. This may be ascribed to 
the rebound of public sentiment in its success- 
ful application for purging the penal code of 
capital punishment, save in cases of convicted 
murder. The tide, however, rolls on, so that 
murder itself is not to be allowed to form an 
exception to the would-be merciful regenera- 
tors of society. The statistics of crime, espe- 
cially in the perpetration of scientific, grossly 
unnatural, and revolting murder, shew no de- 
crease, notwithstanding the numerous evan- 
gelical appliances vigorously worked, and the 
clamant expression of mercy to the savage 
shedder of the blood of his maugled victim. 
The staple sentimentalism of these sj'nipa- 
thisers with the murderer is of a kind that 
ignores the moral law of God ; that throws 
away self-defence, the first law of nature ; 
that entails the guilt of murder on nations ; 



I and that calumniates as hard-hearted those 

who can assign solid reasons for punishing 

I with death him who sheds the blood of his 

j brother, who was made in the image of God. 

I We have no thought of entangling our subse- 

j quent remarks on this subject with the case of 

the poor unfortunate -\vretch who is at present 

, lying in prison under sentence of death, but 

simply to furnish a kind of syllabus of reasons 

I against the popular obliviousness of the dread- 

I ful crime, and the unmerciful and unnatural 

i fervour in behalf of the criminal. 

I I. The divine legislator has declared, and 

I that, too, in the most intelligible terms, and 

1 in the most authoritative manner, that the 

j murderer should die the death, Gen. ix. 6, 

" Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall 

his blood be shed; for in the imarje of God 

made He man.'' The place which this passage 

holds in the inspired volume, and the reason 

assigned by God for man shedding the blood 

of the murderer, shatter the most popular rea- 



24 



THE AEK. 



soning against capital punishment for this 
heinous crime. The plea that this clearly- 
expressed law was an essential part of the 
Mosaic civil code, and that it passed away 
among the things of the abrogated Jewish 
economj', betrays most lamentable and deeply 
culpable ignorance. It was declared to Noah 
on coming out of ^e ark, and consequently 
some centuries be^re the birth of Moses ; it 
reflected on the breach of the same law by 
Cain and his antediluvian descendants ; and 
it was pronounced as the law regulative of the 
conduct, not only of the Jewish nation, but of 
mankind to the end of time. Accordingly, the 
,reason assigned is applicable to man wherever 
"found, and in whatever generation; "for in 
the image of God' made He man." If, then, 
this Divine law was riot a part of the ceremo- 
nial institution, but was given to man, as 
man, it follows that it belonged to the moral 
law, of which Christ said, " I am not come to 
destroy, but to fulfil the law." The modern 
sympathiser with the murderer is invited to 
meet this position, or confess that his theory 
oi pseudo-mercy runs comiter to the law of the 
God of mercy ; and that he may not conclude 
he is unfairly dealt with, we promise him a 
place in our columns. 

II. The Christian dispensation does not con- 
travene or abrogate this original law. In a 
case of this kind it will not do to flourish away 
upon the comparatively merciful Christian 
economy. This is mere declamation, and in- 
volves in numerous and sericus absurdities. > 
It rests on the ignorant assumption, that the 
original law adverted to is ceremonial, that j 
Christianity has repealed some moral natural 
laws, and that the New Testament Scriptures j 
are full of the declared abrogation of this law. 
Need we remind the objector that it is proof, I 
and not mere declamation, we require ; and 
where is his direct or inferential proof of his 
assumptions ? Is tlie proof of the assumption 
to be found in such passages as, " That the 
blood of all the prophets which was shed from 
the foundation of the world, may be required 
of this generation ; Reward her even as she re- 
warded you, and double unto her double ac- 
cording to her works; How long, Lord, holy 
and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our 
blood on them that dwell on the earth ? " 
These, and similarly expressed passages, which 
abound in the New Testament Scriptures, de- 
monstrate bej-ond the possibility of plausible 
contradiction the equitj' of principle that is 
ignored and attempted to be calumniated by 
not a few of the professed followers of the Sou 
of God. We confess we should like to see 
their exposition of such passages in a consis- 
tency with their hyper- merciful theory. 

in. The volume of inspiration declares and 
largely illustrates the principle, that the legal 



escapement of the murderer entails the guilt 
of shedding blood upon the nation. This was 
the principal count of the Divine indictment 
against the antedilm'ians. " And God said 
unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before 
me; for the earth is filled with violence through 
them ; and, behold, I will destroy them with 
the earth." The Egyptians perished among 
the^billows of the KeJ Sea, as they consigned 
to ji watery grave the male children of the 
Hebrews ; Babylon was thrown down, because 
itVsiled the bloo'd of the Jews ; Jerusalem was 
sa^ckjpd and deluged with blood, because it 
" stibned the prophets, and killed those that 
were' sent unto them ; " and Papal Europe 
mus^'et settle accounts for the shid blood of 
thejaints with Him who declares, " Vengeance 
is iriine, I will repay." Accordingly we read, 
" Adfeviu her was found the blood of prophets, 
and d^Sfiints,^and of all that were slain upon 
thet^^." And thus, although the nation 
wer^ unanimous in abolishing capital punish- 
ni^ts,^^and there were none to peep or to 
nuntter againsnit,\yet inspiration declares, 
and history demonstrates, that the blood shed 
must be nationally punished by Him "wiio 
shall make inquisition for blood." 

IV. The alleged failure of capital punish- 
ment for murder- is by no means a sound ar- 
gument for its repeal. We must assume, until 
the objector disprove it, that the Divine law 
prescribes death for death, blood for blood. 
But wliere is the proof that the punishment of 
death for murder has failed to reach the end 
of acting " as a terror to evil-doers ?" Is itin 
the fact that the crime of murder is on the in- 
crease? Is it not more in accordance with 
the principles of our depraved nature, and 
with fact, too, that the increase of the crime 
is to be ascribed to the prevalent lax views on 
capital punishment ; that it is to be ascribed 
to the aversion of juries to bring in a ver- 
dict of GuUty, and when, from the fulness 
and clearness of tlie evidence, they are con- 
strained to return such a verdict, accompany- 
ing it with a recommendation of the convicted 
murderer to the mercy of the Crown, the 
chances of escape are so multiplied as to re- 
move the salutary terror which condign 
punishment is designed to secure? This, we 
submit, is the natural and rational explana- 
tion of the alleged failure of capita! punish- 
ment to diminish the perpetration of the crime 
of murder ; and if such be the natural etfect 
of the popular sentiment, what security could 
society have for human life, were that senti- 
ment to receive legislative sanction ? Equally 
inconclusive is the popvdarly tossed- about 
fact, that acts of theft are committed by some 
who are spectators of the public execution of 
the criminal. This argument as.sumes that 
the breach of the 1 iw is a reason for its repeal. 



Edinburgh : Printed and Published for the Proprietors by Patox and Eitchie, 81 Princes 
Street (to whom all Communications, prepaid, maybe addressed). Glasgow: Thomas 
MuKRAY AND Son; and sold hy all Booksellers. 



Clje Jrd 



Vol. Ill.-Ho. 4. 



APRIL 1860. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

True Idea op the Chuech. 
Justification by Faith. 



xvA %hn of tlr^ Cljurclj. 



The above subject, which already has 
had a fair share of public interest, 
seems yet to be a matter of keenest 
discussion among modern reputed 
theologians. It is somewhat remark- 
able as being raised in the Free 
Church, following so close, as it does, 
late outcries about the spiritual juris- 
diction of the Church. The origin 
of this dispute is as follows : — About 
the middle of November, last year, 
the Free Church set apart a Sabbath 
for advocating and exhibiting her 
distinctive principles, in view of rais- 
ing a fund for the relief of several of 
the ante-Disruption ministers. On 
this occasion Dr. Hanna preached a 
sermon, in which he defended the 
idea, that the Church of Scripture is 
the communion of saints, and that 
organisation is not essential to it. 
This, it will be easily seen, was cal- 
culated to rub hard on the position 
of the Free Church ; and hence the j 
reverend Dr. has evoked the ire of j 
not a few of his co- presbyters. Al- 
though refraining from writing in his 
own defence, notwithstanding the 
criticism which has been bestowed 
upon his discourse, he has, neverthe- 
less, done what amounts to the same 
thing, in causing to be published 
several papers from the pen of Dr. 



Hodge of America, bearing on the 
question in dispute. To this pam- 
phlet, therefore, named the "True 
Idea of the Church," must we go for 
a fuller exposition and defence of the 
doctrine propounded by Dr. Ilanna, 
than is to be obtained within the 
limits of a single discourse ; while 
the subject is treated in a more for- 
mal manner than could be done in 
the pulpit. Meanwliile, let us con- 
sider Dr. Hanna's position contrasted 
Avith that of his opponents. From 
the numerous letters, speeches, and 
pamphlets which have issued from 
Dr. Hanna's antagonists, we learn 
the fact, that they hold, or profess to 
hold, the doctrine of the Visible 
Church as founded on the Word of 
God, and embodied in the standards 
to which Dr. Hanna as well as they 
have professed adherence. Consist- 
ency, therefore, requires that all who 
hold this doctrine reduce it to prac- 
tice. Is this, however, the case ? 
Not at all. Those of whom we 
speak are they who, Pharisee-like, 
are trying to fix on Dr. Hanna's 
shoulders a burden grievous to be 
borne, which they themselves will not 
so much as move with one of their 
fingers. These are they who, in op- 
position to Dr. Hanna, declare that 



26 



THE ARK. 



God has prescribed a form of govern- 
ment for His Cliurcli, and tliat that 
form is Presbytery ; who yet can 
excliange pulpits with non-Presby- 
terians, and speak very lovinjzly of 
the Established religion of PJngland ; 
yea, who are engaged even now 
in making arrangements for com- 
memorating the Reformation from 
Popery with those whose system the 
reformers set themselves to over- 
throw. These are they, some of 
whom, having sworn before God ad- 
herence to a profession of which 
Covenanting forms the essential fea- 
ture, can yet abandon that profession j 
and attach themselves to a system 
that ignores Covenanting ; that prac- i 
tically calls the murdered saints of ' 
God— murdered for the Covenants — j 
bigots ; a system, that from its con- 
stitution cannot covenant, and con- 
sequently never will. And are these ' 
the men that would find fault with 
Dr. Hanna's doctrine — a doctrine 
that, whatever be its amount of 
scripturalness, is thoroughly con- 
sistent with the practice of the Free 
Church ever since the Disruption, 
and a doctrine which, the objectors 
will allow us to say, they themselves 
practically adopt? And yet Dr. j 
Hanna must be told that this is a I 
new dogma ; that he is plucking the 
jewels from Christ's crown ; and that 
he is adumbrating one of the out- j 
standing principles of the Free 
Church, the headship of Christ. 
" Thou hypocrite, first cast out the I 
beam out of thine own eye, and then 
shall thou see clearly to cast out the j 
mote out of thy brother's eye." ; 
Were we to act on the irrational and ] 
unscriptural though popular maxim, \ 
" Of two evils choose tlie least," we 
would by far take Dr. Hanna's posi- 
tion, as being at once candid and con- 
sistent. 

But we proceed to consider Dr. 
Hodge's pamphlet ; and in doing so, 



we are not to be deterred by appeals 
as to the writer's attainments in 
literature and theology, raised by 
some of his admii-ers. High attain- 
ments have nothing to do with the 
present question. If Dr. Hodge 
enters the arena, he must take what- 
ever he gets in the way of fair dis- 
cussion. It is too much to be stopped 
at the very threshold and told of our 
opponent's superior talent, which at 
once steals a march, and lays an em- 
bargo on all debate. 

His true idea, as before stated, is, 
that the Church of Scripture is the 
communion of saints. Hence, "The 
Church," to use his own words, '' ac- 
cording to this view, is not a cor- 
poration which ceases to exist if the 
external bond of union be dissolved." 
He is not to be viewed, however, as 
affirming that saints may not organ- 
ise, but that organisation is not es- 
sential to the Church — is not of its 
nature. In the main, this is the doc- 
trine of Protestants in ]-egard to tlie 
invisible Church. We hold the 
communion of saints as well as Dr. 
Hodge, but then we are to be under- 
stood as speaking of the Church in- 
visible. But we differ in tliat, while 
Dr. Hodge maintains that this is the 
only Church spoken of in Scripture, 
we affirm that, besides the Church 
invisible, Scripture plainly teaches 
that there is a Church visitde on this 
earth, the object of special regard, 
the subject of numerous and gracious 
promises. It is on this ground ihat 
we demur to Dr. Hodge's exposition. 

In defence of his position the 
Rev. Dr. adduces arguments from 
the use of the word Church, and its 
various applications — from the equi- 
valent or descriptive terms employed 
to express the same idea — from the 
attributes ascribed to it — from the 
promises and prerogatives pertaining 
to it — and lastly, from the necessary 
connexion between a certain scheme 



of doctrine, and a certain theory of 
the Church. Space forbids a formal 
discu?sion of these topics separately ; 
but we will in some measure serve 
the same purpose and attain our ob- 
ject, by considering^ a few of the more 
prominent statements and arguments 
of the "True Idea of the Cliurch." We 
therefore proceed to consider the ar- 
gument from the unity of the Church. 
" The unity of the Church," says the 
professor, "is threefold: 1st, spiritual 
— the unity of faith, and communion ; 
2d, comprehensive — the Church is 
one as it is catholic, embracing all 
the people of God ; 3d, historical — 
it is the same Ciiurch in all ages. 
In all these senses the Church, con- 
sidered as the communion of saints, 
is one ; in no one of these senses can 
unity be predicated of the Church as 
visible." He then goes on to prove 
unity of faith among believers, on 
which point we hold no controversy 
with him ; but we take opposite sides 
when he denies unity of iaith to the 
visible Church. " As to the unity 
of faith," he says, " it is undeniable 
that all Christian societies do not 
even profess the same faith ; while all 
unite in certain doctrines, they each 
profess or deny what the others re- 
gard as fatal error or necessary 
truth." Dr. Hodge here assumes, 
that the doctrine of the visible 
Church, as held by its true defenders, 
is to be understood as embracing " all 
Christian societies." Never Avas 
mistake greater. What sort of visi- 
ble Church would it be that would 
include "all Christian societies?" 
Where should we look for the disci- 
pline of such a Church ? And yet 
this is the kind of visible Church 
i that Dr. Candlish has described in his 
i sermon, on the occasion referred to at 
i the commencement of these remarks, 
j to which Church, he ascribes disci- 
j pline, or the right of excommunica- 
; tion. Of all those of Dr. Candhsh's 



27 



school, let Dr. Hodge take his fill. 
They are fair game, and ought to be 
run down ; but let him not attach 
any such imputation as his remai-ks 
convey, to those who hold the visible 
Church of God on earth, in its unity 
; as to profession, and uniformity as to 
I practice. We would therefore respect- 
j fully counsel Dr. Hodge to beware, 
I lest, while attacking the dogma of 
the Church of Rome on this head, he 
^ be not at the same time not the less 
really, though unintentionally, doing j 
despite to one of the most luminous 
j doctrines of revelation — the unity of 
I the visible Church. The error of 
i the Church of Rome lies, not as Dr. 
! Hodge supposes, in holding this doc- 
I ti-ine; but, as the reformers taught, 
j the eri'or lies in applying to a wicked 
antichristian system condemned by 
' God, a special attribute of the beloved 
I Church of God. Passing over the 
catholicity of the Church, we come 
now to the third division of unity ac- 
cording to Dr. Hodge, viz., historical 
unity. " The historical unity of the 
Church," says our author, " is its 
perpetuity — its remaining one and 
the same in all ages." Again, " If, 
on the other hand, the Church is a 
company of believers, if it is the com- 
munion of saints, all that is essential 
to its perpetuity, is that there should 
always be believers." But is this the 
Church of history ? It is a burlesque 
— a kind of travestie on the very j 
word history. Visibility is essential i 
to history. How could a history be 
written of what mortal man was not 
capable of seeing? Can Dr. Hodge | 
produce the history of such a Church ' 
— a Church composed of true believ- j 
ers? If he does attempt it, never had ; 
he a more arduous task. Sisyphus- 
like, he will never roll the stone to 
the top of the hill. But to decide the 
question, let us go to history. Whe- 
ther has the Church of history been 
a mere " company of believers," or a 



28 



visible organisation ? Most certainly 
tlie latter. Dr. Hodge next asserts, 
in proof of his position, that " no 
Eastern Church has continued the 
same in its doctrines from the times 
of the apostles to the present time." 
What does the professor mean by 
" Eastern Cliurch ? " If he means by 
this phrase to indicate tlie Churches 
of Asia Minor, he is on the old Judais- 
ing dogma of locality. This strikes at 
the very heart of this dispensation, 
which, being spiritual, has abrogated 
for ever the confinement of the 
Church within the narrow limits of 
any Palestine. But if, as writing 
from America, the professor signifies 
European by the use of this phrase, 
he not only uses it in a sense di- 
verse from its ordinary acceptation, 
but with such a signification will en- 
tangle his feet, rendering extrication 
extremely difficult, if at all possible. 
The fallacy, to use a favourite phrase 
of his, lies in this. He asserts that 
" no Eastern Church has continued 
the same," &c., leaving the reader to 
draw the illicit conclusion, that there- 
fore the continuity of the apostolic 
Church has been broken, — that be- 
cause the Church of the apostles did 
not flourish in Asia Minor, it did 
not flourish or continue at all. Is 
Professor Hodge not aware that the 
small persecuted remnant of the 
Asiatic Churches, because of perse- 
cution, sailed from Asia Minor, 
crossed the Mediterranean, landed at 
Lyons, and, passing through Savoy, 
made for the Alpine valleys, forming 
the Church of the Waldenses and 
Albigenses? It was at their still 
flickering lamp that Martin Luther 
lit liis Reformation torch, wliich 
blazed in so short a time all over 
Europe. Still keeping up the con- 
tinuity which Dr. Hodge so much 
desiderates, the light of the Iletor- 
raation penetrated into Scotland, dis- 
persing the Papal gloom which so 



long overshadowed it, and establishing 
in its room the Gospel of the grace of 
God, with the means of His appoint- 
ment and the ordinances of His insti- 
tution. 

The principles thus instilled into 
our beloved country have, to the 
praise of His name, notwithstanding 
deep degeneracy and shameful apos- 
tacy, been preserved from extinction ; 

' thus proclaiming, in the continued 
identity of the Church, that she is of 

j Divine origin — God's great name 
being pledged in her support. This 
we humbly, yet confidently, inform 
Dr. Hodge, is the apostolic Church ; 
the chain of continuity being as yet 
intact, and her principles in glorious 
harmony with those of the Asiatic 
seven Churches previous to their 
apostacy. 

But to proceed. We now find 
our author, as was to be expected, 
striving hard to reconcile his " true 
idea " with the Reformation true 
idea of the Church. But amid the 
copious citation of creeds, confes- 
sions, and the writings of divines, 
why should Scotland's confessions 
and Scotland's worthies not be called 
on to bear witness on so important a 
question ? Did it not occur to Dr. 
Hodge that Scotland had confessions 
as accurately drawn up as the Hel- 
vetic, Belgic, or Gallic, or those of 
Augsburg, Heidelberg, or Geneva ; 
and that her Knox, Melville, and Hen- 
derson, were as clear-headed theolo- 
gians as Ridley, Hooker, or Jackson ? 
Is it not natural thatScotland, from the 
place she occupied and the part she 
acted in the Reformation, lending to 
all and borrowing from none, from 
the fact that in Scotland the Refor- 
mation reached its zenith, and flou- 
rished there v;hen sickening and 
dying in the lands that gave it birth — 
is it not natural, we say, from all 
these considerations, that Scotland 
should be the first witness called into 



29 



court when the breath of the Refor- 
mation is wanted on any subject? 
For this reason, and this alone, be- 
cause Scotland is ignored, do we at 
once, and without hesitation, dismiss 
Dr. Hodge's plea of identification 
with the Reformation, and send him 
out of court. What, then, is Scot- 
land's testimony on this point? for 
she is far from being either silent or 
giving an uncertain sound. We find 
that so early as 1560, in the Confes- 
sion of that date, the mind of Scot- 
land is made up. Chap. 17, speak- 
ing of the invisible Church, they de- 
clare, " As we believe in one God, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, so do 
we most certainly believe that from 
the beginning there hath been, and 
now is, and to the end of the world 
shall be, one company and multitude 
of men chosen of God." Then they 
treat of the Church visible in chap. 
18, which is entitled, " Of the notes 
whereby the true Kirk is discerned 
from the false, and who shall judge 
of the doctrine " — notes which can in 
no wise be applied to the Chui-ch in- 
visible, or the company of believers. 
They declare, " The notes, therefore, 
of the true Church of God we be- 
lieve, confess, and avow to be — 1st, 
the true preaching of the Word of 
God ; 2d, right administration of the 
sacraments ; 3d, ecclesiastical disci- 
pline uprightly administered, &c. ; 
wheresoever, then, these former notes 
are seen, and of any time continue 
(be the number ever so few, about 
two or three), there, without all 
doubt, is the true Church of Christ, 
who, according to His promise, is in 
the midst of them to bless them." 
Then in the Second Book of Dis- 
cipline, 1578, chap. 1, we have 
the following : " The Kirk of God 
is lai'gely taken lor all of them 
that profess the true evangel of Jesus 
Christ ; and so it is a company 
and fellowship not only of the godly, 



hut also of hypocrites professing al- 
ways outwardly the true religion." 
This was sworn to in the National 
Covenant revived and ratified by the 
Assembly 1G38, and established by 
law 1592 and 1640. Not less ex- 
plicit is that Confession agreed upon 
by the Assembly of Divines at West- 
minster, as part of the covenanted 
uniformity. Chap. 25, sect. 1, declares, 
" The catholic or universal Church, 
which is invisible, consists of the 
whole number of the elect that have 
been, are, or shall be gathered into 
one under Christ, the Head thereof, 
and is the spouse, the body, the ful- 
ness of Him that filleth all in all." 
Then, as distinct from, and in addition 
to this invisible Cliurch, sect, 2 de- 
clares, " The visible Church, which is 
also catholic or universal (not con- 
fined to one nation, as before under 
the law), consists of all those through- 
out the world that profess the true 
religion, and of their children, and is 
the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the house and family of God, out of 
which there is no ordinary possibility 
of salvation." This, we beg to inform 
Dr. Hodge, is the definite, clear-toned 
dictum of the Reformation respecting 
the visible Church, and painfully con- 
trasts with his true idea. We pro- 
ceed, however, to consider the manner 
in which Dr. Hodge meets a few 
objections, which, feeling their force, 
he sets himself to overthrow. The 
first objection is to the eflfect, that as 
the societies at Ephesus, Corinth, and 
Rome were undoubtedly Churches, 
and as they were composed of insin- 
cere as well as sincere professors of 
faith, so it follows that the Church 
does not consist exclusively of true 
believers. In meeting this, our author 
admits the fact that they are called 
Chui'ches. " All the professors of the 
true religion," he says, "iu Corinth, 
without reference to their character, 
are called the Church of Corinth ; " 



30 



and yet he saj^s, " It determines no- 
thing as to tlie nature of the Church." 
Then what does determine the nature 
of the Church? On wliat principle are 
we to account for God in His Word 
calling any body of men the Church, 
and yet that body not to be the Church 
according to the true idea thereof? 
Does not a careful consideration of : 
the character of the members of the j 
Church so called in the Bible, go a 
great way to determine ils nature? 
We cannot see on what ground Dr. 
Hodge can explain the epistles to 
the seven Asiatic Churches, save on 
the admission of a visible Church, as 
has been described. Did our space 
permit, we might have considered : 
Dr. Hodge's argument drawn from 
the terms employed in addressing the 
Epistles to the Romans, Corinthians, 
&c., which epistles, he says, are ad- 
dressed to true believers. And we j 
intended to have shewn a few of the 
glaring absurdities into which such 
language would lead the Rev. Dr., 
such as Paul telling saints that he 
was afraid he had preached the Gos- 
pel in vain ; telling true believers 
that he doubted their saintship very j 
much, and asking saints who had j 
bewitched them? But we must pro- I 
ceed to consider the Dr.'s treatment ] 
of the second objection, which is ! 
drawn from those parables of our j 
Lord in which the kingdom of hea- j 
ven is compared to a net containing i 
fish good and bad, and to a field in ' 
which tares grow as well as wheat. 
Says Dr. Hodge, "This objection is 
founded on a false assumption. The 
terms kingdom of God, and Church, 
are not equivalent. Many things are 
said of the one which cannot be said of 1 
the other." "It cannot," he proceeds, i 
" be said of the Church, that it con- [ 
sists not in meat and drink, but in 
righteousness, peace, and joy in the 
Holy Ghost; nor can it be said that 
the Church is within us; neither are 



we commanded to seek first the 
Church, nor is the Church said to be 
at hand." Thus fiir Dr. Hodge. 
Without instituting any inquiry as to 
tlie phrases, kingdom of heaven, and 
kingdom oi God, which the learned 
professor makes convertible terras, 
we would only remark that, as the 
phrase used in the parables cited is 
kingdom of heaven, it would have 
been as well had he confined his 
remarks to it. Moreover, in the 
quotation we have just given from 
Dr. Hodge, he at once oversteps the 
bounds of logic, and breaks through 
the rules of fair debate. " Polemic 
discourses," as George Gillespie 
quaintly expresses it, " must follow 
the adversaries at the heels whither- 
soever they go, finding them out in 
all the lurking places of their elaborate 
subterfuges, and conflicting with them 
wheresoever they pitch." Not so, 
however, Dr. Hodge : instead of 
following the i-eal adversary, he fol- 
lows one of his own, whom, it is 
natural to expect, he overthrows. 
If he had denied that kingdom 
and church Avere ever synonymous, 
we could have understood his rea- 
soning in the passage quoted; but 
that this is not the case is evident, 
for we find him stating that whenever 
kingdom is synonymous with church, 
faith is always stated as necessary to 
admission into it. Why, then, does 
not tlie rev. professor address himself 
to an investigation of the instances 
specified by the objector ? It is of 
no use, in the present argument, to 
tell us that kingdom and church are 
not always equivalent, — we know 
that quite as well as Dr. Hodge. 
What we want to know is what he 
has got to say in answer to his op- 
ponent's argument. The objector 
instances two parables in which he 
asserts that the phrase, "kingdom of 
heaven," signifies the visible CJiurch ; 
butinsteadof meetingthis. Dr. Hodge, 



THE ARK. 



31 



ignoring the point of the argument, 
labours to prove that those terms are 
not equivalent in other, and totally 
dijferent passages ; thus landing him- 
self in the heart of fallacious reason- 
ing, and in the form in which fallacy 
is most frequent. Granting, for 
argument's sake, that Dr. Hodge's 
statement is correct as to the passages 
he quotes, still this does not prove 
that the objector is wrong as to his 
instances. As to the parable of the 
ten virgins, to which Dr Hodge next 
refers, we need not say much, but 
merely refer the Rev. Dr. and the 
reader to a work by the Eev. T. 
Sheppard, of New England, where 
this parable is fully discussed. We 
therefore conclude this branch of the 
subject by specifying a passage bear- 
ing on the question in dispute, where 
our Lord didactically asserts the 
doctrine which we have in the fore- 



I going remarks endeavoured to defend, 
j — " Have not I chosen you twelve, and 
I one of you is a devil?" John vi. 70. 
We intended to have considered Dr. 
Hodge's idea of visibility, which he 
states as consisting in that the mem- 
bers of the Church are men and 
women, and not spirits — in that they 
manifest their faith by their works — 
I in that they are, by elFectual calling, 
j separated from the world — and lastly, 
! that the true Church is visible in the 
' external Church, as the soul is visible 
in the body ; but we must forbear at 
j present. If space permit, however, 
we will, on a future occasion, discuss 
I this visibility, and state a few direct 
arguments against Dr. Hodge's posi- 
> tion, that there is no visible organisa- 
tion mentioned in Scripture designated 
: the Church, — that Scripture does not 
teach a visible as well as an invisible 
I Church. 



Justification by faith is a central 
doctrine of the Christian system, and 
has been properly designated by Lu- 
ther, " articulus stantis vel cadentis 
eccJesicB" — the test of a standing or 
of a falling Church. It is the dis- 
tinguishing doctrine of the Reforma- 
tion, by scriptural exposition and 
defence of which the wickedly com- 
pact sj'stem of Home was shattered 
on the continent of Europe, and es- 
pecially in our native country. It is 
the doctrine to which the Gospel di- 
rects the convicted sinner for peace 
with God, on which the believing 
soul delights to fix and to feed, and 
on which he encounters his last en- 
emy, death, with the triumphant 
shout, " O death, Avhere is thy sting ? 
O grave, where is thy victory ? " In 
brief, clear views of this doctrine 
throw light on all the cardinal and 
cognate doctrines of revelation, aflfect- 



ing man's original state and character, 
as well as his state and character 
subsequently to the breach of the law 
by our first father, Adam. Accurate 
views of justification by faith, imply 
accurate views of Adani's represen- 
tative character, and that of Christ 
the second Adam ; accurate views of 
original sin, especially the guilt of 
Adam's first sin, and the imputation 
of Christ's righteousnes, or finished 
surety work, to the elect sinner ; and 
somewhat accurate views of the na- 
ture of the covenant of grace, as 
" everlasting, ordered in all things, 
and sure.'"' 

How largely and clearly soever 
this doctrine is declared and reasoned 
in the inspired volume, yet perhaps 
no doctrine has suffered more severly 
by depraved minds, by the formally 
heretical creeds of Arminianism, 
Antinomianism, Neonomianism — all 



32 



offshoots of Romanism ; and, above 
all, it has suffered, and is at present 
largely suffering, at the hands of 
many of its professed and popular 
friends in theological Scotland. As 
farther and more particular specifica- 
tion of the popular perversion of this 
precious doctrine might expose to 
fruitless irritation, we would rather 
bespeak the calm and candid atten- 
tion of the reader to the clear and 
intelligible definition of the doctrine 
in our admirable Shorter Catecliism. 
*' Justification is an act of God's free 
grace, wherein He pardoneth all our 
sins, and accepteth us as righteous in 
His sight, only for the righteousness 
of Christ, imputed to us, and received 
by faith alone." Waiving anything 
like a formal discussion of the doc- 
trine, we have it as our object to 
offer a few remarks of a suggestive 
kind on its prominent and essential 
characteristics. I 

I. Justification is a forensic term, I 
by which we are referred to a court i 
of law, Deut. xxv. 1. " If there be 
a controversy between men, and they 
come unto judgment, that the judges 
may judge them ; then they shall jus- 
tify the righteous, and condemn the 
wicked." Under the figure of a 
court, we have all that properly ap- 
pertains to a formal trial. 1. We 
have the judge, who is God the Father, 
sustaining a judicial character, and 
giving forth a judicial sentence ac- 
cording to strict law. " Shall not 
the Judge of all the earth do right ? 
One is our Judge, our God." 2. We 
have the prisoner at the bar charged 
with guilt for the infraction of the 
law. " Now we know that what 



things soever the law saith, it saith 
to them who are under the law: that 
every mouth may be stopped, and all 
the world may become guilty before 
God." 3. Witnesses appear in court 
to give testimony in proof of the 
charge libelled against the prisoner 
by Divine Justice, who is the public 
prosecutor, the advocate for the 
crown. The evidence adduced is 
large, clear, and convicting. The 
law itself is made to speak : " What 
the law saith, it saith to them that 
are under the law." Fellow-prisoners 
who have turned king's evidence de- 
pone to the guilt of him at the bar. 
Hence the declaration of the con- 
verted thief on the cross, Luke xxiii. 
40, 41, " But the other answering 
rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou 
fear God, seeing thou art in the 
same condemnation? And we indeed 
justly ; for we receive the due reward 
of our deeds : but this man hath done 
nothing amiss." Not unfrequently 
the fruits of sin, as the stolen articles, 
or the bloody clothes of the murdered, 
are in troduced into the court. " Whose 
are these bracelets, and this ring, and 
this staff? Be sure your sins shall 
find you out." And when Provi- 
dence has driven into a strait place, 
the prisoner's conscience has oft 
spoken to his condemnation. Gen. 
xlii. 21, "And they said one to an- 
other. We are verily guilty concern- 
ing our brother, in that we saw the 
anguish of his soul, when he besought 
us, and we Avould not hear : therefore 
is this distress come upon us." Thus 
the charge of guilt is fixed. 

(To be continued.') 



Euroi-e's Crisis, 2d Edition. " The Book of the Day." By Eev. James Wright. Price 5s. 

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Vol. Ill -No. 5. 



MAY 1860. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 

The Tricentenary of the Refoejiatiox. 
Justification bt Faith. 



re ^riccntcitiiri? of tire livcformation. 



As the individual believer cannot too 
frequently call upon his soul to "bless 
the Lord, and forget not all His bene- 
fits," so the Church of God is under 
manifold and endearing obligations 
to " remember the years of the right 
hand of the Most High 
such years, or memorabl 



Commemoration of the Reformation, 
as set forth in the following deliver- 
ance of the Free Church Assembly, 
30th May 1859: — "It was moved 
by the Rev. Mr. M'Corkle, and se- 
conded by the Rev. Mr. M'Gillivray. 
And of and unanimously agreed, that ' The 
nstances Assembly, having resumed considera- 



of special Divine favour, the Church tion of tlie approaching Tricentenary 
our own land has experienced not of the Reformation, hereby resolve, 



a few, which we ousht to keep in 
mind by every habile means, lest we 
incur the charge brought against 
Israel of old : " They soon forgat His 
works ; they remembered not His 
hand, nor the day when He delivered 
them from the enemy." That the 
Reformation of 1560 was a specially 
blessed event for Scotland, and should 
be held in perpetual and grateful re- 
membrant;e, cannot certaiidy be dis- 
puted ; and nothing could be more 
at variance with the spirit of our 
little publication than to discourage 
any proper manifestation of gratitude 
for that happy deliverance from 
Popish thraldom. Nevertheless, we 
are persuaded that a very serious 
question is at issue in regard to the 
manner in which that gratitude ought 
to be expressed. And with such a 
persuasion, we proceed to discuss 
the warmly-anticipated Tricentenary 



that with all the Protestants of this 
country it is the duty of this Church 
to commemorate, by special devo- 
tional or other services, in the Gene- 
ral Assembly, and in all our congre- 
gations, the Tricentenary of the Re- 
formation from Popery in this coun- 
try, which will occur in 1860; and 
the Assembly instruct the Committee 
to prepare suggestions for the consi- 
deration of next Assembly, with a 
view to the accomplishment of that 
object,' " &c. Much to the same 
effect is the circular sent by the 
Scottish Reformation Society to every 
Protestant minister in Scotland. It 
is dated from the office of that Society 
on 7th March 1860, and is to this 
purport : — " Dear Sir, — You are 
aware that the Tricentenary of the 
Reformation in Scotland occurs dur- 
ing the present year, and that in the 
month of August next the precise 



34 



day occurs on which, 300 years ago, 
Pupeiy was formally abjured by the 
Scottish people, and abolished by the 
civil authorities in Scotland. Every 
ycotchman is interested in pei'petuat- 
ing the memory of that great event, 
as well as in seeking to secure a con- 
tinuance, to the latest generations, of 
the vast blessings which it has been 
the means of conferring upon Scot- 
land. And this is all the more ne- 
cessary at the present time, as Popery 
is making unparalleled exertions to 

regain her lost ground The 

proposal is, that, in addition to all 
that separate Churches may do at 
their annual meetings in May, a 
great National Commemoration sliall 
be held in Edinburgh in August, 
where men will meetsiinplyas Scotch- 
men and Protestants, representing 
themselves, and speaking their own 
individual sentiments," «&;c. 

By public speeches in the various 
Church courts, and elsewhere, the 
above proposal has been cordially 
approved and recommended by the 
leading names of the countless sec- 
tions rallying under the banner of a 
nondescript Protestantism, So far 
as we have yet learned, not a single 
Protestant tongue has moved to call 
in question its propriety, nor has any 
note of dissent been heard thi'ough 
the popular press. We have, there- 
fore, no ground to expect that our 
subsequent remarks will meet with a 
gracious reception from a generation so 
enthusiastically devout in the " obser- 
vation of days, and months, andyears." 

But is not the proposed celebration 
only the natural and pious outburst 
of that sacred flame of gratitude that 
glows in the heart of true Protestants, 
and especially of the natives of Scot- 
land ? Is it not the proper expres- 
sion of praise to God for Mis signally 
gracious interposition on behalf of our 
once benighted, but now enlightened 
and rehgious country? We readily 



I grant that it appears, at first sight, to 
i have all these, and other attractive 
I characteristics ; but surely no intelli- 
J gent person will argue that good in- 
j tentions and pious appearances are 
alone sufficient to determine actions 
i to be holy or acceptable to God. He 
: is pleased with that worship alone 
! which is according to His own pre- 
1 scribed rule. He will be worshijjped 
j nut only in spirit, but in truth, or in 
\ the way expressly appointed in the 
word of truth. All other services, 
however costly, sincere, and devout, 
^ are met with the condemnatory inter- 
j rogation, " Who hath required this 
at your hand?" A late learned 
i author,* from whom we frequently 
' quote, thus writes upon this point: — 
" The history of mankind in religious 
! matters, in all ages, is little else than 
the history of error, and endless ab- 
surdities. These have never been 
wanting Avhere men have wantonly 
indulged themselves in tlie liberty of 
devising and practising acts and me- 
thods of serving the Deity which He 
never required. They have often, 
indeed, erred in the object, but more 
] often, and first, in the means and 
, manner of worship; at one time erring 
in defect, and at another in excess ; 
'' now verging towards impiety, and 
again sinking into slavish or freakish 
! superstition ; while true rehgion lies 
I at an equal distance from both ex- 
I tremes. Among other things attempts 
1 to aid the memory and to assist the 
senses in religion, to beget or keep 
( alive pious gratitude by the institu- 
I tion of days, rites, and mystical signs 
I of human device, have contributed 
I not a little to promote superstition, 
I and even to introduce that idolatry 
which hath often deluged the world." 
! Before entering upon a formal dis- 
i cussion of the lawfulness of comme- 
moration days, and adducing direct 
I arguments against their observance, 
I * Professor A Bruce. 



85 



we beg to lay before our readers a 
few preliminary considerations need- 
ful to bring the subject into view. It 
does not require a very profound ac- 
quaintance witb ecclesiastical history 
in order to ascertain the fact that such 
commemorations have ever formed 
one of the most prominent features in 
the face of her whom the Spirit de- 
signates " The Mother of Abomina- 
tions." Popery was developed in the 
bud in the fii'st century of our era, 
by attributing peculiar sanctity to 
particular days, places, &c. The days 
marked by the martyrdom of the early 
Christians were carefully registered 
by their surviving brethren, who met 
for Divine worship at tbeir tombs as 
eacb anniversary recurred ; and in 
course of time, as well as in natural 
consequence, the records of their 
respective lives and sufferings were 
read over at these yearly celebrations. 
After the death of Polycarp, about 
A.i>. 168, the Church of Smyrna, in 
their epistle to another Church, tell 
them ''That they intended, if God 
would permit, to meet at bis tomb, 
and to celebrate his birth-day with joy 
and gladness, as well for the memory 
of the sufferer, as for example to 
posterity." Cyprian orders his clergy 
to note down the days on which any 
were martyred, that a commemora- 
tion of them might be kept. The so- 
lemnities on these occasions are spe- 
cified, as consisting of prayer and 
thanksgiving to God for the example 
of the martyrs, partaking of the Lord's 
supper, giving alms to the poor, and 
sermons referring particularly to the 
pious character and conduct of the 
departed. But as the severe perse- 
cutions of these times swelled the 
honourable roll of martyrs, these su- 
perstitious celebrations were multi- 
plied accordingly, until the Christian 
martyrology became as volumnious 
as the Pagan mythology; frequenting 
tombs, churches, and altars, making 



processions, singing hymns and lita- 
nies, pronouncing and hearing pane- 
gyrics, was becoming the main busi- 
ness of professing Christians, to the 
neglect of other and more rational 
and useful duties. In the time of 
Eusebius, we are told that the saintly 
names to be commemorated already 
amounted to more than 5000 for every 
day of the year ! As it was impos- 
sible to get the year stretched so as 
to furnish each saint with his own 
day, they hit upon the ready device 
of associating a number into fellow- 
ship, and making one day serve for 
several; and lest any of them should 
have been forgotten amongst the 
crowd, the 1st November has been 
consecrated perpetually in honour of 
All Saints. If those who purpose to 
observe the approaching Tricentenary 
demand what all this has to do with 
the occasion in question, as they in- 
tend merely to commemorate one 
event, and the like occasion cannot 
happen again till the year 1 QtO ? We 
beg to demand, in turn, who can give 
us security that one such commemo- 
ration does not naturally and inevi- 
tably lead to a state of things similar 
to what has been described above? 
Are we not to place any reliance upon 
the teachingof past experience? And 
in this matter, does not ail past his- 
tory corroborate our position? The 
time was when there was only one 
human festival in the Christian woi'ld; 
and for some centuries we hear of but 
three or four that were generally re- 
garded ; yet we know well now that 
they have increased so as to be count- 
less as the stars of heaven. Allow 
but this one instance to be observed 
once in a century, and by admitting 
the principle of anniversaries, we 
make ourselves accessory to the guilt 
and folly and superstition of both 
the Popish and Pagan systems. Nay, 
our guilt is far heavier than theirs, 
in returning again to wallow in this 



86 



mire of superstition aftei' having, at 
least in the loins of our fathers, so- 
lemnly abjured it. "After all that 
is come upon us, . . . should we 
again break Thy commandments, and 
join in affinity with the people of 
these abominations, wouldest not 
Tliou be angry with us till Thou 
hadst consumed us?" 

But if it is still insisted that the 
results we anticipate from this Tri- 
centenary are groundless and extra- 
vagant, we find a reply in the recent 
history and present state of the com- 
memorative movement in our own 
Presbyterian Scotland. Since the 
Revolution of 1688 there has been, 
as every reader of Scottish Church 
history will admit, an obvious eccle- 
siastical retrogression to Popery; and 
not the least observable proof of this 
is found in the gradual increase of 
religious anniversary days. A brief 
retrospect of the more illustrious of 
these celebrations will go to establish 
the reasonableness of our apprehen- 
sions of a rapid and fatal relapse into 
superstition. 

In 1 788, the General Assembly of 
the Church of Scotland enacted and 
held a solemn anniversary tlianks- 
giving in commemoration of the Re- 
volution which had occurred exactly 
a century before. So far as we know, 
tliis was the first religious festival ap- 
pointed by that Church since the Re- 
formation; and it does not surely re- 
commend itself for imitation to right- 
hearted men, that this practice was 
resumed in the darkest midnight of 
moderation, not to say heresy. By 
such a new and imposing solemnity, 
so well fitted to kindle up the sympa- 
thies of the admiring multitude, it was 
confidently expected that a small dis- 
senting body, called Seceders, would 
undoubtedly be extinguished in the 
overwhelming glare of the popular 
ceremony, but the issue has not an- 
swered the expectation ; for she still 



shines fair as the moon, clear as the 
sun, and, by her Testimony, is ter- 
rible as an army with banners, and 
has power to torment them that dwell 
on the earth. 

The next occasion of " observing 
days" occurred in 1838, the Bicen- 
tenary of the famous Glasgow As- 
sembly. But as our space forbids us 
entering into detail, we merely refer to 
it to refresh the memory of some of our 
readers who may remember how pom- 
pously it was observed. We hasten ac- 
cordingly to the third and most recent 
occasion in 1843, when the Bicenten- 
ary of the Westminster Assembly 
fell to be celebrated. And although 
the Free Church had scarcely drawn 
breath after her severe and long con- 
tinued Disruption struggle, yet she 
did not overlook the happy concur- 
rence of dates, but made the most of 
it by giving eclat to her own inter- 
esting position. On the evening of 
the 11th July an introductory ser- 
mon was preached by the Rev. Dr. 
Symington of the R. P. Church, "in 
which," says Dr. Hetherington, " the 
principles of Christian love were beau- 
tifully and impressively explained and 
enforced. On the morning of the 
12th, Tanfield Hall was filled with 
ministers and people from all Presby- 
terian Churches in the kingdom, 
without distinction, and without jea- 
lousy or envy. It was soon evident 
that lill had come together animated 
by the true spirit of Christian love. 
Most cheering and affectingly beau- 
tiful was the sight of ministers of all 
Presbyterian denominations . . 
thus united in one common object. 
Eloquent and powerful addresses 
were delivered, explaining and vin- 
dicating the great principles of 
Presbyterian Church government, 
doctrine, and discipline, as contained 
in the Standards framed by the 

Westminster divines 

Nor was that unity of spirit and har- 



mony of heai't confined to Presbyte- 
rians, but a cordial expression of rea- 
diness to co-operate with evan<relical 
Episcopalians and Congregationalists 
was also made and sanctioned by the 
warm applause of the meeting." How 
they could, in honesty, warmly ap- 
plaud this latter proposal, and yet 
vindicate the great Presbyterian prin- 
ciples of the Westminster Standards, 
is, we confess, profoundly problema- 
tical, and we despair of meeting with 
an honourable solution. The issue 
of that " affectingly beautiful" dis- 
play of Christian love, has not equal- 
led their sanguine expectations ; for 
strife, jealousy, and division have 
made sad disruptions amongst these 
loving brethren; and although they 
met in Tanfield Hall " without dis- 
tinction," yet, in their respective de- 
nominational pulpits, they distinctly 
enough condemn each other's creed. 

We have thus proved our position 
so far — viz., that since the resumption 
of the commemorative principle in 
1788, there has been a gradual in- 
crease of such demonstrations. But 
we have mentioned only the more 
remarkable and imposing of these oc- 
casions, our space allowing but a 
brief summary of numerous minor 
indications of the growing tendency 
of Presbyterians to such ceremonies. 
And as it has been already shewn 
that the Popish festivals began by 
celebrating amongst the tombs the 
death of martys, so it is now in our 
own country. How often is it re- 
corded in the public journals, that on 
such a day, the anniversary of such 
a martyrdom, the inhabitants of the 
district are convened at the hoary 
cairn which marks the venerated spot, 
and services performed with more than 
ordinary devotion, inspired, no doubt, 
by the hallowing influences of the 
place, and the scenes which it recalls 
I to memory. What a powerful aid to 
I devotion is this ! Again, is it not 



ARK. 37 

a fact of commonest observation, that 
a minister cannot be fifty years in 
a congregation, but there must be a 
jubilee, festive celebration, when 
brethren of all denominations take 
part in the congratulatory services? 
A church cannot be erected, nor a 
pastor inducted, but there must be a 
congregational soiree as the anniver- 
sary day duly returns. And so on. 
It is a serious question, Where is all 
this to stop ? This is an age of shows, 
exhibitions, bazaars, festivals, and all 
kinds of celebrations, civil, military, 
literary, and ecclesiastic. This fes- 
tive spirit is permeating all society. 
Common enjoyments will not go 
down. There must be something 
grand and exciting. Nothing short 
of electric agency serves to awaken 
the sympathy, or secure the support 
of the community. And may we not 
reason that, when such material and 
pompous displays are resorted to in 
religious matters, it affords melan- 
choly evidence of the absence of the 
Holy Spirit? For, if His presence 
and power were fielt, who would ever 
think of such unwarranted means of 
exciting devotion ? Surely Scottish 
Protestantism is very dead when there 
is need for such a galvanic stimulus 
to get up a show of life ! In all 
these cases the power of multitude 
and co-operation is an essential ele- 
ment ; and thus the little flock, whose 
faith stands not in the wisdom of man, 
but in the power of God, is hidden 
from popular view ; and the Church 
of God cannot be seen because of the 
glaring brilliance of great numbers, 
great names, and great human con- 
trivances in devotion. We are sure 
that all who love the truth, who ad- 
here to Reformation principles, and 
who are possessed of Christian pa- 
triotism, must lament such a state of 
matters, especially when we view it 
in connexion with the alarming in- 
crease of Popish influence in the land, 



38 



and the tendency to favour it mani- 
fested even by Presbyterians, who 
are labouring to revive long-abo- 
lished ceremonies, treasuring up 
relics of Protestant saints, propping 
up the houses wherein they dwelt, 
and exhibiting them for money, nam- 
ing their churches after them, build- 
ing and garnishing the sepulchres of 
the martyrs, and yet hating their 
principles ; the movement in favour 
of instrumental music in worship, 
attempts at liturgies, genuflexions, 
hymns, choirs, and doxologies, &c., ! 
&c. And might we not here refer to 
the growing frequency of Protestant 
pilgrimages to places supposed to j 
have peculiar sanctity, especially to i 
those mentioned in Scripture ? And | 
is it not a well-known fact that there ; 
are Presbyterians of greatest fame for | 
piety, whose religious emotions were j 
never more genuine, deep, and strong, [ 
than when they prayed under an j 
olive-tree in the literal Gethsemane, , 
or partook of the sacrament iu an | 
upper room at Jerusalem ? ! 

With such abundance of sympto- 
matic evidence of the Popish plague 
within our Presbyterian walls, can 
any one insist that our apprehensions 
are groundless in regard to the fatal 
results of the proposed commemora- 
tion ? Does it not manifestly inflict 
a mortal wound upon the Reforma- 
tion cause ? Was not that a Refor- 
mation from Popery as a system 
eminently characterished by holidays, 
as the gaudiest portion of her Baby- 
lonish attire, and best adapted to 
win the embraces of the nations al- 
ready accustomed to idolatrous fes- 
tivals in honour of their heroes and 
their gods? Nay, as we shall here- 
after more particularly prove, are not 
all such celebrations expressly con- 
demned in the Reformation standards? 
How, then, can w^e shew gratitude 
for that event by removing one of its 
chief landmarks? How can we praise 



God for delivering our nation from 
the Popish Egypt by setting up in the 
wilderness a calf- like imitation of 
their own idol, and sitting down to 
eat and drink in its honour, and 
rising up to play ? 

Does any one still plead that true 
devotion is excited by thus setting 
apart a day to remember the wonder- 
ful works of God to the Church? If 
so, then Episcopalians, and especially 
Papists, have far outstripped Presby- 
terians in true devotion, for they find 
some wonderful work to commemo- 
rate almost every day in the year. 
How misguided were our Reformers 
to discard so powerful a means of 
kindling up a holy flame! How stu- 
pid, forgetful, and ungrateful, not to 
say ungodly, we Presbyterians have 
been, in having so long neglected to 
keep holidays for the remembrance 
of past great deliverances ! And how 
grateful ought we to be to the Mode- 
rate and Socinian Assembly of 1788, 
for giving a resurrection to this long- 
buried privilege! How slow are real 
Presbyterians to perceive their duty, 
seeing they forgot to celebrate the Re- 
formation both in 1660, and 1760! 
Verily, in this respect, we are now 
far in advance of our dull forefathers; 
it shall not be forgotten any more ; 
for we have now learned from the 
Papists a lesson of true devotion ! 

But, does it not strike the reader, 
that if one day of this sort be pro- 
ductive of piety, or expressive of it, 
conducive to the honour of God, and 
the edification of Christians, then, 
certainly more days must be more so, 
according to the maxim, Bonum ad- 
ditum bono facit mcujis bonum. There 
are surely more memorable displays 
of Divine goodness to commemorate 
than the Reformation of 1560. And 
if anniversary celebrations are neces- 
sary for maintaining a due and grate- 
ful sense of these upon our minds, 
why nut be consistent, and appropriate 



39 



a day to each ? If the principle be 
right, let us go through with it. Let 
us not stint ourselves to a meagre 
piety by having so tew days of this 
kind. Why may we not commemo- 
rate in the same way the lar more 
memorable events of the nativity, 
crucifixion, resurrection, and ascen- 
sion of our Lord ? Are not these and 
other events recorded in Scripture 
far more glorious in their nature, and 
conveying richer and more widely ex- 
tending blessings than our Scottish Re- 
formation? On this part of the sub- 
ject it has been well said by Professor 
Bruce, in his Annus Secidaris, "The 
worship of the Gospel is not more 
arbitrary and unfixed than that set- 
tled under the law. To the positive 
and symbolical institutions appointed 
therein, which are but few, no addi- 
tion can be made, lawfully, or to any 
advantage. The days, or rather day, 
which Divine wisdom hath hallowed, 
and the ordinances which it hath 
enjoined, are abundantly sufficient for 
all the purposes of rehgion. If any 
of these are designed to be memorials 
of redemption, or symbols of its mys- 
teries, their design is marked out, and 
the relation between the signs and 
the mysteries fixed in the rule of in- 
stitution. Whatever immediate or 
symbolical relation any particular or- 
dinance or act may have to any part 
of the mystery of redemption or faith, 
it bears, at the same time, a relation 
to the whole mystery, and compre- 
hends all its parts. Neither parti- 
cular days nor particular ordinances 
are to be considered as peculiarly 



appropriated to any one event or 
mystery separately taken ; because, 
like Christ himself, the doctrines and 
the mysteries of our faith are undi- 
vided. No commemorative or festi- 
val days, in this sense, belong to the 
Gospel state ; for it is that continued 
day which the Lord hath made, wherein 
we are called to rejoice. It is that 
great and high festival in which we 
are to sing Hosannas and Hallelujahs ; 
and in which, without ceasing, we 
are to draw water out of the spiri- 
tual wells of salvation. It is the pass- 
over, ever to be kept with the un- 
leavened bread of sincerity and truth. 
It is the season of festivity that ever 
lasteth, and a perpetual jubilee. The 
Sabbath is not now to be observed 
as ceremonial or mystical, nor as a 
weekly festival appropriated only to 
the celebration of the resurrection of 
Christ, but for commemorating the 
whole of our redemption at large, and 
lor performing all the exercises of 
godliness in general." We fear that 
those who revive these ceremonies 
have not understood the liberty where- 
with Christ makes His people free. 
" But now, after that ye have known 
God, or rather are known of God, how 
turn ye again to the weak and beg- 
garly elements, whereunto ye desire 
again to be in bondage ? Ye observe 
days, and months, and times, and 
years. I am afraid of you, lest 1 
have bestowed upon you labour in 
vain." Gal. iv. 9-11. 

As our remarks have been rather 
general, we intend to state more for- 
mal arguments in our next. 



Itistifiratiait bg faitlfe, 

{Continued Jrom page 32.) 



II. Justification, or the sentence 
of absolution from guilt, does not, 
and cannot rest upon anything in or 
done by the prisoner. This is pain- 



fully clear from his proved guilt. As 
to personal righteouness, he has none ; 
for " there is no man that sinneth 
not." The sinner, moreover, is de- 



40 



praved as well as guilty, and there- 
fore never had personal righteous- 
ness to plead. "Behold, I was 
shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my 
mother conceive me." Besides all 
this, we read that " God justifieth 
the ungodly." Tlie divine law neces- 
sarily demands universal and perfect 
obedience. "Cursed is every one 
tl:at continueth not in all things 
written in the book of the law to do 
them ;" but "in many things we of- 
fend all." Although we could render 
perfect obedience to the precept of 
the law, justice demands that we suf- 
fer the penalty incnrred, for which we 
are altogether inadequate. "With- 
out shedding of blood there is no 
remission." And, in fine, justifica- 
tion upon the imaginary ground of 
our own works or sufferings, would 
entitle us to boast, and deprive the 
doctrine of the grace of God which 
is essential to it. "Being justified 
freely by His grace through the re- 
demption that is in Christ Jesus." 
Thus the dogma of justification by 
works in any and every sense, is 
contradicted by the uniform testi- 
mony of Scripture, is contrary to 
the declared guilt of every child 
of Adam, and is repudiated by every 
believer. "And be found in Him, 
not having mine own righteousness 
which is of the law, but that which 
is through the faith of Christ, the 
righteousness which is of God by 
f..;*i, " Arminianism in all its forms 



faitl 



IS unscnptural and irrational. 

in. The righteousness of Christ 
is the solid, sufficient, and honour- 
able ground on which the guilty 



sinner is justified. We need scarcely 
say to the intelligent that we refer not 
to His essential righteousness as God, 
which is necessary to Him and incom- 
municable, but to His mediatorial or 
surety righteousness. This latter or 
surety righteousness of Christ com- 
prises His perfect obedience to every 
precept of the moral law, aTid His 
exhaustion, by His sufferings unto 
the death, of the incurred penalty. 
By the former "He has magnified 
the law and made it honourable;" 
and by the latter, He has satisfied 
every claim of justice. Accordingly, 
as " the Lord our rijrhteousness," He 
"is the end of the law for righteous- 
ness to every one that believeth." 
The properties of this righteousness 
demonstrate its adequacy to meet all 
the requirements of the case. It is 
the righteousness of "God's fellow 
and equal," and is, therefore, divine, 
perfect, and everlasting. As nothing 
can be taken from it, so nothing can 
be added to it. Justice, the public 
prosecutor, receives fullest satis- 
faction ; the law, the principal wit- 
ness against the prisoner, receives 
more than it originally claimed, by 
the obedience of a Divine person; 
God the judge is "well pleased for 
His righteousness' sake," and ab- 
solves the sinner from the guilt 
charged upon him; and the sinner 
himself, thus absolved, sings his song, 
"Surely in the Lord have I right- 
eousness and strength." Clothed 
with this righteousness, "God him- 
self sees no iniquity in Jacob, and 
no perverseness in Israel." 
( To he continued.') 



James Wood, 132 George Street. 



"^^'Irii^SsllSir--^^- -^'^ 



C|r Jrk. 



Vol. iii.-iaro. 6. 



JUNE I860. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 
The Tricentenary of the Eeforjiation. 
Justification by Faith. 



i&« ©rianteiuui nt tlje llcfonUittian. 



{^Continued from page 39.) 



Having already drawn attention to 
the superstitions nature, origin, and 
tendency of religious anniversaries in 
the Christian dispensation, and having 
adduced the most obvious proofs of 
their growing popularity in the pre- 
sent day, we now proceed to state 
briefly a few arguments against the 
lawfulness of such observances. We 
have, however, one or two remarks 
to make by way of preliminary. 

\st, The question is not, whether 
a day may be set apart occasionalbj 
for religious worship, as when special 
providences call for fasting and hu- 
miliation, or for thanksgiving and re- 
joicing ; but whether a day may be 
set apart to be observed constantbj as 
it recurs every year, or every fifty, or 
a hundred years, as the case may be. 
In the latter instance, a difference is 
made between that day of the year 
and other days, appropriating or sanc- 
tifying it altogether and constantly 
from common and civil to sacred and 
ecclesiastical purposes. In the for- 
mer instance this is not done, but 
only a recognition is made of the 
present urgent call of Providence 
either to humiliation or rejoicing ; 
but these peculiar circumstances do 



not impart any permanent character, 
either of gloom or of cheerfulness, to 
the particular period of time wherein 
they happen, so as to distinguish it 
when it again recurs. For example, 
circumstances may be such as to 
make it a clear duty of the Church 
to " sanctify a fast, and call a solemn 
assembly " on the 20th August 1860; 
but on the same day of 1861 there 
may be as loud a call, from existing 
Providential circumstances, to cele- 
brate thanksgiving and praise. Or, 
to apply it to the case in point : our 
progenitors had reason to rejoice in the 
year 1560, when they beheld Christ's 
true Kirk set up in the land upon the 
ruins of Antichrist ; but now, in 
1860, the defection from that blessed 
[ Reformation has reached such an 
j irrecoverable pitch, as to call, not for 
I joyful celebration, but most profound 
lamentation. And we would kindly 
I and seriously suggest to the com- 
! memorators of the proposed tricen- 
tenary, the wholesome exercise of 
searching into the causes which have 
operated, especially of late years, to 
bring Eeformed Scottish Presbyte- 
rianism into its now fragmented, de- 
moralised, and tremulous condition. 



42 



Would such an inquiry, candidly 
prosecuted, not lead to the discovery 
that you are about to commemorate 
a Reformation which your own false 
liberality, unchristian charity, and 
fond toleration, have shattered into 
melancholy ruins? Let us not be 
misunderstood, as if we here ques- 
tioned the good intentions of the 
comraemorators. We do not ; but 
we state our solemn conviction that 
they are liable, as Presbyterians, as 
the descendants of Reforming Protes- 
tants, to the heavy charge of culpa- 
ble ignorance and gross inconsistency. 
Nay, further, we charge them with 
tlie breach of the most public, solemn, 
and formal obligations ever entered 
into by any people, and with hazard- 
ing that liberty and purity of prin- 
ciple which our forefathers struggled 
and bled to obtain and preserve. 
And in substantiating this weighty 
accusation, we must here, and still by 
way of preliminary, remark in the 
second place — 

2d. Admitting that we had no for- 
mal Scripture arguments to produce 
against such anniversary religious 
displays, we would still expect some 
very cogent reasons for reviving a 
practice so obviously repudiated by 
our pious and learned reforming 
fathers. In the hope of meeting with 
some such reasons, we have examined 
all the public and official references 
to the approaching tricentenary, but 
have, as yet, come upon only one 
alleged argument for the lawfulness 
of the practice. At the last annual 
meeting of the Scottish Reformation 
Society, which is supposed to repre- 
sent the very elite of Scottish Pro- 
testantism, there w^ere many rapturous 
allusions to the warmly- anticipated 
commemoration ; and, in particular, 
Dr. Wylie devoted his entire speech 
to a statement of reasons why Scot- 
land should " sacredly observe " the 
Tricentenary of 1 5 GO. The reverend 



gentleman's leading argument was 
based upon the fact, that the children 
of Israel were commanded to cele- 
brate their deliverance from Egypt by 
keeping the feast of the Passover ever 
after, as the particular day annually 
came round. And as the Reforma- 
tion of 15G0 was the exodus of our 
nation from the brick-kilns of Po- 
pery, and John Knox the Moses who 
conducted it, therefore we also should 
hold a sacred anniversary celebration 
of the glorious event. We do not 
require to be very elaborate in prov- 
ing the hoUowness of this reasoning. 
The Passover, and other Israelitish 
festivals, were not founded upon any 
plea of pious custom, religious expe- 
diency, or good intention, but upon 
the express command of God ; as in 
the case referred to, " This day shall 
be unto you for a memorial ; and ye 
shall keep it a feast to the Lord 
throughout your generations, by an 
ORDINANCE for cvcr," Exod. xii. 
Have we any such ordinance in re- 
gard to the Reformation of 1560 ? 
If not, whence does any religious 
society receive its authority to con- 
secrate a day, or days, to commemo- 
rate that event? As we have al- 
ready shewn, no human authority, 
no ecclesiastical tradition, and no 
expediency, can render any worship 
acceptable to God. His own express 
institution is the only warrant for 
the service which is of faith ; and 
where this is wanting, however de- 
votional and sincere the service may 
be, it is mere superstition. More- 
over, the Jewish festivals formed a 
principal part of that ceremonial law 
which has been thoroughly abrogated. 
They were typical of the Gospel 
dispensation and its spiritual bless- 
ings — shadows of things to come ; 
but since these good things have in- 
deed come in the substance, we no 
longer require the shadows. "Let 
no man therefore judge you in meat, 



43 



or in drink, or in respect of an holi- 
day, &c., which are a shadow of things 
to come ; but the body is of Christ." 
Let us beware then of manifesting 
contempt for Christ the substance, 
by again reviving the ceremonial 
shadows. "Beware lest any man 
spoil you through philosophy and 
vain deceit, after the tradition of 
men, after the rudiments of the world, 
and not after Christ." These festivals 



state one or two arguments against 
it. 

I. There is no command of Christ, 
or of the Apostles, to celebrate such 
religious anniversary festivals. As 
no adversary has yet appeared to 
attack this main position, we need 
not here attempt formally to defend 
it. The argument is impregnable ; 
and, were there no other upon our 



I side, we might rest in triumph upon 
were among the " carnal ordinances I this alone. In vain do men worship 
imposed until the time of reforma- j God by a device which the Head of 
tion." But that time being come, \ the Church has never sanctioned, 
we are no longer to be subject to j The Son of Man is Lord of the 
these " carnal ordinances," for this 1 Sabbath ; and as the " Lord's day " 
is a spiritual and free dispensation. I is the only one sanctified by Himself 



The Church was then in its child- 
hood, and "in bondage under the 
elements of the world." But now 
"the fulness of the time" is come, 
and the Son of God hath made His 
Church free from that yoke, which 
the fathers were not able to bear. 
Why should any who have tasted 
the sweets of this spiritual liberty, 
turn again to these " weak and 
beggarly elements," to entangle them 



as sufficient for the commemoration 
of all His gracious benefits, we must 
not be beguiled by any man, or by 
any ecclesiastical society, to yield 
our Christian liberty of working six 
days of the week, and resting on the 
Sabbath, according to the command- 
ment. And, lest any one should 
object that days set apart for fasting 
or thanksgiving encroach upon this 
liberty, we shall deem the objection 



selves in the yoke of bondage by obviated by merely stating the prin- 
ciples of the Church of Scotland 
upon this point, as found in her 
Directory for Public Worship: "There 
is no day commanded in Scripture, 
to be kept holy under the Gospel, 
but the Lord's day, which is the 
Christian Sabbath. Festival days. 



•vmg " days, and months, and 
times, and years'?" It is painfully 
surprising that Presbyterian reve- 
rend doctors in 1860 are seeking to 
revive the dead and buried carcase 
of Judaical ceremonies! And in 
this attempt they are not so consis- 



tent as the Papists, who, instead of ! vulgarly called holy days, having 
mangling that ceremonial carcase by j no warrant in the Word of God, are 
wrenching off a limb here and there, j not to be continued. Nevertheless, 



honestly set up the entire skeleton of 
priesthood, altar, sacrifices, &c. If 
it is conducive to modern presbyterian 
piety to exhume the holiday limb of 
the buried system, why not carry out 
the pious project by raising up again 
the whole ceremonial law? With 
these observations we pass from the 
only formal plea we have yet seen 
advanced in support of this inno- 
vation ; and we now proceed to 



it is lawful and necessary, upon 
special emergent occasions, to separ- 
ate a day, or days, for public fasting 
or thanksgiving, as the several emi- 
nent and extraordinary dispensations 
of God's providence shall administer 
cause and opportunity to His people." 
11. There is no instance in the New 
Testament that can be adduced as an 
example or warrant for the obser- 
vance of such anniversaries. This argu- 



44 



ment is also conclusive ; and however 
such an instance is fervently desired 
by the pleaders for holidays, they have 
been unable to find one to suit their 
purpose, from IMatthew to Kevelation. 
If the celebration of such days be so 
eminently fitted to excite and preserve 
devotional sentiment and genuine 
piety, then it was surely a lamen- 
table oversight in the constitution of j 
the New Testament Church, that ' 
neither Christ nor the Apostles said 
one word in favour of them ; and if 
they indeed form so eminent a means 
of grace, how is it that the new-born 
Christian Church had not the benefit 
of any anniversary festival to nourish 
and strengthen it in its early strug- 
gles ? It could not be for want of 
something worthy to be commemo- 
rated ; for the most memorable events 
of Christanity had occurred but shortly 
before, or were then actually taking 
place ; such as the birth, the death, 
the resurrection, and the ascension of 
our Lord ; the outpouring of the 
Spirit ; the conversion of Paul, &c. 
Neither could it be for want of 
martyrs and martyrs' graves ; for 
they could not have forgotten that 
John the Baptist was beheaded ; that 
Stephen was stoned ; and that James, 
the brother of John, was killed with 
the sword : and there were other less 
notable martyrs about the same time. 
Why did not the disciples of John 
bold religious services over the spot 
where they had buried his headless 
body ? Or why did not the devout 
men who carried Stephen to his burial, 
and made great lamentation over him, 
assemble there for solemn worship as 
the sadly distinguished day annually 
recurred ? But of any such practice 
there is not a whisper in the whole 
New Testament ; and being thus 
unsupported either by precept or 
example, who can avoid the con- 
clusion that it is an unlawful inno- 
vation ? 



III. Religious anniversaries are po- 
sitively condemned by Christ and the 
apostles. 

Such ceremonies are, doubtless, 
comprehended in the memorable de- 
claration of our Lord, "In vain do 
they worship me, teaching for doc- 
trines the commandments of men." 
For as He has recorded no precept 
for such a practice, its existence in 
the Church can only be traced to the 
" commandments of men ;" it is there- 
fore a vanity in worship, and abo- 
minable to God. This is placed be- 
yond all controvei-sy by the unequi- 
vocal language of the Holy Spirit by 
Paul, which Ave have already quoted. 
" How turn ye again to the weak 
and beggarly elements, whereunto ye 
desire again to be in bondage ? Ye 
observe days, and months, and times, 
and years. I am afraid of you, lest 
I have bestowed upon you labour in 
vain," Gal. iv. 9-11. This is plainly 
enough a sentence of condemnation 
against all sorts of commemorations ; 
yet some are so unintellectual as to 
object that only the Jewish festivals 
are intended. Be it so ; the apostle 
makes no exception ; and the objec- 
tion serves rather to strengthen than 
to weaken our argument ; for, if the 
censure applies to the Jewish holidays 
alone, he gives not the least intima- 
tion that any other days were to be 
substituted in their stead; and there- 
fore any anniversary observed by 
Christians falls more directly under 
this condemnatory stroke of the Holy 
Spirit, than those observed by the 
Jews; for the one has at no time 
been sanctioned by the Divine com- 
mand or approbation, whereas the 
others were at first instituted by God 
Flimself, and favoured with His coun- 
tenance during the continuance of the 
Jewish economy. 

Such being the clear declarations of 
our Lord and His apostles against the 
observance of religious anniversaries. 



45 



we shall now briefly attend to the suc- 
cessive testimonies of the Church in 
regard to the same subject in subse- 
quent periods. Like other innova- 
tions in religious worship, the cele- 
bration of holidays crept into the 
Church by little and little, and thus 
escaped for a time any decided oppo- 
sition. There has been, however, from 
the apostolic era, a continuous line 
of faithful witnesses, who have dis- 
tinctly testified against this supersti- 
tion. Our space permits us to notice 
only a few of the more eminent of 
their testimonies. We find from the 
accredited histories of the first two or 
three centuries, that there was no law 
to regulate either the time or the man- 
ner of celebrating religious festivals ; 
for, in different places, the same occa- 
sions were commemorated upon dif- 
ferent days, and by very dissimilar ob- 
servances. And in the disputes of the 
different parties upon this mattei", they 
were never able to offer any precept 
or example from Scripture in support 
of their customs; and indeed they 
never professed to have any authority 
higher than tradition. At the dawn 
of the Eeformation on the Continent, 
all who were honoured publicly to 
advance that cause, laboured with 
more or less zeal and success for the 
abolition of holidays )along with the 
other superstitions of Rome. The 
authorised testimonies of the Walden- 
ses and Albigenses distinctly con- 
demned the religious observance of 
any day except the Sabbath. The I 
churches of Geneva, of Strasburgh, i 
and of Zurich, abolished all such days, 
at least for a time. Wickliffe does 
not favour them in his writings. Lu- 
ther declares in his book to the Ger- 
man nobility, " I wish there were no 
festival among Christians, except the 
Lord's day." Calvin, although con- 
senting to the observance of some 
days as sanctioned by the Magistrates 
of Geneva, yet expresses himself in 



several of his writings in favour of 
their entire abolition. Farel, Viret, 
Beza, and other reformers of that pe- 
riod, exerted themselves to get men 
weaned from this favourite supersti- 
tion. We might also quote the official 
testimonies of the Reformed Churches 
of France and Belgium, as well as the 
Articles and the Catechism of the 
Dutch Reformed Church, all to the 
same effect, repudiating all holidays 
except the Sabbath; but this would 
occupy too much of our space, which 
we wish to devote more especially to 
a consideration of what our own re- 
formers have testified in regard to this 
suWect. 

The earliest reformers of England 
were, in the main, anxious for the total 
abolition of the holiday superstition ; 
and Bucer, in particular, has recorded 
his judgment, "that all of them might, 
without exception, be abolished, as 
having been introduced without any 
divine warrant; but at first, by a zeal 
not according to knowledge." The 
Puritans, who insisted on a reforma- 
tion in church government and wor- 
ship, condemned the imposition and 
observation of these days, and sup- 
plicated the legislatui-e to abolish 
them. 

When Prelacy and the Liturgy 
were condemned in the time of the 
long Parliament, holidays were dis- 
missed along with the other abomina- 
tions, and England enjoyed a precious 
season of religious freedom from all 
such ceremonies, until they were again 
introduced, with political and ecclesi- 
astical tyranny, at the Restoration. 
But, to come nearer home : What 
have been the principles and practice 
of the Reformed Church of Scotland 
in regard to this question ? And 
here we cannot do better than begin 
with the words of the youthful George 
Gillespie, so justly celebrated for 
sanctified learning and profound 
knowledge of the Scriptures. He 



46 



says, " Though the greatest part of 
the Reformed Churches should retain 
some holidays, that does not commend 
the practice to the Church of Scot- 
land, because she did spue them out 
■with so great detestation, that she is 
more bound to abhor them than other 
Churches which did not the like. 
And she is tied yet with another bond 
to hate holidays ; for, by a solemn 
oath sworn to the God of heaven, she 
hath abjured all anti-christian and 
popish riteS; and dedicating of days 
particularly." 

In 1560, the very occasion now to 
be celebrated by an anniversary, the 
doctrine of the Reformers in regard ! 
to festival days is thus explicitly set ! 
down in the First Book of Discipline, 
and under the first head : " We affirm 
that to be contrary doctrine to the 
Word, that man has invented and 
imposed on the consciences of men, 
by laws, councils, and constitutions, 
without the express command of j 
God's Word. Of this kind are,— 
superstitious observation of fasting 
days, &c. ... In this rank, the holi- 
days invented by men, we judge ' 
utterly to be abolished forth of this \ 
realm, because they have no assur- j 
ance in God's Word. All main- i 
tainers of such abominations, should 
be punished with the civil sword.'' 
Such is the judicial deliverance of the i 
Reformed Church of Scotland in : 
1560; while in 1860 the professed 
decendents of that Church, and claim- ! 
ing the inheritance of her principles, 
set themselves to do her an honour 
by violating her first law ! 

We have thus shewn, that from the 
very beginning, the Reformed Church 
of Scotland set her face against holi- 
days ; and in subsequent periods her 
faithful Synods and ministers have 
both doctrinally and practically con- 
demned the observation of them. 
The General Assembly of 1575 or- 
dained, " that all days" which hereto- 



I fore have been kept holy, viz: — Yule 
day, Saints' day, and such others, be 
j abolished ; and that a civil penalty 
be appointed against the keepers 
I thereof, by ceremonies, &c." 
! The Assembly of 1577 ordained, 
' "that the visitors, with the advice of 
[ the Synodal Assembly, should ad- 
[ monish ministers, preaching or min- 
I istrating the communion at Easter or 
! Christmas, or other like superstitious 
j times, to desist under pain of depriva- 
tion." 

In the National Covenant, which 
contains a summary of the doctrines 
and attainments of the first Refor- 
mation, the " dedicating of days," 
and " the observing of festival days," 
is distinctly condemned amongst the 
other " dregs of bygone idolatry." 
And in the Assembly of 1596, at 
which time the Covenant was re- 
newed, they reckoned it one of the 
dangerous symptoms of " the break- 
ing forth of supei'stition and idola- 
try, that festival days were observed 
by some of the people ; and the 
pulpits did sound, from time to time, 
against all show of observing any 
festival day whatever, except the 
Lord's day." Moreover, by an act 
of Assembly 1645, it is unanimously 
ordained, " that the observers of Yule 
day, or other superstitious days, shall 
be proceeded against by kirk cen- 
sures ; and shall make their public 
repentance, therefore, in the face of 
the offended congregation. And if 
masters of schools or colleges grant 
vacancy on that day, they are to be 
cited to answer to the next Assembly 
by the ministers of the place, &c. 
And the Parliament of Scotland of 
1647, in the purest times of the 
second Reformation, made an act 
" discharging the observation of su- 
perstitious days " of the tenor follow- 
ing — "The Estates of Parliament 
.... inhibit all and every one to 
observe the superstitious time of 



47 



Yule ; or any other superstitious 
days, in any manner of way ; and 
that under the pains contained in 
the acts of Parliament made against 
profanation of the Sabbath; and re- 
commend to all whom it concerns, to 
see this act observed, and the con- 
traveners punished in their persons 
and goods condeignly." 

At the Restoration of Charles IL, 
there was ordained a solemn anni- 
versary thanksgiving to commemo- 
rate the event; to which Brown of 
Wamphray thus alludes in his " Apo- 
logetical Relation." " Unto this 
Act many of the ministry did give 
obedience, through fear, but others 
could not in conscience yield to it, be- 
cause it is not in the power of any under 
heaven to apjwint anniversary holidays, 
the Creator alone having reserved 
that power into His own hand, to 
consecrate any portion of time He 
pleaseth, and make it holy, so as 
holy duties must attend it, as holy 
duties and acts of worship attend the 
Sabbath-day, the only holiday which 
is now warranted by the Word of 
God." 

By these extracts, which we might 
multiply very considerably, we have 
sufficiently indicated the principles 
of genuine Scottish and Scriptural 
Presbyterianism in regard to ani- 
versaries ; and we need not ask our 
readers to decide whether these prin- 
ciples can consist with the comme- 
morative practices now so popular 
amongst those who profess to main- 
tain and defend the doctrines of the 
Reformation. It is plain that these 
ceremonies cannot endure the clear 
light of Scripture which we have 
brought to bear upon them ; that 
they are condemned by the unani- 
mous voice of every faithful witness 
for the truth, since the time of the 
Apostles ; and that the purest of the 
Reformed Churches collectively and 
judicially, as well as their most emi- 



nent members individually, have, with 
unfaltering consent, regarded them as 
vain superstitions. But not to prose- 
cute further a train of argument which 
few, in these days of lalitudinarian 
sentiment, may consider worthy of 
serious entertainment, we may be al- 
lowed to suggest as an interesting sub- 
1 ject of investigation, the remarkable 
I prevalence of festival days in the sys- 
I stems of Paganism, Mohammedanism, 
I Popery, and Episcopacy. We need 
j not remind any one who is but ge- 
nerally versant with their main fea- 
I tures, that anniversary commemora- 
tions constitute the trunk of all these 
1 systems, and give being and attrac- 
tiveness to an endless variety of sacri- 
fices, feasts, fasts, and other rites and 
superstitions. " When the encroach- 
ments of superstition once break in, 
they swell to a boundless sea. Of 
this the history of past ages affords 
the most ample proof. When the an- 
cient nations got into the humour of 
multiplying their deities, and of ap- 
pointing sacrifices and festivals in their 
honour, to what an astonishing mul- 
titude did they soon grow! Every 
month of the year beame full of fasts 
and sacred feasts. If we look into an 
old Grecian or Roman kalendar, we 
scarce see one day, from the begin - 
nig of the year to the end of it, left 
blank; but here a feast, and there a 
feast, and for ever a feast." In illus- 
tration of this we might revert to the 
customs of every Gentile nation before 
the Christian era; and we might also 
mention the countless festivals and 
holidays yet celebrated by the heathen 
world; but it is inexpedient to pro- 
long this article by giving elaborate 
evidence regarding what is so univer- 
sally known. We deem it enough 
to advert to the instructive fact, as 
bearing upon our subject, that the 
systems which are most opposite to 
Christianity, which are most " after 
the working of Satan," and which 



48 



have been most uaspai'ingly con- 
demned by the Church of God, are 
those which have most indulged in 
anniversary coramemoi'ations. Chris- 
tianity, in its purest development, 
as Protestant and Presbyterian, has 
most unequivocally repudiated all 
anti-christian holiday rags. And in 
the light of this fact, we are fully 
warranted to examine this proposed 
Reformation festival, and to pronounce 
it essentially idolatrous. And, espe- 



cially, as it is observed by professing 
Protestants, it is a grand concession 
to Popery ; as by Presbyterians it is 
utterly at variance with their genuine 
and long-tested principles; and as 
held by Scotchmen, it is a gross breach 
of solemn, national engagements, and 
a swallowing again of that supersti- 
tious vomit, which, as Gillespie avers, 
Scotland " spued out with great de- 
testation." 



{^Continued from page 40.) 



IV. The sinner, the prisoner, be- 
comes interested in Christ's right- 
eousness, as the ground of his justi- 
fication, by the Judge imputing it to 
him. The doctrine of imputation is 
variously objected to by Romanists 
and Arminians, and perhaps in no 
manner more frequently and plausi- 
bly than by confounding it with im- 
jyarting or conveying. The scrip- 
tural sense of impute is to charge 
to the account of, to hold guilty ; but 
this is carefully to be distinguished 
from impart or convey, the confound- 
ing of which distinction has led the 
popular Timothy D wight to deny the 
imputation of the guilt of Adam's 
first sin to his represented posterity — 
a heresy painfully popular in Presby- 
terian Scotland. Adam's depravity 
is imparted, but his guilt is imputed, 
or charged to our account. Because 
of this distinction, Christ had no 
father on earth, and was born of the 
Virgin, whereby depravity could not 
be conveyed ; and thus He was " the 
holy thing born of the Virgin." But 
our guilt was imputed to Him, was 
charged to His account. " The Lord 



laid on Him the iniquity of us all." 
As our guilt was imputed to Him, 
so His righteousness is imputed to 
us ; the law dealt with Him as held 
guilty, and now deals with us as held 
righteous. "Thei'efore as by the 
olfence of one judgment came upon 
all men to condemnation, even so by 
the righteousness of one the free 
gift came upon all men to justifica- 
tion of life." The doctrine of im- 
putation shews the doctrine of the 
covenant of works; for, without a 
covenant arragement there is no 
place for imputation ; it shews also 
the covenant of grace, of which 
Christ is the Mediator ; and it shews 
how a scheme of redemjition for 
sinners of our family was compatible 
with the sovereign will of God, 
while redemption for the fallen 
angels, with whom no covenant was 
made, is a severe problem for created 
intellect. And thus the popular de- 
nial of imputation necessitates a de- 
nial of the covenant of works, and 
obscures the glory of the covenant of 
grace. 

(To he continued.') 



Edinburgh : Printed and Published for the Proprietors bj' Paton and Eitciiie, 81 Princes 
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Vol. III. -No. 7. 



JULY 1860. 



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CONTENTS. 
History of the First Reformation in Scotland. 



iistai'g oi tlje |irst Scfonniitian in ^rotlanlr. 



The Reformation from Popery, 
whether viewed in the light of Scrip- 
ture or history, forms the most im- 
portant and comprehensive movement 
of the Western Empire. The Euro- 
pean disorganization which it effected, 
and the new fabric which it reared, 
left an impress on the literature, 
politics, and religion of Europe, which 
the tear and wear of three centuries 
have not been able to efface. Its 
history, therefore, as embracing pre- 
disposing causes, the direct means 
used, the instrumentality employed, 
the consolidation secured, and the 
benefits, political and ecclesiastical, 
achieved, is an object of deepest 
interest to the intellect of Europe, 
and especially of this country. 

Although this mighty movement 
of the sixteenth century originated 
on the Continent, and is to be largely 
ascribed to the indomitable and sanc- 
tified coui-age of the Saxon Reformer, 
yet our object in this article is to con- 
fine the attention of the reader to a 
few of the more prominent and in- 
structive facts in the history of the 
Reformation in Scotland ; and to this 
we feel drawn, from the fact, that 
Rome herself felt and confessed Scot- 
land's heroes to be the most uncom- 
promising, and her Reformation to 



cut deepest into the heart of the 
Papacy. This enviable notoriety our 
country still retains amidst the apos- 
tacy of the Continent and the trac- 
tarianism of England. Her direct 
and thorough-going policy brought 
her far a-head of Lutheranism on the 
Continent and incipient Puseyism in 
her sister of the south. This lumi- 
nous fact in her history is mainly 
attributable to her love of Presbytery 
in government, and her Calvinism in 
doctrine, by which she applied her 
axe, not to lop off some of the ranker 
branches of the upas tree of Rome, 
but with right good will to lay it to 
the root. And thus, while her policy 
disdained disreputable tortuosity, her 
work was clean and thorough. This 
distinguishing feature of our national 
character, and which has in great 
measure survived our incorporating 
Union with England, and subsequent 
imitation of French manners, shone 
out pre-eminently at the dawn of the 
Scottish Reformation, as demonstra- 
tive of our national intellect, our 
national conscience, and our national 
character. To this we were tutored 
by our primitive religious profession 
among the Culdees about the end of 
the first century, and " the Lollards 
of Kyle," previous to the appearance 



50 



THE AEK. 



of Luther; by the duplicity of the 
court in the reigns of James V., his 
Queen the regent mother, her daugh- 
ter the unfortunate Mary, Mary's 
son the royal pedant, and Charles I.; 
and by the vacillating conduct of a 
few leading nobles in the interest of 
France and of Rome. These may be 
viewed as a general summary of those 
malignant elements with which the 
Scottish mind had to do serious 
battle, and for meeting and success- 
fully counterworking which, it proved 
itself, by open-mouthed and open- 
breasted policy, more than a match. 

In order to estimate aright the 
character of the Keformers, and the 
invaluable blessings of the Reforma- 
tion, we require to have some accu- 
rate knowledge of the state of our 
country immediately previous to that 
great event; and, for this purpose, 
we may keep the eye fixed upon the 
following, and not to be denied, his- 
toric facts : — The Popish clergy were 
more ignorant, ambitious, insolent, 
and exorbitant than in any other 
country under the regimen of Rome. 
These dreadful characteristics of the 
clergy were successfully applied in 
wickedly influencing the prince, in- 
sulting the nobility, and enslaving the 
whole nation. Fully half the wealth 
of the nation was in the iron hands of 
bishops and abbots, who, although not 
only meanly, but, in many instances, 
illegitimately born, held the highest 
offices of the State, and cast into the 
shade the pomp and honours of our 
aristocracy. Benefices were put up 
to sale and knocked down to the 
highest bidder, while not a few of 
them were kept in reserve for the 
bastards of bishops. Under the guise 
of the saci'ed name of religion, whose 
every doctrine had been depraved, 
and whose commonest morality had 
been scandalized, the body of the 
people were acknowledged only as 
subjects of most grinding taxation. 



These ecclesiastical eagles laid rapa- 
cious claws equally on the prince 
and the peasant, on the living and 
the dead ; fixing imposts, mercilessly 
as they did, on the ribbon that ties 
the bride's tresses, down to the dra- 
pery of the coffin. The liberty, 
spirit, and commonest privileges of 
the nation were crushed under the 
insolent domination of these ecclesias- 
tical despots and profligates, while 
the attempted voice of protestation 
was silenced by direct anathemas, or 
the fires of the stake. But as our 
country was in the midst of these 
fiery brick-kilns, and her children had 
to make brick without straw, the 
Lord looked down from heaven, heard 
their groanings by reason of their 
Popish task-masters, and stirred up 
the hearts of true and disinterested 
patriots to peril their lives for the 
salvation of their beloved Scotland. 
Notwithstanding the change come 
over the spirit of Scotland's dream, 
and the rough usage meted out to the 
Reformers of that dark era, yet they 
were " Zebulun and Naphtali, a 
people that jeoparded their lives unto 
the death in the high places of the 
field." The impolitic insolence and 
the intolerable despotism of these 
militant ecclesiastics of Rome so bent 
the nation's bow as satisfactorily to 
explain the terrible rebounding spring 
of Scotland against Antichrist. In 
the light of this fact, the calm and 
intelligent observer will not fail 
to recognise a wonderful provision 
in Divine Providence, Avhereby He 
" frustrateth the tokens of the liars, and 
maketh diviners mad ; that turneth 
wise men backward, and maketh their 
knowledge foolish." Extreme mea- 
sures, especially those resorted to 
and intemperately worked by Rome, 
whether by ancient Pharaohs or mo- 
dern Bombas, eventually throw up 
the impolicy, and secure the over- 
throw of their projectors. As this 



THE ARK. 



51 



brief sketch clearly shews that the 
system of the Papacy crushed both 
political and religious liberty, which 
lay bleeding on the one infernal altar, 
so the candid thinker and philosophic 
historian will not conclude that it 
was strange, irrational, or unscrip- 
tural, that Scotland's Reformation 
should be achieved without recourse 
being had to political means to raze 
to the foundation the complex fabric 
of civil and ecclesiastical despotism. 
" He that leadeth into captivity, shall 
go into captivity : he that killeth 
with the sword, must be killed with 
the sword. Here is the patience and 
the faith of the saints." Neither is 
it easy to reconcile the literary con- 
demnation of the hard and honour- 
able struggles of the Scottish Re- 
formers with the warm plaudits and 
reputable subscriptions of the same 
literary characters for the patriotic 
Garibaldi. But those whom Divine 
Providence raised up and qualified 
to storm this citadel of heresy, im- 
morality, and tyranny, merit grateful 
remembrance, as the authors, under 
God, of our national deliverance. In 
the reign of James V., and only two 
years previous to his death, so great 
was the progress which the Reforma- 
tion had made among not only the 
body of the people, but also the first 
names in the country, that the clergy 
furnished his Majesty with a long 
list of them, and insisted on consign- 
ing them to the tender mercies of the 
sword. Knox informs us that this 
roll contained " more than one hun- 
dred landed men, besides others of 
meaner degree, amongst whom was 
the Lord Hamilton, then second per- 
son of the realm ; " and Sadder says, 
the list comprised " eighteen score 
noblemen and gentlemen, all well 
minded to God's word, which then 
they durst not avow, among whom 
were the Earls of Arran, Cassils, and 
Marishal." At this period, in the 



year 1540, thirteen years after the 
martyrdom of Patrick Hamilton, and 
fully two years after that of Walter 
I Mill, the roll of the professed ad- 
: herents of the Reformed doctrine 
: comprised, besides a vast body of 
the common people, the names of 
I the first of our nobility. The fol- 
' lowing claim a niche in this sacred 
I temple of fame, and whose names 
j shall be held in grateful remem- 
I brance when their modern detractors 
shall be consigned to execration : — 
" William, Earl of Glencairn ; Alex- 
ander, his son ; Lord Kilmaurs ; 
William, Earl of Errol ; William, 
Lord Ruthven ; his daughter Lil- 
lias ; John Stuart, son of Lord 
Methven; Sir James Sandilands, with 
his whole family ; Sir David Lind- 
say ; Erskine of Dun ; Melville of 
Raith ; Balnaves of Hallhill ; Straiton 
of Lauriston ; William Johnston and 
Robert Alexander, Advocates." Two 
years after, as shewn above, the roll 
told out " Eighteen more noblemen 
and gentlemen, earls, lords, barons, 
gentlemen, and a very large number 
of honest burgesses and craftsmen." 
Previous to 1540, and from 1527, so 
startling to the Popish clergy had be- 
come the spread of the Reformed doc- 
trines, that not a few had sealed their 
attachment to them by their death at 
the stake. Before Knox appeared on 
the stage, the martyrs' roll contained 
the names of " Henry Forrest, David 
Straiton, Norman Gourlay, Jerom 
Russel, Kennedy, Kyllor, Beveridge, 
Duncan Sympson, Robert Forrester, 
Thomas Forest, Patrick Hamilton, 
and AValter Mill." These were the 
first ripe fruits of an after very bloody 
harvest, and in regard to whom the 
lines of the Christian poet are pecu- 
liary appropriate, — 

" With their names 
No bard embalms and sanctifies his song ; 
And history, so warm on meaner themes, 
Is cold on this. She execrates indeed 
The tj'ranny that doom'd them to the fire, 
But gives the glorious sufferers little praise." 



52 



Not a few resolved on effecting 
an escapement from the sanguinary- 
vigilance of the priests by exile to the 
Continent and England, few of whom 
ever again saw their native country ; 
while those of them who were pri- 
vileged to revisit Scotland, among 
whom was the celebrated George 
Buchanan, were subjected to regal 
annoyance and priestly persecution. | 
Of these divinely chosen instruments 
it is not too much to say, that many | 
of them belonged to the nobility of 
mind and morals as well as of blood ; j 
that the leaders had the literature of | 
their day and large influence in the | 
State ; that they all sustained unim- 
peachable moral characters, and j 
proved, by their strenuous efforts and 
costly sacrifices, that their souls loved 
the cause which they solemnly and i 
formally espoused. The sequel of | 
the history brings up the fact, that ; 
these names of illustrious Scotsmen 1 
stood first in the court, wielded the 
parliamentary influence, told with \ 
effect upon the crown, and secured \ 
the national abolition of the Papal 
jurisdiction, and the national esta- 
blishment of the profession of " the 
blessed Evangel." 

While it is eminently illustra- 
tive of the divine wisdom, demon- 
strative of the righteousness of 
the cause of the Reformation, and 
vindicatory of the character of the 
Reformers, to use only those means 
which Scripture and reason warrant, 
we shall now invite attention to those 
used in promoting and securing 
Scotland's Reformation from Popery. 
While it is under this head that both 
the Reformation and the character of 
the Reformers have been subjected to 
the cross fire of avowed adversaries 
and thinly masked friends, we shall 
take a little more time in shewing 
that the Reformers ignored and re- 
pudiated the Popish dogma '' that 
the end sanctifies the means." And 



it is important to keep the eye fixed 
on the fact, that, whatever might be 
chargeable upon individuals in trying 
junctures, as a body, they never con- 
cealed their motives, measures, or 
ends. They were too honest to re- 
sort to tortuous policy, and their 
sacred love of the cause of truth and 
freedom, forbade the adoption and 
practice of measures to which they 
were ever subjected by crowned heads 
that claimed the perogative of breach 
of promise and oath, as well as by 
those defenders of a creed that 
honours breach of faith towards 
heretics. Of the numerous means 
that contributed to bring the Popish 
system and its adherents into merited 
disrepute, both on the Continent and 
in Scotland, none was more telling 
than the effusions of poets, satirists, 
and dramatists, who exposed to ridi- 
cule before large assemblies of the court 
1 and the nobility the gross superstitions 
of the religion of Rome, and the ava- 
! rice, insolence, and immorality of the 
j clergy. Notwithstanding the strin- 
; gency of the laws obtained by clerical 
I influence for the suppression of this 
telling mode of attack, and by the ap- 
plication of which George Buchanan 
1 suffered imprisonment, yet the crown 
enjoyed the sport, and the nobility 
applauded the clean cuts of the satir- 
ist against overbearing ecclesiastics. 
This was fair game, and was closely 
allied to the holy mockery of the 
grave Elijah when encouraging 
Baal's priests to awake their god 
out of sleep. 

But the Reformation cause was 
advanced by the importation into 
Scotland, from the Continent, and 
especially from England, of some of 
the productions of the first names of 
the Reformers. Among these literary 
goods, Tindall's translation of the 
Scriptures was the most important. 
Although grossly ignorant of the 
Scriptures themselves, and learning 



53 



only by Luther's controversy with 
the Pope, and the Pope's condemna- 
tion of the open Bible, that it was 
the principal weapon in the hands of 
the Protestants, the Scottish ecclesi- 
astics were vigilant in their efforts to 
prevent its importation into this 
country. By merchant ships that 
traded with the towns on the eastern 
coast of Scotland, this invaluable 
treasure came into the hands of our 
countrymen, who, in the dark hours 
of night, read it with avidity to their 
families, and others who secreted 
themselves under the proscribed 
roof. This circulation of the Word 
of God, and at a time previous to 
public teaching, naturally left the 
mind free from the fetters of implicit 
faith, taught it the manly exercise of 
reasoning, and gave the Scottish in- 
tellect a deliverance from every im- 
pediment to liberal science, literature, 
and religion, while it broke through 
the idle jargon of Rome's logic. In 
close and natural connexion with the 
possession ofthe Divine Word, we find 
those who had tasted its pure water 
of life industrious in recommending 
it to their fellows ; and, accordingly, 
the young and interesting nobleman, 
and nearly related by blood to the 
Scottish crown, had the rare honour 
of first expounding it to his country- 
men. But neither his royal extrac- 
tion, nor connexion with the Church 
for which he was educated, was sus- 
tained as a plea for exempting him 
from the fiery honours of the stake. 
After defending the doctrines of the 
Reformed faith with solemn elo- 
quence, he sealed them with his 
blood, at the early age of twenty- 
four, passing away in his fiery chariot 
with the prayer, "How long, Lord, 
shall darkness cover this realm ? 
How long wilt Thou suffer this 
tyranny of men? Lord Jesus, re- 
ceive my spirit!" The fires being 
once lighted up, are now, in the true 



Popish style, kept blazing for other 
patriots. Thirteen years after the 
martyrdom of young Hamilton, five 
were bound to one stake at the 
Castlehill of Edinburgh ; and eight 
years after, the celebrated and digni- 
fied Wishart reached glory like an- 
other Elijah. As a striking and 
dangerous contrast with the youth- 
ful Hamilton, and ten years after 
Wishart's flight upward, the vener- 
able Walter Mill, turned of four- 
score, was brutally murdered at the 
stake while repeating the words, 
" As I have received my life of God, 
so I again willingly offer it up for 
His glory." These infatuated poli- 
ticians and heartless ruffians found 
to their cost the truth of the adage, 
that " the blood of the martyrs is 
the seed of the church," for the 
gentlemen of the country, and the 
body of the people, condemned the 
religion that demanded such sacri- 
fices, and bound themselves by 
solemn oath, " that before they would 
be thus abused any longer, they 
would take arms and resist the Papal 
tyranny, which they at last did." 

Another and very special mean, 
and one that operated successfully 
in explaining and confirming the 
cause of the Reformers, was their 
summaries of doctrine, called confes- 
sions. These, as the Reformation 
advanced, gradually assumed a more 
formal shape, until " The Confession 
of the Faith and Doctrine, believed 
and professed by the Protestants of 
Scotland, was exhibited to the Estates 
of the same in Parliament, and by their 
public votes authorised as a doctrine 
grounded upon the infaUible Word 
of God, August, 1560, and ratified 
and established by Act of Parliament, 
1567." In the preface to this symbolic 
document, they set forth as reasons for 
drawing it up, that they were moved 
thereto, " partly for satisfaction of 
oar brethren, whose hearts, we doubt 



54 



not, have been, and yet are, wounded 
by the despiteful railing of such as 
have not yet learned to speak well ; 
and partly for stopping the mouths of 
imprudent blasphemers, who boldly 
condemn that which they neither 
heard nor understood." To these 
reasons they add, " But we have 
chief respect to our weak and infirm 
brethren." Although the reasons 
here assigned may be viewed as 
politically expedient, yet, as they 
must less or more affect the Church 
while sustaining a militant character, 
they are in unison with the dictates of 
sound reason, and warranted by the 
Word of God. By drawing up, and 
at their request presenting to the 
Estates, this Confession of Faith, the 
Scottish Reformed Church of 1500, 
the Tri-centenary of which is about to 
be com memorated next month in Edin- 
burgh, we learn that she held formal 
creeds to be essential to her constitu- 
tion, that it was essential to a proper 
ecclesiastical creed that it be not only 
oi a negative character, or condemna- 
tory of heresy, but that it be specially 
positive, or assertory of systematic doc- 
trines, including worship, polity, and 
government. By this definite, specific, 
positive, and comprehensive creed, 
was the Reformed Church of Scot- 
land, in 1560, not only intelligibly 
organised, and nationally established, : 
but distinguished as a positive insti- ' 
tution against not only the Popish j 
system, but against all heresy. In 
their own language in the preface to ! 
said Confession, they say, " For God 
Ave take to record in our consciences, I 
that from our hearts we abhor all | 
sects of heresy, and all teachers of! 
erroneous doctrine." This mean was 
followed by shutting the mouths of | 
the most influential of the adversaries, [ 
by strengthening the weak, by con- j 
firming the wavering, by a national , 
victory over the Papacy, and by the ' 
jubilant rejoicings of a delivered 



country. Whether the projected Tri- 
centenary of this Scottish event will, 
or from its moral and ecclesiastical 
composition can, bring out the politi- 
cal and religious characteristics of 
the memorable original, is a i)roblera 
of most serious and difficult solution. 
"We speak to wise men, judge ye 
what we say." 

But in close and instructive con- 
nexion with the mean of creeds, or 
Confessions of Faith, which the Re- 
formed Church of Scotland success- 
fully used, we have her sacred ad- 
herence to the principle of registering 
her attainments in her principles. 
As the spiritual army of the Captain 
of Salvation, she has chronicled the 
victories she has gained, the citadels 
she has stormed, the colours and 
other trophies she has taken. These 
constitute her memorabilia, which 
serve to illustrate the principle on 
which the sacred volume is con- 
structed, nine-tenths of which are 
occupied with the history of Israel's 
struggles, reverses, and victories ; 
which bring out an anthem of grati- 
tude to the deliverer, and which in- 
spire Israel's sons to imitate and 
excel their sires in fighting the battles 
of the Lord. " We will remember 
the years of the right hand of the 
Most High God." To demonstrate 
by special instances that the spiritual 
war-cry of the Refoi'med Church of 
Scotland was " Onwards," would to 
the intelligent be a work of super- 
erogation. " Hold fast what thou hast, 
that no man take thy crown." 

In conclusion, we shall advert to 
a mean sedulously worked by the early 
Reformers, and which was eminently 
blessed in advancing and consolidat- 
ing their cause. We allude to those 
bonds or covenants by which they 
formally and solemnly devoted them- 
selves to the Lord and to one another, 
in the maintenance of their sacred 
and definitely delineated cause. And 



55 



witliout undertaking in this historical 
sketch to shew that such federal 
transactions, entered into with the 
formality and solemnity of an appeal 
to the Searcher of Hearts, are war- 
ranted by Scripture, and in accord- 
ance with reason, it is deemed suffi- 
cient to shew that the principle was 
formally acknowledged by the Re- 
formed Church of Scotland, was prac- 
tically resorted to, and was, on every 
such occasion, followed by the bless- 
ing of God. This is a fact which no 
Scotsman slenderly versant with the 
history of the Reformation can pos- 
sibly deny ; so that the commemora- 
tion of that event by those who 
merely pay vapid compliments to the 
National Covenant, and by those 
avowedly hostile to it, is ominously 
and grossly anomalous. As far as 
can be ascertained, the first formal 
Covenant sworn and subscribed by 
a majority of the gentlemen of 
Mearns, is of date 1556, the year in 
which the venerable Walter Mill was 
consigned to the stake, and when it 
is said, " the people bound them- 
selves by promises and subscriptions 
of oaths that, before they would be 
thus abused any longer, they would 
take arms, and resist the Papal 
tyranny." This Covenant of 1556 
was followed next year, at Edin- 
burgh, December 1557, by another of 
a similar kind, to which some of the 
chief men of the nation appended 
their names. This was followed by 
the petition of the Lords and Barons 
to the Queen Regent, in favour of 
the public preaching of the Gospel, 
to which her Majesty graciously re- 
sponded. About eighteen months 
after, or May 1559, at Perth, the 
Congregation, as the organised Re- 
formers were now called, swore and 
subscribed their Second Covenant, 
having immediately before succeeded 
in compelling the Queen Regent to 
come to an amicable arrangement, 



and draw off her French troops. As 
the Queen very soon after violated 
her solemn promise, and endeavoured 
to disunite the leaders of the Con- 
gregation, they entered into the 
Third Covenant, August 1, 1559, 
or about a year previous to the meet- 
ing of the First General Assembly 
of the Church of Scotland, which 
disconcerted her Majesty's mea- 
sures, and more firmly united the 
now large and influential body of 
Reformers. The national crisis was 
now at hand. The Queen Regent, 
by the arrival of a thousand French 
soldiers, to be speedily followed by 
fresh reinforcements, and a large sum 
of money sent in the meantime, be- 
gan to fortify Leith, and make pre- 
parations on a gigantic scale for the 
complete overthrow of the Reformers 
and their cause. In prospect of these 
designedly effective measures, the 
Reformers Renewed their Cove- 
nant on the 27th April 1560, or 
about four months previously to 
the first General Assembly in 
Edinburgh. This was followed by 
Elizabeth, Queen of England, form- 
ing an alliance Avith the Scottish 
Covenanters, and sending a number 
of troops, by which the garrison in 
Leith was reduced to straits; by the 
sickness and death of the Queen 
Regent, and by the peace betwixt 
England and Scotland with France. 
Underthese favourable circumstances, 
the meeting of the Estates was held, 
which graciously received " the sup- 
plication of the barons, gentlemen, 
burgesses, and all the other pro- 
fessors of the true faith, that the 
Romish Church should be condemned 
and abohshed ; and that the patri- 
mony of the Church should be em- 
ployed in supporting the Reformed 
ministry, in the provision of schools, 
and in the maintenance of the poor, 
of a long time neglected." On August 
4, 1560, the Parliament, with the 



56 



exception of three dissenting voices, 
gave civil ratification to "the Con- 
fession of Faith" of that date, and in 
three other Acts abolished the Pope's 
jurisdiction and authority within this 
realm, annulled all previous statutes 
in favour of idolatry, and ordained 
punishment for sayers and hearers of 
the Mass. This consummation of 
affairs was reached, beyond all rea- 
sonable controversy, by means of 
those sacred, rational, and loyal bonds 
or covenants, which constitute so 
essential an element in the history of 
Scotland, whether viewed nationally 
or ecclesiastically. And it is not 
easy to discover how, in point of 
consistency, the Tri-centenary of that 
national and memorable event can 
be commemorated by those who ig- 
nore, and repudiate, and glory in 
stigmatising these solemn Covenants 
which God honoured as the principal 
means of saving our country. In 
summing up the history of this emi- 
nent mean of advancing and con- 
solidating the Scottish Reformation, 
we invite attention to the fact, that 
the Magna. Charta of Scotland's 
liberties, civil and sacred, embodying 
all the preceding federal bonds, is 
the National Covenant of 1580-81, 
called " The Confession of Faith of 
the Kirk of Scotland, subscribed by 
the King's Majesty and household, in 
the year 1580 ; thereafter by persons 
of all ranks in the year 1581, by 
ordinance of the Lords of Secret 
Council; subscribed again by all sorts 
of persons in the year 1590, by a 
new ordinance of Council, at the 
desire of the General Assembly ; 
renewed in Greyfriars' Churchyard 
in 1638; ratified by Act of Parha- 
ment 1640 ; and subscribed by King 
Charles II., at Spey, 1650, and at 
Scoon, 1651." 



And need we inform our country- 
men, that Scotland's National Cove- 
nant, as the legal document securitive 
of our liberty, was embodied in the 
solemn League and Covenant which 
firmly united the three kingdoms, 
resistance to which brought the first 
Charles to the block, and eventually 
overthrew the Stuart dynasty. 

With a view to meet the vulgar 
objection, that these sacred bonds of 
confederation were more closely allied 
to mere political expedients than a 
believing reception of the doctrines 
of Christianity, and a sincere regard 
to practical and personal religion, we 
may refer the reader to the historical 
account of the Renovation of the 
National Covenant, in the eventful 
year 1596, by the General Assembly 
in Edinburgh, and afterwards re- 
peated in the several Synods, Pres- 
byteries, and congregations through- 
out the country. Calderwood says, 
that when the little kirk was opened 
about nine o'clock in the morning, it 
was soon filled with about four hun- 
dred ministers and choice professors. 
Rev. Mr. Davidson, who officiated, 
declared, " that the end of that Con- 
vention was the confession of their 
own sins, promise of amendment, and 
so to enter into a new League with 
God, that being sanctified with re- 
pentance, they might be the meeter 
to provoke others to the same. So 
j while they were humbling themselves 
f for the space of a quarter of an hour, 
j there were such sighs and sobs, with 
; shedding of tears, among the most 
part, every one provoking another 
by their example, and the teacher 
himself by his own, that the kirk re- 
sounded. So that the place might 
worthily have been called Bochira; for 
the like of that day had not been seen 
in Scotland since the Reformation." 



Edinburgh : Printed and Published for the Proprietors by Paton and Ritchie, 81 Princes 
Street (to -wliom all Communications, prepaid, may be addressed). Glasgow: Thomas 
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C^e Jrli 



Vol. IV. -Ho. 8. 



AUGUST 1860. 



Price Id. 



CONTENTS. 
The Pofert of Modern Protestantism. 
"Becojle as Little Childhej*." 
Justification by Faith. 



^t |0^i^rg d globmi irDtcstimttsm. 



Of late there has been a growing 
desire to speak of and laud the deeds 
of our Covenanted Fathers by vari- 
ous parties, who have never before, 
so far as we are aware, shewn any 
ardent love for the principles of the 
second Reformation. We have already 
felt ourselves under the painful neces- 
sity of noticing such extravagant 
inconsistencies as the erection of 
monuments, in various parts of the 
country, in memory of men who dis- 
tinguished themselves by adherence 
to principles openly condemned and 
repudiated by those who thus seek 
to do them honour ; but a new device 
has recently appeared in public lec- 
tures. Tricentenary anniversaries, and 
platform speeches on the Reformation 
and struggles of the Covenanters. 
All of these, although characterised 
by much talent, in so far as volu- 
bility of speech is concerned, may, 
with no small amount of truth, be 
styled mere empty declamations of a 
somewhat theatrical nature. That 
they could lead to no practical end 
is obvious, from the fact that they 
have been projected by members of 
nearly all denominations professedly 
Protestant, and as before any prac- 
tical adoption of the systematised 



doctrines of the reforming Fathers 
could be the result, every denomina- 
tion thus represented would have to 
be condemned as unnecessary, and 
but creating schism in the Church. 
We are promised two Tricentenaries 
during what remains of this year, of 
which we may afterwards have occa- 
sion to speak ; but all the devices 
which have as yet come under our 
notice seem to have been projected 
rather to entertain than enlighten the 
Scottish public. There can be little 
doubt that, were the views of the 
Covenanters exhibited in their plain- 
ness and simplicity to crowded as- 
semblies, who delight in observing 
days and months and times and years, 
they would tell with effect against 
the Protestantism popular in our 
day ; it is not, therefore, to be won- 
dered at if the Reformation system 
has been exhibited with its corners 
rounded off, so as to suit the liberal 
views of the present age. 

We would much rather there were 
no occasion for reverting to this sub- 
ject ; that Scotland's sons could shew 
some other and better mode of vindi- 
cating the acts and opinions of the 
Covenanters, whose names are handed 
down to us because of the principles 



58 



THE ARK. 



they espoused, and which formed 
the motive that influenced their 
struggles. But to content ourselves 
with merely talking of the deeds of 
our Fathers as exemplary, while we 
hate the motives by which these were 
actuated, is but an attempt to unpro- 
testantise Protestantism, to value the 
mere relics of the system for which 
they testified. Although we would 
never speak but with veneration and 
respect of those who fought and won 
the Reformation battles, we still have 
no wish to be chargeable with un- 
consciously imitating the degenerate 
Jews, who took delight in garnishing 
the sepulchres of the prophets. It 
may be safely concluded that when- 
ever such expedients are resorted to 
by a Church or nation, sufficient proof 
is afforded that matters have reached 
a stage of deep spiritual degeneracy, 
and that the parties adopting such 
measures do dishonour to the cause 
they intend to honour. 

It is attempted in the present day 
to separate men from the principles 
they profess ; the task is always an 
arduous one, but especially is it so in 
the case of the Scottish Reformers. 
The principles made the men famous, 
and not the men the principles ; but 
high-swelling displays of oratory may 
serve to throw a mist around the 
minds of an audience, and thus make 
the task somewhat lighter. The fire 
of religious enthusiasm, now so com- 
mon, refuses to descend to mere dry 
reasoning, and no room is allowed 
for what are considered mere meta- 
physical distinctions of the human 
intellect; on the other hand, smooth 
words are desired and eagerly sought 
after, even which must be set off with 
some eclat before they fall lightly and 
pleasantly on the ear of a popular 
audience. We ask our readers to 
contrast such a state of things with 
the time when our sober-minded 
Fathers drew up their symbolic books. 



in which were displayed the work 
of the Reformation. Have modern 
ecclesiastics any moral right whatever 
to identify themselves with such a 
work ? Popery is now making rapid 
strides in every part of our land; and 
the present ecclesiastical systems are 
unable to stem the tide which our 
Fathers caused to assuage. The 
present generation content themselves 
with crying " Down with Maynooth," 
and lopping off a branch here and 
there, while the principles of the 
Covenanters even yet point to the en- 
tire subversion of " the man of sin," 
not to speak of the many valiant acts 
of other days in defence of truth and 
liberty. 

We fear there are many ready to 
applaud the conduct of the Reformers 
who do not count the cost or consider 
the consequences of the adoption of 
their creed. As the principle of 
religious tests is now almost uni- 
versally condemned, it may not be 
out of place to advert here to the 
fact that this formed an essential 
article of the Reformation. In truth, 
it may be said to comprehend the 
whole work which our fathers 
laboured to perfect and preserve. 
Let us suppose, for a moment, tliat 
this question was discussed in the 
anniversary meeting to be held this 
month by men belonging to almost 
every Protestant sect. We fear it is 
impossible to imagine any scene more 
ludicrous than members of the Es- 
tablished, Free Church, United Pres- 
byterian, and Independent bodies 
attempting to decide such a question. 
If there is to be no religious test 
required for schools and universities, 
why should the clergy be bound down 
by ordination vows ? Or, again, why 
should such a meeting as the August 
anniversary be limited even to Pro- 
testants? Do not the enthusiastic 
commemorators see that to act 
thus is to admit the principle of a 



59 



test? But we almost despair in 
being able to convince men in the 
present day, who seem to be more 
eager for popular favour than the 
defence of the truth. 

As we have referred to religious 
tests, it may be well here to allude to 
the very popular argument as to the 
inutility of a test. It is said the 
dishonest man will find no difficulty 
in swallowing the same, while it only 
forms a barrier to the advancement 
of the honest. But the important 
point is overlooked, for how can we 
know the dishonest from the honest 
but by the test ? From which consi- 
deration it follows, that because the 
test distinguishes between the two, it 
is, therefore, of use, and ought to be 
enforced. If the popular mind would 
embrace such axioms as the above, 
we feel they would be more fitted to 
do honour to the memory of those 
who, by their stern adherence to 
principle, won for their country the 
liberties now enjoyed by an ungrate- 
ful posterity. 

It seems to us worse than folly for 
those who profess the voluntary prin- 
ciple to celebrate the Reformation, of 
which the maintenance of a national 
religion formed so essential an ele- 
ment. We are curious to hear of 
grounds for the supposition that the 
Reformation could ever have been 
attained, and Popery driven back 
without the nation, as such, embrac- 
ing the Reformed religion. Volun- 
taryism supposes individuality, not 
nationality ; and must, therefore, dis- 
approve of the present public oaths 
equally with the covenants of former 
times. We regret, exceedingly, to 
see men so far deprived of their 
reasoning faculties as to commemo- 
rate " the defects of the Reformation ; " 
common prudence might have sug- 
gested that , such should have been 
left out ; and surely if every man in 
the United Presbyterian Church can 



" fecht for his ain hand," there is no 
necessity for such formidable gather- 
ings from all parts in support of 
certain dogmas. But to view the 
matter in a more serious light, we 
affirm that the voluntary principle, 
in the main, is not only inconsistent 
with Protestantism, but with Chris- 
tianity. It supposes the human will 
as the rule and reason of duty instead 
of the Divine will; and the common 
idea as to religion being a matter 
between a man and his God, and no 
other, is but the creed of Cain in 
another shape, who exclaimed, " Am 
I my brother's keeper!" The ob- 
ligation of the Moral Law, which 
rests on all, whatever be our opinions 
in regard to it, sets forth duties not 
only to God but also to our neigh- 
bour ; so that, before the creed of the 
voluntary can be scriptural, we must 
have a new moral law enjoining our 
duties to God, but silent as to our 
duties in relation to one another. 
How parties who adopt such opinions 
can conscientiously commemorate the 
Reformation from Popery and error 
we cannot well understand. 

The devoted, though now-a-days 
less noisy, adherents of voluntaryism 
forget the nature of the principle 
they profess. The Church and the 
State, say they, should be altogether 
separate. Let us see to what that 
would bring us. Suppose a case like 
that of Cardross arises in the Church, 
and that an act of injustice is perpe- 
trated by the ecclesiastical courts, 
no appeal could be allowed to the 
civil tribunals, as the law of the land 
would specially prohibit any con- 
nexion between civil and ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction ; and the char- 
acter and status of individuals would 
be left entirely to the mercy of 
ecclesiastics. Is not this to take a 
leaf out of the Church of Rome? 
She forms her creed, in this respect, 
on the very same principle, — viz., 



60 



I that there is something essentially ! 
bad in the magistrate's office, whicli \ 
is as much as to declare that it is not 1 
an ordinance of God. It is impos- j 
sible to conceive of any doctrine I 
which favours that of the supremacy | 
of the Church over the State more i 
than this dogma, now so univer- 

j sally popular; and it will be diffi- 
cult to fix upon any opinion more 
antagonistic to the Reformation 
cause. 

But do such parties never consider 
the injustice they do themselves? If 
religion is to be confined to the 
Church, why do voluntaries argue 
religious questions in the House of 
Commons, where their mouths ought 
to be shut on the subject? The 
State which professes a religion has 
surely a better right to inquire as to 
a man's religion when taking the 
census, than the professed voluntary 
has to tell Parliament that Scripture 
declares Church and State to be 
separate institutions, by such passages 
as "Render unto Ca3sar the things 
that are Cresar's," &c. If a Mr. 
Baines admits the House is compe- 
tent to understand and judge of 
this point, where, we ask, is his 
voluntaryism? It is but the pi'inci- 
ple of an Estahlishment clothed for 
the time in a voluntary garb, as if 
he said, " We would much rather 
you did not discuss religion, but 
if you do so, take care you decide 
according to our fashion, and we 
wont object." This may be said to 
be the length and breadth of the 
voluntaryism popular in our day. 

We would therefore humbly ques- 
tion the possibility of parties holding 
sucli absurd views to appreciate or 
even understand the great truths of 
the Reformation. AVe might as well 
at present try to open the eyes of the 
blind ; although we may rest assured 
that a t'me approaches when the 



prophecy will be verified, " they will 
not see, but they shall see." But 
doubly guilty are they who profess 
the principle ofan Established Church, 
and yet fraternise with those who 
take special delight in speaking dis- 
paragingly of the Reformers because 
of their stern adherence to the great 
principle of a national religion, which 
is simply a devotement of a nation 
to " Him by whom kings reign, and 
princes decree justice." There could 
perhaps be no sight more pleasing to 
the spiritual mind than the Church 
and State going hand in hand to- 
gether, and, instead of being antago- 
nistic to each other, uniting on com- 
mon ground, where both could serve 
common ends ; the Church being the 
instructress of the State, and the 
State the defender of the Church. 
We refrain from saying more on 
this head at present; and would 
only remark, that as every evil 
system is marked by inconsistencies, 
it will be found a good rule, that the 
worse the system, the more numerous 
and fiagi-ant the inconsistencies will 
appear. 

We trust a better and a brighter 
day may yet dawn upon our country, 
although before this arrive, we must 
look for judgment beginning at the 
house of God. 

" What shall be the end of these 
things?" National perjury and 
apostacy from the truth have ever 
been visited by awful judgments; 
and when we think of the great 
privileges bestowed upon this nation, 
those who still profess adherence to 
the principles of the Reformation 
ought to bethink themselves while it 
is called to-day; instead of heaping 
to themselves idols without number, 
and speaking of " the Fathers," 
while, if such were now alive, they 
would disown them as unworthy of 
being called Protestants. 



61 



'' "gmmt m fittk dLMltot/^ 



True greatness is ever child-like. 
The wise philosopher and the vene- 
rable Christian alike strive to main- 
tain the simple faith and humble do- 
cility of early childhood. " I do not 
know," said the great Newton shortly 
before his death, " what I may appear 
to the world, but to myself I seem 
to have been only like a boy playing 
on the sea-shore, and diverting my- 
self in now and then finding a 
smoother pebble or prettier shell than 
ordinary, whilst the great ocean of 
truth lay all undiscovered before 
me." 

A regal philosopher, yet more dis- 
tinguished than the illustrious fore- 
named, exhibited, on a very memor- 
able occasion, the same child-like 
humility. In a dream of the night, 
when deep sleep had fallen upon him, 
the Lord appeared, and asked him 
what he would have. Instead of being 
elated by so distinguishing a mark of 
Divine favour, or piquing himself on 
his unequalled intellectual powers and 
high scientific attainments, having, 
though but a young prince, investi- 
gated the wide range of the animal 
and vegetable worlds, and was, be- 
fore this, justly entitled by his father 
a wise man, his first thought was his 
own littleness and inability to per- 
form the great work imposed upon 
him by God. " I am but a little 
child," said he, " give, therefore, thy 
servant an understanding heart." It 
is such sentiments as these that truly 
ennoble the great and good, and form 
part of that clothing of humanity 
which is so fair in the eyes of God. 

One of the many lessons which our 
Lord taught in the highly favoured 
Capernaum, was that we have chosen 
for our title, — " Become as little 
children." 

While on their way to the town. 



the disciples had been disputing 
among themselves which of them 
should be greatest, a question that 
has agitated the Church and the 
world in all ages, and has occasioned 
more dissension and bloodshed than 
any other. Whether or not the 
traces of angry altercation were 
visible on the faces of the disputants 
as they gathered round their Lord in 
the house at Capernaum, we need 
not care to inquire, for Jesus knew 
their thoughts, and was aware of all 
that had passed, though He had not 
overheard ; He, therefore, proceeded 
at once to discharge the painful but 
salutary duty of administering a re- 
buke. Calling a little child to Him, 
He placed him in the midst, full in 
the view of the suddenly silent group, 
then lifting him kindly in his tender 
arms. He pronounced the solemn and 
and never-to-be-forgotten words, — 
" Verily I say unto you, except ye 
be converted, and become as little 
children, ye shall not enter into the 
kingdom of heaven. Whosoever 
therefore shall humble Iiimself as this 
little child, the same is greatest in 
the kingdom of heaven." What a 
rebuke to stalwart and grey-haired 
men, swollen with the desires of 
ecclesiastical preferment! 

In the few remarks we now pro- 
pose to make, we will do no more 
than present to the reader's attention 
a few of the characteristics of little 
children, which it is the Christian's 
duty to imitate, begging of him to 
elaborate for himself each suggestive 
point of resemblance, and supply 
others of a kindred character. 

In the \st place, then, we remark 
that little children believe everything. 
It is a beautiful and touching sight 
to watch the innocent attention of a 
young, but intelligent, child to some 



62 



narrative from a parent or teacher. 
No matter how wonderful or impos- 
sible the recital may be, no doubt 
nor misbelief dims the upturned face 
of the listener. Hence the cruelty 
and wickedness of deceiving children, 
and of filling their young receptive 
minds with lying and mischievous 
tales. Such, then, should be the 
Christian's habitual exercise. When 
his Heavenly Father addresses him 
in providence, the Word, or the 
Gospel, Samuel-like he should re- 
ply, "Speak, Lord, for thy servant 
heareth." Though what he is told 
may be staggering to natural reason, 
with Abraham he must believe in 
hope against hope, and with child- 
like trust receive every utterance of 
his Divine Teacher as the sure words 
of everlasting truth. 

2 c?, Little children are comparatively 
innocent. Though the dire effects of 
the fall are in every instance traceable 
at a painfully early stage of the young 
child's life, yet, if unexposed to per- 
nicious example, it will take pleasure 
in innocent and harmless pursuits. 
Unconscious of its own attractiveness, 
it obeys its infantile instincts, giving 
vent to the merry babblings of its 
guileless heart ; its countenance un- 
disfigured by the ugliness of pride, its 
lips undefiled by the words of malice 
and revenge, and its little life a blank 
to deeds of dishonesty, perfidy, and 
blood. How many have we who are 
children in understanding, but, alas! 
how few who are children in malice ! 
Nathanaels, Israelites indeed, in 
whom is no guile! In this respect 
especially must the Christian become 
as a little child. "Let every one 
that nameth the name of Christ 
depart from iniquity," and be enabled 
to say with David, " Lord, my heart 
is not haughty, nor mine eyes lofty; 
neither do I exercise myself in great 
matters, or in things too high for me. 
Surely I have behaved and quieted 



myself, as a child that is weaned 
of his mother : my soul is even as 
a weaned child." 

oil. Little children are very dependent. 
Where shall we find an object more 
helpless, more dependent, more un- 
able to provide for its own necessities 
than a little child? To the parent it 
necessarily looks for the supply of all 
its wants, and has not a care as to 
what it shall eat, what it shall drink, 
or wherewithal it shall be clothed. 
When threatened with danger it flees 
at once to the parent for protection, 
and will not quit its stronghold till 
the dreaded evil be removed. It 
would be well for the Christian, when 
beset with cares and anxieties about 
his temporal comforts, if he could 
look to his Heavenly Father for their 
adequate supply with the same ex- 
pectant confidence that a child looks 
to its earthly parent for all he needs. 
"If ye then, being evil, know how 
to give good gifts unto your child- 
ren, how much more shall your 
Father which is in heaven give 
good things to them that ask Him ? " 
And when assailed by adversaries 
that are greater and stronger than 
he, instead of seeking a defence in 
human wisdom, or making an arm 
of flesh his stay, his first duty is to 
flee to his everlasting Father. "The 
name of the Lord is a strong tower : 
the righteous runneth into it, and is 
safe." " There is none like unto the 
God of Jeshurun, who rideth upon 
the heaven in thy help, and in His 
excellency on the sky. The eternal 
God is thy refuge, and underneath 
are the everlasting arms : and He 
shall thrust out the enemy from be- 
fore thee, and shall say, Destroy 
them." 

Ath. Little children have many re- 
quests. How often are the parents 
and friends of children wearied with 
their numerous requests ! Conscious 
of their own helplessness, they are 



63 



ever asking to be assisted; and in 
the pursuit of some new object of 
interest will not be satisfied till they 
are aided in accomplishing all that 
their active little minds are earnestly 
bent on attaining to. With the re- 
quests of His children God is never 
wearied. Indeed, He complains of 
the want of them on their part. 
" Hitherto have ye asked nothing in 
my name: ask, and ye shall receive, 
that your joy may be full," The 
believer who is conscious of his in- 
numerable wants, will be as often at 
the throne as a child at his parent's 
knee. The latter may be pushed 
aside with an evasive answer, but 
not so the believer, if he ask in faith, 
though, Elisha-like, he should ask a 
hard thing. It may be long before 
he receive what he desires, but with 
a child-like importunity God is well 
pleased ; and with a marvellously 
mysterious condescension, will even 
allow Himself to be detained. Jacob 
would not let Him go until He blessed 
him ; and as a prince, had power 
with God and prevailed. 

bth, Little children fed intensely. 
A^ hen a high-spirited and affectionate 
child is corrected for a fault, its grief 
is something painful to look upon. 
The first wild burst of passion over, 
the little body still heaving with the 
heart-drawn sob, the truth seems to 
be brought home to the child's under- 
standing, that he must have done 
something very wrong to merit so 
severe a punishment from a parent's 
tender hand. The child is then 
ready to confess his fault, and to beg 
forgiveness, of which he will not be 
assured till he is once more enfolded 
in the loving arms that so severely 
corrected him. When the Christian 
is chastened by God, he is sometimes 
hardened and careless, appearing even 
not to be stricken by the rod, — con- 
duct that in his own child would 
grieve him to the heart, and cause 



him the intensest anxiety on his 
behalf. Under the chastening hand 
of God, the soul sliould smart with 
a sense of its wickedness in offending 
so tender and loving a Father ; and 
with all the intensity of an ardent 
nature, take no rest till it again rejoice 
in the light of the countenance of 
Ilim who chasteneth whom Heloveth, 
and scourgeth every son whom He 
receiveth. 

Qith. Little children are very active. 
A lazy and indolent little child is a 
rare sight. When such is the case, 
it is generally produced by some 
physical cause. The sound and re- 
freshing sleep of children is produced 
in great measure by the healthy use 
of their tiny energies, which all the 
day long are in constant and most 
active exercise. Alas ! how many 
professing Christians are there who 
have no physical impediment to in- 
duce that most incurable of all dis- 
eases, an insane indolence, and who 
can use neither hands, feet, heart, 
intellect, nor soul, to work the works 
of God! Such are especially the 
devil's tools ; and if God do not in 
mercy arouse them, they will inevit- 
ably become his prey. 

7th. Little children are generally 
happy. There is not a more pleasant 
sound in the world of nature than 
that of the merry voices of children. 
Their innocent mirth cheers the heart 
and brightens into approving smiles 
the face of the parent. Of all per- 
sons none has such cause to rejoice 
as he who is the child of the Most 
High. " Let the righteous be glad : 
let them rejoice before God ; yea, let 
them exceedingly rejoice." What- 
ever afflictions may befall him he has 
ever a sure ground for rejoicing, and 
can, in the most adverse circum- 
stances, exclaim, — " He hath made 
with me an everlasting covenant, 
ordered in all things and sure ; this 
is all my salvation and all my de- 



64 



THE ARK. 



sire." With demure, sour-visaged, 
repulsive Christians, we have no 
sympathy. They are unwelcome 
notices that forbid to trespass on 
holy ground. 

8tk. Little children grovj. Of all 
the points of resemblance between 
the child and the Christian, this is, 
perhaps, the most striking. While 
the child lives it grows, and so must 
it be with the regenerate soul. As 
a new-born babe, it desires the sin- 



cere milk of the Word. And why? 
" That it may grow thereby," and be 
fitted to receive stronger food. Not 
losing time by laying again the found- 
ation, it presses onwards to spiritual 
perfection ; and, in a holy rivalry 
with the saints who have gone be- 
fore, strives to attain, " in the unity of 
the faith, and of the knowledge of the 
Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto 
the measure of the stature of the ful- 
ness of Christ." 



I u s t i f i ni t i 

(^Continued fr 
v. While the sinner is justified by 
God imputing to him the divine 
righteousness of Christ, he, on his 
part, receives it by faith. " Being 
justified by faith, we have peace 
with God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ." Although this doctrine is 
abundantly and clearly revealed in 
almost every page of Inspiration, yet 
it has been put to the torture by not 
only Romanists and avowed Armi- 
nians, but by not a lew who profess 
formal adherence to the Westminster 
standards. The popular heresy on 
this sul)ject consists in holding up 
the words of James, wliich urge the 
necessity of good works as eviden- 
tial of the reality of justification, as 
if opposed to tlie uniform language 
of Paul. Without formally discuss- 
ing this objection, it is sutficient to 
say, that none can damage the cause 
of the objector so much as himself, 
when his main argument is to shew 
that James and Paul contradict one 
another. In regard to this objec- 
tion, we have now to state the strong 
language of Luther : — " Wherefore 
we must avoid this gloss as a most 
deadly and devilish poison, and con- 
clude with Paul, ' that we are justi- 



om page 48.) 

fied not by faith furnished with 
charity, but by faith only and alone.'" 
The Protestant heretic resorts to the 
silly sophism, that we are justified 
by faith, which is our act and our 
work. This renders our faith a 
work of merit — a material part of 
our justification — a supplement to 
the perfect righteousness of Christ. 
Such twining and twisting is un- 
worthy a Protestant intellect, is a 
formal denial of the scriptural ac- 
count of the doctrine, and is practi- 
cally dishonest to the subscribed 
Westminster standards. Faith is 
but the instrument — the hand that 
receives the proffered righteousness 
of Emmanuel; while it is the gift 
of God. "Ye are saved by grace 
through faith, and that not of your- 
selves ; it is the gift of God." Our 
works do not, and cannot, form any 
part of the matter of our justifica- 
tion, which would furnish ground of 
self-glorying. " Where is boasting 
then ? It is excluded. By what 
law ? of works ? Naj' ; but by the 
law of faith. Therefore we conclude 
that a man is justified by faith with- 
out the deeds of the law." 



Edinburt^h: Printed and Published for the Proprietors by Paton and Eitchie, 81 Princes 
Street (to whom all Comnuniications, prepaid, may be addressed). Glasgow: Thomas 
MuKiiAY AND Son i and sold by all Booksellers. 




Vol. IIL-No. 9. 



SEPTEMBER 1860. 



Price 2d. 



^i ManUmx^ d tje Sfformattoti;, 



And so " the National Commemora- 
tion of the Tricentenary of the Refor- 
mation from Popery in Scotland" has 
passed off! The occasion, the pro- 
fessed object, and the character, 
talents, acquirements, and piety of the 
more prominent actors, have contri- 
buted to render the affair one of no 
ordinary interest. In point of num- , 
ber, intellect, and varied erudition, 
the metropolitan commemoration of 
last month was in many respects not \ 
an unworthy representation of those 
who, exactly three hundred years i 
ago, were the honoured instruments 
of achieving our country's liberty, 
both civil and sacred. To detract 
from the zeal that distinguished the ' 
Commemorators, or to question the | 
purity and sincerity of their motives, i 
is as much beside our object, as we j 
feel it to be beneath the character of | 
any leal-hearted Scotsman, and pro- I 
fessed friend of the Reformation. It ! 
is work far more congenial to our ' 
feelings to acknowledge, as we most 
ungrudgingly do, that, on the occa- 
sion alluded to, many precious truths 
were beautifully illustrated, power- 
fully defended, and warmly enforced, 
while no small amount of clear and 
warming light Avas thrown upon the 
simply honest, but righteously firm 
character and policy of Scotland's 
Reformers. 

The greater, however, the delight 
we feel in thus sincerely making 



this acknowledgment, proportionally 
greater is the reluctance we feel in 
giving expression to our serious dis- 
appointment and deep grief, which 
we propose doing in no equivocal 
\ terms, but without the smallest tinc- 
ture of a captious spirit, or treating 
I with levity a subject of such grave 
, and national importance. And surely 
a question of such magnitude admits of 
being calmly discussed, especially by 
the professed admirers of the Reformers 
and the- Reformation, without bandy- 
ing about disreputable vocables, or re- 
sorting to " that wrath of man which 
worketh not the righteousness of God. " 
And we have all the greater confi- 
dence in speaking thus freely, that 
the Commemorators glory in the 
regnant plea of "liberty of con- 
science," and make the broad an- 
nouncement, " that no man is to be 
held responsible to man for his reli- 
gious creed," the benefit of which 
cannot be consistently denied to those 
who may with equal honesty adopt 
and express different and contrary- 
opinions. This concession allows, if 
indeed it does not invite, a rational 
collision of friendly and inquisitive 
mindsfor the clearer elucidation of his- 
torical facts, and the more satisfactory 
ascertainment of the systematized 
principles of the Reformation from 
Popery. And as this concession has 
been freely taken advantage of by 
the Commemorators themselves, in 



66 



expressing their different and even 
seriously conflicting views of both 
the Reformers and the Reformation 
cause, so we claim the same liberty 
of speech and pen in dealing with the 
designation, character, composition, 
and professed object of the Tricen- 
tenaiy commemoration. Besides all 
this, the deplorably low morality of 
the country, whether viewed ecclesi- 
astically, socially, or politically, ac- 
cording to the account of it so gra- 
phically given by those under whose 
auspices this '"national" movement 
was projected and held, demands of 
every patriotic Scotsman that he use 
greatest plainness of speech, and 
direct his countrymen to the old 
royal standard for rallying the rema- 
nent old reformed spirit that fought 
hard and successfully for our emanci- 
pation from Popish heresy and des- 
potism. Dr. Begg, Convener of the 
Committee of " the Protestant Insti- 
tute of Scotland," says, " W hilst our 
reforming fathers have gone to their 
rest and reward, a new generation 
has grown up in conqmrative ignorance 
of the ■principles of the Reformation, and 
oftheir sufferings and struggles. Rome 
has meanwhile been stealthily acquir- 
ing great social and political power. 
Many of the great and noble of the 
land have been caught in her snares. 
The Government now trains her priests, 
pays her teachers, employs her emis- 
saries in almost every department 
at home and abroad. A number of 
Jesuits have lately settled in Edin- 
burgh, in addition to all the agents 
from Rome, and, from the large sums 
placed by the Romish Propaganda at 
the disposal of the Scottish bishops, 
it is evident that a great struggle to 
subvert the Reformation is about to be 
made. To expose and resist all such 
attempts, and to seek to hand down 
the blessings of the Reformation in 
increasing measure to the latest pos- 
terity, must be regarded as a para- 



mount duty and great privilege by 
the people of God. Rome is uniting 
her forces to support any and every 
government that will comply with 
her ever-increasing demands." 

Far from desirous to make the 
most of small things, and, above all, 
to expose friends and encourage ad- 
versaries, the question is a legitimate 
one, and one to which we Avould in- 
vite the solemn attention of every 
Scotsman and Commeniorator — How 
comes it that the Government and 
the country are in so deplorable a 
state ? How comes it that " a new 
generation has grown up in compara- 
tive ignorance of the principles of 
the Reformation, and of their suffer- 
ings and struggles?" How explain 
why the Popish Jezebel has been able 
to repaint her face, to tire anew her 
head, and so to renew her obsolete 
charms as to win the good graces of 
the Government and the generation? 
How has this change come over the 
spirit of Scotland's dream, especially 
when so many Protestant applian- 
ces are continuously and vigorously 
worked ? — wheti the country abounds 
with bible and missionary societies, 
with Protestant lectureships, revi- 
vals, evangelical alliances, and even 
commemorations? How satisfac- 
torily explain, amid the rapid whir- 
ling Protestant machinery, the Com- 
memorators' admitted and lamented 
menacing attitude of Rome, and com- 
parative ignorance of the generation 
in regard to the principles of the 
Reformation ? Who are specially 
culpable for this stale of ignorance, 
political and ecclesiastical degrada- 
tion and danger ; and what is the 
loose screw in this Protestant machi- 
nery which renders it inadequate to 
meet the counter, smoother running, 
and more successful machinery of 
Rome ? How, in short, explain 
Scotland's present weakness, degene- 
racy, and danger, as compared with 



67 



her strength, advancing purity, and 
substantial victory over political and 
ecclesiastical Popery, at the early era 
of 1560? 

To the satisfactory solution of this 
now severe, hard, but interesting 
problem, we would invite the alge- 
braic powers of " the Convener of 
the Protestant Institute of Scotland," 
or of any of the Commemorators ; 
and we would suggest the necessity 
of looking well to the known quanti- 
ties of the question, so as accurately 
to throw up those sought : Given, the 
Reformation delineated in symbolic 
books, and the consistent conduct of 
the Reformers ; to find out whether 
the Reformation described by the 
Commemorators be the same, and 
whether the Commemorators be the 
genuine representatives of the Scot- 
tish Reformers ? This is the true 
state of the question to which the 
calculator must confine himself, and 
by adhering to the terms of which we 
may expect some definite explanation 
ofour present national embarrassment, 
and the inadequacy of the new com- 
memoration reformation to meet our 
terrific exigencies, in consequence of 
" Rome's stealthily acquired great 
social and political power," and " to 
expose and resist all her present at- 
tempts to subvert the Reformation." 
And we do say that anything like 
aversion to face and deal with the 
above problem, and in the sliape in 
which we have put it, will indicate 
unfairness, and a painful lack of moral 
courage to deal thoroughly and 
honestly with the acknowledged and 
felt necessities and perils of our 
country. 

But the above painfully accurate 
summary of the country's Popery, 
for meeting and worsting which the 
Commemoration ovation has been 
held in Scotland's metropolis, is ex- 
tremely meagre and defective, inas- 
much as it practically ignores, or ap- 



pears to make small account of other 
malignly potent, more plausible, and 
subtle elements of national danger. 
Assuming that formal Popery were 
met, what is the adequacy of the 
Commemoration movement for suc- 
cessfully doing battle with popular 
secularised journalism, with scientific 
infidelity, with literary scepticism, 
with ecclesiastical division and con- 
flict, with ever-increasing immorality, 
with novel and startling crime, and, 
might we be allowed, without giving 
offence, to say in a whisper, with 
covenanted apostacy? Should the 
Commemoration movement succeed 
in inducing Parliament, which is but 
the mirror of the nation's mind, to 
withdraw its countenance and pecu- 
niary grants from the adherents of 
Rome, how dispose of the above spe- 
cified national elements, equally hos- 
tile to Reformation principles, and 
equally provocative of the righteous 
wrath of the God of the Reforma- 
tion ? and how would such " a con- 
summation devoutly to be wished" 
remove the elements of unseemly and 
antagonistic denominationalism, see- 
ing that the Commemoration deno- 
minationalists are already agreed 
against Rome ? In speaking thus we 
address ourselves not to the preju- 
diced, and who are resolved, at every 
hazard, to cleave to their respective 
creeds, but to clear-headed and 
large-hearted patriots who are deter- 
mined on adopting and practically 
carrying out Scotland's Reformation 
cause, which, in its entirety and 
purity, has already amply demon- 
strated its adequacy to worst Popery, 
and promote " that righteousness 
which exalteth a nation." Let all 
such but allow their eyes to rest for 
a little on the well-authenticated 
statistical table of the Rev. Mr. Saf- 
fery, secretary to the London Tract 
Society, addressed to an Edinburgh 
audience in November 1852, and 



68 



which has been seriously aggravated 
since that date. " The issues of what 
may be called the pw-eJy infidel press 
of London amounted last year to 
12,200,000 publications; while those j 
of the atheistical press amounted to ; 
642,000. To these might be added j 
17,680.000 publications either of a 
negative or of an immoral character. 
In this calculation no account was ^ 
taken of the newspaper press, but 
only of those publications which come i 
under the denomination of tracts, 
periodicals, pamphlets, &c. Last year 
there issued from the Popish press 
520,000 publications ; and the con- 
clusion to which he came was, that ' 
the issues of the infidel and atheistic, 
of the negative, of the immoral, and 
of the Popish press, exceeded, by more 
than eleven millions, the publications 
of the London Tract Society, of the 
Christian Knowledge Society, of the 
British and Foreign, and the Scottish 
Bible Societies, and seven of their 
best religious magazines, combined." 

One of their travelling agents 
stated, same year and same month, I 
that — " 1. There is an organised [ 
system of infidelity at work in this ! 
country; 2. The object of this is to j 
revolutionise the country in its po- ! 
litical constitution ; 3. This organis- 
ation has continental connexions and 
continental resources." So much for 
the hitherto unquestioned, probably 
unquestionable, and certainly sicken- 
ing, statistical account of the pub- ; 
lishing and reading atheism, deism, j 
infidelity, immorality, and Popery, of ' 
our so-called Protestant country, and i 
which has been fearfully on the in- I 
crease during the last eight years, ; 
notwithstanding the increased coun- ' 
ter appliances adverted to. 

Now, how does the Commemora- : 
tion propose, according to its one 
professed object, to dispose of this ! 
festering mass of dark-featured and 
morally murderous infidelity and ' 



scepticism, which is equally subtle 
from the character of its accomplished 
advocates as the grosser and more 
j easily refuted dogmas of Popery? 
' We desiderate, and think we have a 
; right to demand from the so-called 
j National Commemoration, some defi- 
nite information on this interesting 
subject. 

* But those who are in measure 
intelligently alive to the country's 
i acknowledged perils because of the 
deeply criminal apathy of professed 
Protestants to the Scottish ducal 
triumphs of Antichrist, and the nu- 
merous perversions of the elite of the 
Anglican Established Church, desi- 
derate in the character and compo- 
sition of the Commemorative Asso- 
ciation any feasible competency for 
stemming even this strong and in- 
creasing Popish current. Where is 
the likelihood that the British Go- 
vernment and Parliament will be 
moved to withdraw Popish grants, 
and to drive Pcpery and its adher- 
ents to the place assigned them by 
the Scottish Reformers — beyond the 
pale of legislative power and trust ? 
Are the repeated abortive efforts of 
Mr. Spooner in regard to Maynooth ; 
tlie worse than defunct Ecclesiastical 
Titles Bill ; the bowing of the chief- 
tain of the Whigs to the wooden 
image of the Virgin at Vienna ; the 
defence of the Government grant to 
Maynooth by the popular M.P. for 
Edinburgh, on the plea of fair play, 
or because the Churches of England 
and Scotland are Established ; the 
more than equivocal utterances of 
the Prince of Wales on the substan- 
tial Christianity alike of Protestants 
and Papists ; or the sepulchral si- 
lence of the royal head of the Eng- 
lish Church on the dark and destroy- 
ing glories of Puseyism ; — do these 
stern facts give promise of an easy 
won victory over Rome, either eccle- 
siastically or politically, by the Com- 



6y 



memorators ? In consideration of 
the popular breath of our most influ- 
ential statesmen on the equal claim 
of all religions to political counte- 
nance and support, and that this 
ruling dogma of Voluntaryism has 
permeated British society, and that 
the Papists in the Commons' House 
of Parliament, like the Turks, con- 
stitute the balance of power, so as to 
decide any question affecting their 
interests, it is not easy to see how 
the Protestantism of the country, 
and especially of the Commemorative 
kind, can eject Popery without a 
revolution. Although even the Pro- 
testant Samson should shew that his 
shorn locks are growing again, and 
that his strength is recovering, yet 
his most strenuous eiforts in bringing 
the house of the Philistines to the 
ground will bury himself in the 
ruins. "And when they shall have 
finished their testimony, the beast 
that ascended out of the bottomless 
pit shall make war against them, 
and shall overcome them, and kill 
them." 

But we must not appear to forget, 
and consider the question which the 
very existence and professed object 
of the Commemoration supposes, — 
Are we not warranted to believe 
that the principles of the Scottish 
Reformation, which proved their 
power to supplant Popish craft, in- 
fluence, and heresy, are still as ade- 
quate to keep their ground in doing 
battle with the ancient adversary ? 
Now the question, as thus put, is 
cumbered with very many and foreign 
adjuncts which an intelligent Pro- 
testant would insist on having sepa- 
rated from it, ere he would admit 
its propriety in influencing his calm 
judgment on such a subject. It 
assumes, for instance, what should 
first be proved, that the Commemo- 
rators have adopted the px'inciples of 
the Reformation, and are resolved to 



j work them out according to the 
policy of the Reformers. But is this 
! the case ? It assumes that the Com- 
j memorators not only adopt these prin- 
I ciples, but that they adopt them in 
their systematised form, as constitut- 
ing the Reformed cause. But is it 
! not a fact that the gloried-in deno- 
minationalism of the Commemorators 
formally prevents such an adoption 
I of these principles, wliile the Com- 
1 memorators have expressly made ex- 
: ceptions to many of them as deemed 
essential by the Reformers them- 
selves ? And is it not palpably ob- 
vious, that had the formal adoption 
of the Reformation cause been made 
the sine qua non test of membership, 
the Tricentenary Commemoration 
never could have had an existence ? 
while insisting on such a test even 
now would consign the whole move- 
ment to "the tomb of all the Capu- 
lets." Wherefore, then, lament "the 
comparative ignorance of the princi- 
ples of the Reformation," when those 
who know them speculatively agree 
to sepulchre and reject some of them 
held by the Reformers to be essen- 
tial, and conservative of liberty? 
But this question also assumes, that 
those who now profess to adopt and 
work them out, must be men of a 
kindred spirit with the Reformers, 
about which we confess to some mis- 
givings, especially as some of the 
leading Commemorators addressed 
themselves by set speeches to specify 
not a few of the asperities of their 
Reforming heroes, while others 
charged them with holding persecut- 
ing principles ! and surely this was 
no recommendation of the Reformers 
or their cause to this " new genera- 
tion, ignorant of their principles and 
of their struggles ! " And, in fine, 
this question assumes that the Com- 
memorators, like the Scottish Re- 
formers, stand not charged with the 
guilt of having long ignored and re- 



70 



THE ARK. 



pudiated the principles of the Refor- 
mation. But is the case so? A 
politic debater would hesitate, pre- 
viously to having these cumbrous 
adjuncts satisfactorily disposed of, to 
admit the fairness and competency of 
this question, which assumes the 
capability of the Commemorative 
Assembly, or new Evangelical Al- 
liance, to rescue Scotland from mo- 
dern Popery. 

But without formally discussing 
such topics at this stage, we should 
like to have some definite information 
as to the likelihood of any effectual 
impression being made on the Govern- 
ment, the Parliament, or the body of 
the people, as to the nature and 
politics — ecclesiastical character of 
the antichristian system by this Com- 
memoration movement. It is true 
that not a few of the Comraemorators 
deeply deplore the legislative charac- 
ter and influence with which the 
Catholic Rehef Bill of 1829 has in- 
vested the professed friends of Popery, 
and scruple not to stigmatize that 
measure as worse than a political 
blunder, if not at the bottom of 
Britain's menacing entanglements ; 
but is it not equally true that some 
of the very magnates of the Tricen- 
tenary used all their intellectual 
energy and influence in support of that 
malign measure, lately in Edinburgh 
resisted a movement towards the re- 
peal of that obnoxious Act of Parlia- 
ment, and, to this hour, hold it as 
essential to political liberty, that 
Papists should be eligible to all places 
of civil power and trust in a Protes- 
tant commonwealth, with the excep- 
tion, perhaps, of the Lord-Chancellor- 
ship and the Crown ! Is it not, 
moreover, an ominous fact, that the 
" Scottish Reformation Society," 
under whose auspices " the Tricen- 
tenary Commemoration " was held, 
still makes this an open question f If, | 
by mooting the above, we have mis- j 



taken the position of Principal Cun- 
ningham, let him explain himself on 
this vitally national and comprehen- 
sively Reformation principle, and not 
esconce himself behind a fictitious 
dignity. It is high time Scotland 
should be certified of the genuine 
friends of Scotland's Reformation 
and Scotland's Reformers. Nor is it 

' to be overlooked as deeply affecting 

j this question, that those of the Com- 
memorators who profess the Volun- 

, tary creed — and these are not few — 
must, in consistency, labour hard to 
make the withdrawal of parliamentary 
grants from the emissaries of Rome, 
tiie lever for overturning the estab- 
lished churches of Britain and Ireland, 
and erecting on their smoking ruins 
a pillar with this inscription, " To the 

i death of all NATIONAL RELI- 
GION." AVhether this feature is 
sufiacieutly explanatory of the fiact, 
that very few of the ministers of the 
Scottish establishment, and these few 
of no great celebrity, appeared on 
the Commemoration stage, we leave 
others to say. One thing is clear, 
that the success of the Voluntary 
Commemorators must, to a dead cer- 
tainty, be the sepulchre of the Free 
Church's "Claim of Rights;" and 
herein these Voluntaries are consist- 
ent and " wise in their generation." 
And here, we may interject the 
question, What can the Government 
or Parliament do with a society, a 
self-styled national association, of so 
discordant principles and antagonistic 
ulterior objects, and that outstrips 
even themselves in the exercise of 
that "charity which thinketh no evil" 

politicalhj of either Protestants or 
Papists ! And is this to be held as 
"a Reformation principle and blessing, 
the present comparative ignorance of 
which "is matter of so deep lamenta- 
tion to the amiable " Convener of the 
Protestant Institute of Scotland?" 
We pause for a reply from Dr. Begg. 



71 



Would the sincere enthusiast allow 
us, by way of interjection and I'estat 
this stage of our journey, to look at 
Principal Cunningham's pet dogma 
on political liberty equally claimable 
in a Protestant commonwealth by 
Papist, infidel, Jew, and Gentile ! 
And is not the question natural, 
according to this theory. How is it 
possible that there could be a Protes- 
tant nation ? Has infidelity. Popery, 
and Christianity nothing specially to 
do with political liberty? Has the 
history of Popery, infidelity, and 
Christianity no voice on this question 
on the Continent, and in these isles 
of the sea? Could we get no light 
upon it from the history of modern 
Italy, sanguinary France, or the 
luminous stakes of the English, and 
especially the Scotch Covenanters? 
And is this dogma the blood, and 
bones, and soul of the Voluntary 
controversy so long and fiercely 
maintained by some who declared 
that "Voluntaryism plucked the crown 
from Christ's head, and tended to 
national infidelity ? " What measure 
of political liberty might Protestants 
expect from a Popish, or popishly 
inclined government? and what kind 
of recognition could the sworn de- 
fenders of " the Claim of Rights " 
receive at the hands of a Voluntary 
cabinet ? 

But are we fairly stating the ques- 
tion? for, according to the Relief 
Bill of 1829, Papists are not eligible 
to the High Chancellorship or to the 
Crown. Is not that a mere circum- 
stance as distinguishable from a prin- 
ciple ? Can the dogma adopted, and 
upon which we are animadverting, 
get the advantage of the exception in 
regard to even the Crown ? We are 
not referring to the historical fact, 
and the constitutional principle of 
this country, that the crown was 
taken from the last of the Stuarts 
because he was a Papist, and given 



to another because he was a Protes- 
tant; nor to the no less important 
fact, that the coronation oath which 
specifies the Pi'otest.ant religion as 
essential to the sovereign formally 
binds the royal jurant to adhere to and 
support that religion against Popery. 
We are adverting at present to the 
practical inconsistency and obvious 
cruelty of the dogma, that Papists 
are eligible to political character in 
a Protestant commonwealth. If that 
dogma be sound, then why make any 
political office an exception to its 
sway? Why should Lord Campbell, 
and especially Victoria, be sulvjected 
to the deprivation of a choice in their 
religion from which the meanest sub- 
ject of the realm is delivered ? Will 
any of the Commemorators affirm, or 
undertake to shew, that this dogma, 
so much in vogue among their cele- 
brities, was a principle of the Scot- 
tish Reformation, or that it was ever 
held by John Knox or any of his 
reforming compeers ? And which of 
the Commemorators is ignorant of 
the historic fact, that this dogma was 
formally repudiated by all the heroes 
of both the first and second Refor- 
mation, while exactly the reverse 
occupied a prominent place in all 
their symbolic documents, and their 
cause, upon the ground of it, received 
a political, a national recognition. 
Those who profess to commemorate 
the Reformation of Scotland by ignor- 
ing and repudiating its an ti- Volun- 
tary principle, are incompetent to do 
battle with modern Popery, and are 
addressing themselves to the dark 
work of eviscerating the Reforma 
tion cause. Might we hope for par- 
don from the enthusiast who is 
charmed with the sound, rather than 
with the luminous realities, of the 
Reformation cause, when we venture 
to hint that since 1560 the Scottish 
Reformation has not received such 
rough treatment at the hands of its 



72 



THE AUK. 



professed friends as last month in 
Scotland's capital. " What are these 
Avounds in thine hands ? Those with 
which I was wounded in the house of 
my friends." 

The remarks now made lead us to 
a more formal consideration of the 
integral, the cardinal elements, or 
principles, of the Scottish systema- 
tised Reformation, with a vievv to dis- 
cover whether, in point of fact, the 
Coramemorators have, in a bona fide 
manner, acted out their printed pro- 
gramme — whether or not they have 
adopted " the principles of the Refor- 
mation ? " The programme for com- 
memorating the Tricentenary of the 
Reformation from Po[)ery in Scotland 
says, "Such a movement is due to the 
memory of our Reforming fathers, who 
shed their blood for \\\o&& glorious prin- 
ciples which have made our land great, 
and is much called for in the present 
times, when Rome is plying her ma- 
chinations so artfully and success- 
fully, while the principles of the Refor- 
mation are suffered by many to sink 
into comparative oblivion, and great 
masses of our people and their chil- 
dren are being tempted, and some of 
them entrapped, by the wiles of the 
' man of sin.' " Nothing save deep- 
rooted and incurable prejudice can 
object to a calm and honest considera- 
tion of the natural and necessary 
question, — What are " those glorious 
princi[)les of the Reformation " to 
which the programme so warmly al- 
ludes, and which have been so sig- 
nally blessed for rendering our country, 
in other days, so great? In fact, this 
(juestion forces itself upon us not only 
from tlie current phraseology of the 
programme, but also, and especially 
from the designation of the move- 
ment, " The National Commemora- 
tion of the Tricentenary of the Refor- 
mation." Now, where else are we 
to discover " the Reformation from 
Popery " than in the symbolic books, 



the nationally recognised standards 
of the Reformed Kirk of Scotland ? 
To these, and not to the stray and 
merely incidental opinions of the Re- 
formers, are we to have recourse in 
discussing a question of this kind. 
These documents comprise her "Con- 
fession of Faith," her " two Books of 
Discipline," and especially her "Na- 
tional Covenant." A selection from 
these, which is all the Commemora- 
tors have done, and possibly could 
do, is, Ave do submit, not the Refor- 
mation as understood and declared by 
the Reformers themselves ; so that 
the programme, and the whole Com- 
memoration movement, are a fallacy, 
a misnomer, if not a deception prac- 
tised upon the country. Whatever 
the system of the Commemorators 
may be, how valuable soever it may 
be of itself, and as an instrument 
against some of the dogmas of Po- 
pery, still it is not, and cannot with 
any propriety or truth, be held as the 
Scottish Reformation. And if this 
reasoning is correct, and if it is in 
strict accordance with the solemn de- 
clarations of the Scottish martyrs 
when enumei-ating at the stake the 
standards in defence of which they 
were laying down their lives, we do 
maintain that the Commemorators 
have dishonoured their memories, and 
done very serious injustice to their 
sacred cause. It were the sorriest 
compliment, either to their memories 
or to their well-defined principles, to 
fall back on the Commemorative 
catchwords of " essentials and sub- 
stantials," words, and the sentiments 
intended to be conveyed by them, 
equally repudiated by the Reformers. 
Such terms as " essentials," which 
are disreputably used for honouring 
the rejection of many of the luminous 
and highly conservative principles of 
the Reformation, as well as precious 
truths of revelation, only all the more 
clearly illustrate, and all the more 



73 



powerfully confirm our heavy charge 
against the Commemoration move- 
ment. If " the glorious principles of 
the Reformation " had been adopted 
and commemorated, then itis painfully 
patent that such rejective and repu- 
diative terras could not possibly have 
been employed. Neither will the use 
of the other^ and, if possible, more 
popular phrase, " common ground," 
deliver the programme from inconsis- 
tency, or the Commemorators from 
mangling the Reformation. For the 
common ground occupied by the 
Commemorators, no man that re- 
spects his intellectual character will 
attempt to shew, or be hardy enough 
to atfirm, is the Rekokmation 

GROUND. 

With a view to shew that our 
charge under this head against the 
Commemoration is very far from 
light, we may now refer to the com- 
position of the Commemoration As- 
sociation. 

By the programme we learn that 
the Commemorators comprised mem- 
bers of all the evangelical denomina- 
tions, and that the committee of 
management was composed of Re- 
verends and lay members of the fol- 
lowing religious sects : — The Estab- 
lished Church of Scotland; the Epis- 
copal Churches of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland; the Free Church 
of Scotland ; the Voluntaries ; Inde- 
pendents ; the Reformed Presby- 
terians; and some nondescripts. 

Now this " mixed multitude," — 
this strange array of ecclesiastical 
material, — might associate on com- 
mon ground to commemorate a com- 
mon event, and to reach a common 
object; but how they could associate 
to " commemorate the Reformation 
of 1560, and do justice to its glori- 
ous principles," appears to us a most 
confounding problem, and one which 
we humbly apprehend no mortal 
man is adequate to solve ; and, ac- 



cordingly, the Commemorative en- 
gine has various safety valves to let 
off Erastian, Voluntary, Episcopalian, 
and Independent steam. But let us 
see hoAV these hetei-ogeneous and con- 
flicting Commemorators deal with 
the Reformed, Presbyterian, Anti- 
Erastian, and Covenanted Kirk of 
Scotland. This entire Reformation 
personage takes his place for Com- 
memorative honours in the midst of 
the vast and imposing Assembly. 
The Episcopalian friends hasten to 
do him honour by stripping him of 
his Presbyterian character, in which 
work of honour they have the ready 
assistance of the Independents. But 
these Episcopalians proceed to strip 
this Reformed personage of not only 
his form of government with its di- 
vine right, but his mode of scriptural 
and simple worship, to which some 
Presbyterians have no strong objec- 
tions. And by way of a finishing 
off stroke, these same Episcopalians, 
" who feel strongly " on their own 
system, deprive him of his manner 
and kind of discipline ! After com- 
ing through the tender hands of 
these Episcopalian Commemorators, 
the person of the Reformed Kirk of 
Scotland appears minus his presby- 
tery, discipline, and form of worship! 
But this venerable person is next 
subjected to the questionable but 
well meant honours of the large 
company of Voluntary Commemo- 
rators, who lament his adoption of 
the persecuting principle of national 
religion ! Their main commendation 
is, that because he insisted on, and 
obtained a national recognition, he 
destroyed the spiritual nature and 
character of Christ's beloved spouse! 
In delivering him from this " im- 
politic, unjust, and unscriptural" pre- 
dicament, the Independents give a 
helping hand to the United Presby- 
terians. How strange, after under- 
going this stripping process, does tliis 



71 



Reformation personage appear on 
the Commemorative platform ! But 
additional, and still rarer honours, 
await this high personage at the hands 
of the Erastians. Those of both the 
English and Scottish stamp, espe- 
cially the former, who are bound on 
a certain day publicly to thank God 
for the suppression of the Scottish 
Reformation, ijclej)t "the Northern 
rebellion," effectually deprive him of 
his head, or rather headship ! What 
this headship precisely means, how 
much it comprehends, and what the 
deprivation of it inflicts on the ap- 
pearance and character of this Re- 
formation man, we leave to others to 
conjecture. But who is to defend 
the Reformed Kirk from the attacks 
of modern Popery, rendered so for- 
midable by Parliamentary counte- 
nance and pecuniary grants ? Who 
is, of all the Commemorators, to keep 
this old venerable man from the 
heavy blows of his ancient adver- 
sary, Rome? We doubt not but 
every Commemorator would petition 
Parliament to draw off the Popish 
bully, save the Cameronians, who 
solemnly declare that it is a sin and 
a crime to acknowledge the uncove- 
nanting, immoral, and politically cri- 
minal British Government. For 
any help from this political quarter, 
did it depend on moving the little 
finger of Cameronianism, this honour- 
able personage might be crushed to 
death in the iron hands of the occupant 
of the Vatican, and the murderer of 
saints ! In fine, who among all the 
Commemorators is forward to do 
honour to this venerable personage's 
specific distinguishing, and most 
delighted in, Covenanted character? 
While, on the one hand, we hear not 
the voice of a single Commemorator 
in regard to this his eminent charac- 
teristic say, " God's blessing on you 
rest ; " yet, on the other, we must 
confess that some provision is made 



to meet any such squeamish desire 
by stepping into a side room, where 
is to be seen the veritable banner 
which waved not in the Covenanted 
Church of Scotland as a relic, but as 
a military ensign on the battle-field 
of Drumclog and at Dunse Law, 
with the inscription of " Christ's 
Crown and Covenant." We might 
add, that by no means the smallest 
honour to the memory and prin- 
ciples of the Reformed and Cove- 
nanted Church of Scotland, personi- 
fied as above, was paid by actual 
Covenanted Commemorators, who 
charged him with being, on the head 
of " pains and penalties," a rank 
persecutor; making the small mis- 
take, that this pardonable phrase 
never occurs in the symbolic books 
of the Reformed Kirk of Scotland, 
but in the Acts of Parliament ; and 
when it does occur there, it is ex- 
plained by the State, and by some of 
the individual Reformers, as bearing 
not upon ecclesiastical heresy, but 
upon political treason. 

Let us now view this Reformation 
personage after being subjected to 
this severe ordeal by the kindness of 
his Commemorative friends. He 
stands before these, his warmest 
admirers, despoiled of his Presby- 
terian character, his peculiar discip- 
line, his form of worship, his glorious 
headship, and his nationality. But 
this is not all ; for some of his Pres- 
byterian friends point to his surly 
face, dilate upon his asperities, and, 
amid applause, charge him with 
wielding the cruel and persecuting 
weapons which he had succeeded in 
Avrenohing from the sanguinary hands 
of his enemies ! Looking upon him 
as once Scotland, and England, and 
Ireland looked upon him and 
honoured him, and as he is repre- 
sented by his friends last month in 
Edinburgh, who would refuse to join 
us in exclaiming, "Quantum mutatus 



75 



ab illo Hectore ; " alas ! how changed 
from the former Hector. What, we 
would ask, after this process of ab- 
straction, is the common Reformation 
ground which the Commemorators 
now occupy ? and what are " the 
essentials " upon which they are 
agreed ? Surely they will not hazard 
the reply to this fair and all-important 
question by falling back upon the 
Reformation as merely a great fact, a 
great event ; and that in this sense only 
have they held their Commemoration 
of it. IIow vague, meagre, and even 
deceptive, in the circumstances, is 
the phraseology, "the Reformation 
is a great event." In what definite 
and intelligible sense can it be called 
a great event, save on account of 
what the Commemoration programme 
designates "its glorious principles?" 
To this phraseology Hume, Macau- 
lay, and the prelates who lighted up 
the stakes that consumed Scotland's 
covenants and covenanters, could 
have no serious objection. If we 
demur to admit that the Reformation 
was a great event because of the 
Scripturalness and glory of its prin- 
ciples, we throw the glory of the 
event under a most disreputable ob- 
scuration, and inflict upon it a blow 
which every Commemorator would 
labour to ward off from his own de- 
nomination. Is it possible to con- 
ceive of the Disruption event being 
commemorated by as motley an as- 
sembly, while all the essentials of 
the Free Church's Claim of Rights 
were ignored and repudiated, and her 
motives and conduct were subjected 
to misconstruction and insinuation ? 
Are we to believe that such a com- 
memoration of the Free Church's 
principles and struggles would find 
a satisfactory and honourable vindi- 
cation in the plea, that the Disruption 
movement was viewed merely " as a 
great event?" If such an apology 
would be held valid for so treating 



the testimony of an association that 
glories in claiming identification with 
the Reformed Kirk of Scotland, it 
must be ascribed to her heartless 
indifference to her public banner. In 
close and necessary connection with 
this view of the character, objects, 
and proceedings of the Commemora- 
tion, we cannot help expressing our 
astonishment at the real, although, 
perhaps, unintentional dishonour 
which the Commemorators have done 
to their own respective denominations, 
as well as to the Scottish Reformation. 
This appears from the common and 
gloried-in use of the term essential. 
The ecclesiastical sense of this term, 
especially as applied to denomina- 
tionalism, renders the task of defini- 
tion a superfluity. It is used to de- 
note what is frequently and formally 
expressed, that the points or principles 
on which so called, and we may admit, 
real Christians, are agreed, are the 
essentials of Christianity, and worthy 
to be contended for ; whereas those 
points or principles that constitute 
the isras of the respective denomina- 
tions, are the non-essentials of Chris- 
tianity, and not worthy fighting for. 
By denying this definition of the 
popular terms adverted to, we de- 
siderate another and a better, one 
that will satisfactorily explain their 
current ecclesiastical use. Assuming 
the accuracy of this definition until it 
be controverted, we have to ask, 
whether the Scottish Reformers ever 
so used these terms? and whether 
they did not formally condemn such 
an use of them as unscriptural? And 
we have further to request of the 
Commemorators who so employ them, 
how they can consistently rend the 
visible Church of Christ for what 
themselves call "non-essentials?" If 
the Commemorative movement se- 
cures the " essentials," wherefore 
should its advocates so tenaciously 
cling to those non-essentials that cut 



76 



THE ARK. 



up Protestant Biitain into so many 
and weak, because conflicting regi- 
ments against the united, compact, 
and formidable battalions of Rome ? 
It must sound strange infatuation in 
the ears of Rome and the Government 
to hear that the Commemorators of 
the Scottish Reformation are firmly 
united on tlie essentials of their Pro- 
testantism, but at war among them- 
selves on what they agree to call 
7ion- essentials! And is this the army 
adequate to revive the cause of Scot- 
land's Reformation ? and, like the 
old, but much maligned Reformers, 
ready and able successfully to conflict 
with Rome's troops? Which of them 
has the courage and consistency of 
Garibaldi, to run with red shirt and 
sword in hand into the heart of tlie 
Palermo of Rome ? It certainly 
should be matter of deep grief to 
Scotland's patriots, that all she has 
been able to exhibit in this hour of 
her peril in her defence against 
Popish invaders is this discordant 
and conflicting army of ecclesiastical 
volunteers ! 

In subjecting to review the cha- 
racter and pi'oceedings of the Com- 
memoration movement, we invite at- 
tention to one, and that a special and 
very attractive mean of bringing 
before Scotland her obligations for 
the Reformation. We allude to what 
the newspaper press properly desig- 
nates Protestant relics, but what tlie 
programme calls " memorials of the 
Reformation." And, in addressing 
ourselves briefly to this phase of the 
Commemoration policy, we beg dis- 
tinctly to be understood as setting 
down " nought in malice," and as 
writing not in levity but in grief; 
while we are not anxious to use 
further means for disabusing the 
harsh conjectures of the prejudiced, 
always a work of supererogation. 

The programme says, " Rare me- 
! morials of the liefonnaiion, to be ex- 



hibited in the Library Room," &c. 
Passing over for the time the large 
number of " original autographs, 
letters, documents, and other MSS.," 
"old engravings," "original draw- 
ings," and " Collection of Broad- 
sides," we may specify the follow- 
ing genuine relies, or memorials : — 
" The Covenant sworn by the Lords 
of the Congregation, December 1557; 
and the Family Bible of the cele- 
brated William Veith ; " " Knox's 
History of the Reformation ■ — • the 
original MSS. 1566 ; original con- 
fessions and covenants, 1561 to 164« ; 
volume of original MS, letters, con- 
taining letters of Renwick ;" Ca[)tain 
Paton's Bible, New Monkland Stan- 
dard at Bothwell Brig, &c.;" "chair, 
made of the wood of John Knox's 
house, &c. 

This is the Commemorators' inven- 
toi-y of the furniture of their ecclesi- 
astical wardrobe, the curiosities of 
their Protestant cabinet or toy-shop. 
In our subsequent comments on this 
glory, and perhaps essential part of 
the Tricentenary policy, we are not 
to be understood as objecting to the 
collection and inspection of natural 
curiosities ; but we must object to 
the collection and exhibition of all 
symbolic memorials of ecclesiastics 
and of a religious cause. We could 
enjoy a sight of Knox's antique watch, 
if it was lying in an antiquarian 
museum ; but we do think the case 
is materially altered when it is ex- 
hibited in the Library Room of the 
Free Assembly Hall, and in con- 
nexion with the Commemoration of 
the Tricentenary of the Reformation ; 
in the former case it is an interesting 
curiosity, in the latter it is a religious 
relic, and cannot easily, if at all, be 
distinguished from Romish supersti- 
tion, against which the Reformers 
so very severely inveighed. And we 
beg to suggest the doubt, whether 
any of the Commemorators be com- 



THE ARK. 



77 



petent to do battle ajrainst the Papist 
with the fiiniily bible of WilHam 
Veitch in his hand as a nieraorial, 
while the poor Papist opposes to him 
his crucifix. We fear the Protestant 
distinction betwixt the two rare 
memorials will be far too fine spun, 
and approximate too closely to Pro- 
testant Freemasonry, to be of any 
practical value in convincing Rome's 
devotees of their superstition. 8ure 
we are that Knox himself and his 
compatriot Reformers, who wisely 
acted on the divine maxim of " avoid- 
ing even the appearance of evil," 
instead of resorting to such gossamer 
reasoning, boldly condemned all such 
memorials. How clear-toned, firm, 
and sweeping the Reformed Kirk's 
condemnation of all such memorials, 
and signs, which were a tower of 
strength to " the Paip's Kirk." In 
her National Covenant she solemnly 
and by oath " abhors and detests all 
Rome's canonisation of men ; wor- 
shipping of imagery, relics, and 
crosses ; his processions ; dedicating oj 
kirks ; and finally, we detest all his 
vain allegories, rites, signs, and tradi- 
tions, without or against the word of 
God, and doctrine of this true Re- 
formed Kirk," &c. And what is thus 
so firmly and explicitly condemned 
by the Reforniers in their National 
Covenant, so oft renewed, was em- 
bodied in the Solemn League and 
Covenant betwixt the three nations, 
and pointedly applied against the 
Anglican Clmrch. This historic 
fact is anticipative and refutative of 
any defence which such as the Com- 
memorators may be disposed to make 
for their, not natural curiosities, but 
ecclesiastical memorials. 

The more intellectual and politic 
of the Commemorators have felt that 
their conduct with respect to these 
Protestant relics was open to objec- 
tion, or exposed them to misinterpre- I 
tation ; and accordingly they have i 



addressed themselves to inform the 
Protestants of Scotland on this sub- 
ject ! But if Scottish Protestants, 
and those, too, of tlie Free Church, 
required the Moderator's expository 
address, how much more the poor, ig- 
norant, and even intellectual Papist ? 
As condemnatory of this, to say the 
least of it, Popish-looking practice, it 
is ominous to find the defence of it 
by some of the Commemorators drawn 
from the typical and symbolic por- 
tions of the abrogated economy. 
Such instances in its defence, as the 
setting up of the twelve stones ga- 
thered from the Jordan, is passing 
strange, especially as it is one of the 
Papist's favourite instances for the 
whole theory of rehcs. All such 
reasoning is Popish throughout, and 
bespeaks a lack of instances in the 
New Testament scriptures for memo- 
rials in contravention of the design 
and nature of this spiritual dispensa- 
tion. That the practice is manifestly 
opposed to the genius, symbolic 
books, and conduct of the Scottish 
Reformers, cannot, we believe, be 
disproved. And it may contribute 
to illustrate and corroborate this posi- 
tion to know, that none of the Refor- 
mers, during any stage of the Refor- 
mation, ever for once resorted to 
" rare memorials " of their fathers to 
excite to the adoption of their causr . 
And it cannot be affirmed that great 
occasions of ecclesiastical and national 
interest did not occur, if they had felt 
it to be a duty to make such exhibi- 
tions, for rousing Scotland to duty. 
We require not to specify to the in- 
telligent reader of Scottish and Eng- 
lish history the years 1580, 1581, 
1590, and 1638, when not "rare 
memorials" were exhibited, but when 
the National Covenant was spread 
out, solemnly sworn, renewed, and 
formally subscribed ! That public, 
comprehensive, solemn document was 
not merely and equivocally alluded 



78 



THE ARK. 



to, was not ranked among Reforma- ! 
tion relics, was not merely symbo- [ 
lised by a banneret with the inscrip- 
tion, " For Christ's Crown and Cove- i 
nant." Scotland and her Reformers j 
had no heart for such tournamenting 
with Popery and Prelacy, and had 
the cause of religion and liberty too 
deep and warm within their inner 
men for any such mean and holiday 
commemoration work. Let candid, 
generous, and patriotic Scotsmen 
listen to the honest voice of history 
in telling the proceedings of a Refor- 
mation society in Edinburgh, 1st of 
March, 1638. "The people, who 
had heard of the delight with which 
their fathers had engaged in the work 
of national covenanting, and their 
lamentations for i\\Q national defection 
from so sacred an obligation, listened 
with pleasure to the proposal of their 
also entering into a similar engage- 
ment. A solemn fast was appointed, 
and, on March 1, 1638, the suppli- 
cants assembled in the Greyfriars' 
Church. The Covenant was first 
read in their hearing ; then the Earl 
of Loudon, whose manner was pe- 
culiarly impressive, addressed them, 
dwelt upon the importance of this 
bond of union, and exhorted the as- 
sembled multitude to zeal and perse- 
verance in the good cause. Hender- 
son, at the close, poured forth an 
impassioned prayer for a blessing ; 
after which the nobles stepped for- 
ward to the table, subscribed, and, 
with uplifted hands, swore to the 
observance of the important duties 
required in the bond ; after them, the 
gentry, ministers, and thousands of 
every rank, age, and sex, subscribed 
and swore ; the enthusiasm was uni- 
versal, every face beamed with joy, 
and the city presented one scene of 
devout congratulation and rapture." 
— (Aikman, vol. iii., p. 4-16.) By 
this proper commemorative service, 
or, more correctly speaking, national 



renewal of the National Covenant, 
Scotland stood erect, was adequate 
for the crisis, overthrew the fabric of 
Popery and Prelacy, united the thi'ee 
nations upon the Solemn League and 
Covenant, and was signally honoured 
of God for conserving the religion 
and liberty which survived the bloodi- 
est of persecutions for long twenty- 
eight years ! Look, reader, look at 
the conduct and appearance of Scots- 
men in Grey friars' churchyard, March, 
1638, and again look at the conduct 
and appearance of the Commemora- 
tors in the Free Assembly Hall, 
August, 1860, and say which was 
worthy Scotland, reformed, covenant- 
ed Scotland ? And we would most 
solemnly ask the Commemorators 
themselves to say, whether their re- 
cent ovation was worthy the country 
and the Church, in such perils as 
themselves declare and lament? 

That the reader may have before 
him a clear, intelligible, and instruc- 
tive contrast betwixt Scotland's posi- 
tion, character, objects, and efforts in 
the eventful crisis of 1638, and those 
of her no less eventful crisis of 1860, 
we shall set before him the sober 
verdict of impartial history. Of the 
National Covenant, sworn and sub- 
scribed at Edinburgh 1638, Aikman, 
vol. iii., p. 445, says, "To this much 
vilified bond every Scottish man ought 
to look with as great reverence as 
Englishmen do to the Magna Charta. 
It was what saved the country from 
absolute despotism, and to it we may 
trace back the origin of all the suc- 
cessful efforts made by the inhabi- 
tants of Britain in defence of their 
freedom, during the succeeding reigns 
of the Stuarts." This sagacious re- 
mark of Aikman, an Independent in 
his religious views, warrants the in- 
ference, that to that national document 
Britain owed her glorious Revolution 
of 1688, in consequence of which the 
reigning sovereiirn wears her crown. 



79 



But we crave attention to the de- 
scription of the character and effect 
of the 1638 Edinburgh Assembly of 
Reformers, from tlie pen of Dr. 
Hetherington, a Free Church minis- 
ter, and one of her Professors of 
Divinity : — " Never, except among 
God's peculiar people the Jews, did 
any national transaction equal in 
moral and religious sublimity that 
which was displayed by Scotland on 
the great day of her sacred National 
Covenant. Although it was com- 
puted that there could not be less 
than sixty thousand people from all 
parts of the kingdom assembled at 
that time in Edinburgh, there was 
not the sightest appearance of con- 
fusion or tumult ; and on the evening 
of that solemn day, after hours of the 
deepest and most intense emotion, 
when eveiy chord of the heart and 
every faculty of the mind had been 
excited to the utmost pitch of possible 
endurance, the mighty multitude 
melted quietly and peaceably away, 
each to his own abode, their souls 
filled with holy awe and spiritual 
elevation, by the power of the sacred 
pledge which they had mutually 
given to be faithful to their country 
and their God. What but the Spirit 
of God could have thus moved an 
entire people to the formation of such 
a bond, in which every worldly con- 
sideration was thrown aside, every 
personal interest trampled under foot, 
every kind of peril calmly confronted, 
solely for the maintenance of religious 
truth, purity, and freedom. Worldly 
politicians might well stand amazed ; 
selfish and ambitious prelates might 
be confounded and appalled ; and a 
despotic sovereign and his flatterers 
might cherish fierce resentment, 
when they heard of the wonderful 
transaction ; and men of similar 
views, characters, and feelings, may 
still pour forth their virulent invec- 
tives against Scotland's Covenant, 



and the men who framed and signed 
it, obeying the divine impulse by 
which they were guided and upheld ; 
but we do not hesitate to state our 
opinion, that the sublime deed of that 
great day will evek, by all who can 
understand and value it, be regarded 
as the deed and the day of Scotland's 
greatest national and religious glory." 

While we feel grateful to the Pro- 
fessor for his outspoken and spirited 
exposition and defence of " what 
should ever be regarded as the deed 
and the day of Scotland's greatest 
national and religious glory," we are 
anxious to shew the very high esti- 
mation in which that greatest national 
and religious glory was held by these 
Covenanters themselves, and the 
special value they attached to it as 
the firmest security of their country's 
religion and libertyw His majesty, 
king Charles, made aware by this 
solemn transaction of the Scottish 
Covenanters' fixed purpose to hold 
their own, deputed to Scotland, as 
Lord High Commissioner, the Marquis 
of Hamilton on the perilous enter- 
prise of attempting to divert them 
from their oath and subscription, at 
the beginning of the year. His 
Grace the Commissioner, in his 
majesty's name, promised the redress 
of their grievances, " but required 
the surrender of the Covenant as a 
preliminary. This proposition was 
listened to with disdain, and the uni- 
vei'sal declaration was, that they would 
as soon renounce their baptism as their 
Covenant" (Aikman iii., p. 457). So 
much, then, for the historical account 
of the spirit, character, policy, and 
declared objects of the sixty thousand 
assembled in Edinburgh in the criti- 
cal year of 1638. 

It is a somewhat painful, but 
withal instructive and salutary call 
which we now give, to compare or 
contrast that assembly of 1638, as 
fervidly and accurately described by 



80 



Dr. Hetherington, and last month's 
Coniniemoraiioa in the same city ! 
We look in vain in the latter assem- 
bly ior the aristocracy of Scotland, 
for the Sutherlands, the Loudons, 
the Rothes, the Balmerinoes, &c. 
Whither have fled our gentry with 
the nobility ? And we cannot dis- 
cover Scotland's covenanted ministers 
of the mental calibre and sanctified 
sagacity and courage of our Hender- 
sons ! Where among those " that 
handle the pen" were the represen- 
tatives of our Warristons ? Might 
we hope for pardon in saying, when 
we look on the Commemorative 
meeting, " The flowers of the forest 
are a' wed away." Who can refrain 
from giving vent to the lugubrious 
wail, " How has the gold become 
dim ! and how has the most fine gold 
been changed ! " 

Where was the National Covenant 
of Scotland, brought out of Greyfriars' 
Church, spread on a flat stone of the 
graveyard, and solemnly subscribed 
by thousands with warm Scottisli 
hearts and burning tears of joy? And 
if Dr. Hetherington's description of 
the 1638 scene be in accordance with 
truth, how has the ] 8G0 Commemo- 
ration assembly responded to his 
warmly-expressed opinion, " that the 
sublime deed of that great day will 
ever, by all who can understand and 
value it (! ! !), be regarded as the deed 
and the day of Scotland's greatest 
national and religious glory ?" And 
we would kindly ask the ministerial 
historian, whether his own commemo- 
ration speech was, in any intelligible 
sense or measure, a fair realisation of 
his historical panegyric ? But who 
has not lived long enough to discover, 
that the man on paper is a ditferent 
man in action. This is an age of 
such disreputable curiosities. How 
many who have written in defence 
of " Christ's Crown and Covenant," 
who have oft and actually sworn it, 



and have gloried in Non-intrusion 
days publicly to display it, now sa- 
tisfy conscience by throwing it among 
the ecclesiastical fossils of the New 
College Library Room ! 

We humbly think the question is 
natural, and the Commemorators 
could not but anticipate it, especially 
those of them who agree with Dr. 
Hetherington's historical account, al- 
luded to above, if the Greyfriars' scene 
of 1638 "is ever to be regarded as 
the deed and the day of Scotland's 
greatest national and religious glory ;" 
if it is a paramount duty in every 
right-hearted Scotchman to comme- 
morate the " glorious principles of the 
Reformation and the struggles of the 
Reformers;" and if "the National 
Covenant was the Magna Charta of 
Scotland, which saved the country 
from absolute despotism," how comes 
it that this document, or a solemn 
bond suited to the times, was not 
drawn up, sworn, and subscribed by 
the Commemorators, were it only to 
save appearances, and give signifi- 
cant consistency to their imposing 
designation, " the Commemoration 
of the Reformation in Scotland?" 
Would not the Papists, would not 
England, and would not Scotland 
herself, if " herself again," expect 
that " the National (!) Commemora- 
tion of the Reformation in Scotland," 
would have unfurled and rallied 
round Scotland's Covenanted Stan- 
dard? There must be some weighty 
reasons — weighty with the Comme- 
morators — for omitting from their 
programme all mention of this sacred 
flag, and especially for treating it 
with such marked disrespect, by 
pointing to the mere parchment roll 
as lying in the library room ! Was 
this worthy the 1860 Commemora- 
tors of the Reformation? Was it doing 
honour to " the glorious principles 
of Scotland's Reformation," and "the 



81 



Although it is far from a gracious, 
yet it is a necessary task imposed on 
us, to attempt to discover some of 
the reasons which prevented the 
Commemoration Assembly from not 
only adopting, but treating with more 
respect, this old National Standard, 
subscribing which is " Scotland's 
greatest national and religious glory." 

Can one of these reasons be, that 
the National Covenant served its 
day, — that it is antiquated, obsolete, 
effete, and has been consigned in all 
its literality to the specimen library 
room of Reformation petrifactions? 
Without formally shewing this na- 
tionally destructive dogma, which 
carries in its devouring Griffin teeth 
the Free Church's " Claim of Rights," 
in all its odiousness, it is sufficient 
for our present purpose to affirm, 
that this dogma is thoroughly anti- 
reformation, and as such was for- 
mally condemned by every Scottish 
Reformer, without exception. How 
read this modern Commemoration- 
dogma in the light of the well- 
weighed and solemn declarations of 
the Argyles and the Guthries of 
other years ? The two following 
well known instances of the Scottish 
Reformers, as illustrative of the ma- 
tured and unflinching faith of all their 
fellows, may suffice : — 

Archibald Campbell, Marquis of 
Argyle, when on the scaffold, de- 
clared, "I say no more, but God 
hath laid engagements on Scotland. 
We are tied by covenants to religion 
and reformation ; those who were 
then unborn are yet engaged ; and it 
passeth the power of all the magis- 
trates under heaven to absolve from 
the oath of God." To the same pur- 
pose, and perhaps more forcibly ex- 
pressed, is the averment of James 
Guthrie, who stood on the same 



scaifold a few days following, "I do 
bear my witness to the national cove- 
nant of Scotland, and Solemn League 
and Covenant betwixt the three king- 
doms. These sacred, solemn public 
oaths of God I believe can be loosed or 
dispensed with by no person, or party, 
or power upon earth, but are still 
binding upon these kingdoms, and 
loill be so for ever hereafter, and are 
ratified and sealed by the conversion 
of many thousand souls since our en- 
tering thereunto." His biographer 
adds, " When on the scaffold he 
lifted the napkin off his face, just 
before he was turned over, and cried, 
" The covenants, the covenants, shall 
yet be Scotland's reviving." And 
what says the elder M'Crie on this 
distinguishing characteristic of Scot- 
land's Reformation ? " By the good 
hand of God upon her, Scotland at- 
tained to greater purity in religion, 
and higher degrees of reformation, 
than any other Protestant country. 
In no nation has the true religion 
been so solemnly avouched as in Scot- 
land. Every important step taken in 
reformation was accompanied with 
confessions, protestations, vows, cove- 
nants, and oaths, which were made 
and subscribed by all ranks cheer- 
fully, voluntarily, joyfully, repeated 
on every new emergency and call, 
and ratified by every authority in the 
land." Is it imprudent, or improper, 
or worse, to ask the Commemorators 
to ponder well these prominent facts 
in the history of Scotland's Reforma- 
tion, and contrast them with their 
late metropolitan movement! Is it 
drawing too deeply on fancy or envy 
to assign as a reason for this studied 
disrespect to Scotland's vows and cove- 
nants the heart-aversion to them of the 
vast majority of the Commemorators? 

(To he continued.') 



Edinburgh : Printed and Published for the Proprietors by Paton and Eitchie, 81 Princes 
Street (to whom all Communications, prepaid, may be addressed). Glasgo-w : Thomas 
Murray and Son ; and sold by aU Booksellers. 



€\t %x\u 



Vol. III. -No. 10. 



OCTOBER 1860. 



Price Id. 



^c %xim\Umx^^ of i\}s ScformatioiL 



{Continued frora parje 81.) 



In our September number we ad- 
dressed ourselves to the inadequacy 
of the late " Tricentenary of the Re- 
iormation from Popery in Scotland " 
to meet the objects proposed by the 
Commemorators — -in this number we 
design a consideration of the TEN- 
DENCY of all such Commemorative 
movements. 

This aspect of the questit)nj al- 
though one of legitimate speculation, 
we choose to consider in the clearer 
and steadier light of historic fact. 
The summation of all that has been, 
or that can be, said in its favour is, 
that it is natural ; but this is a' more 
than questionable position when 
viewed in the light of Heathenism, 
Popery, Moliammedism, and even 
the Mosaic abrogated economy, while 
it admits not of being tested by the 
measuring rod of the Christian dis- 
pensation. The Commemorator who 
risks his defence on the plea that it 
is natural, must make up his mind 
to concede the main position of tlie 
Papist, and to defend with fractured 
right hand the battle of the Scottish 
Reformation frora Popery. If the 
plea of what is natural is chosen as 
the favourite and main plea of the 
Commemorator, we apprehend he will 
not find it an easy task to oppose the 
introduction into the New Testament 
temple of tiie Popish cross, and the 
other external attractives of Rome's 



Worship. The ecclesiastical pilot who 
would steer his bark according to the 
compa.s3 of what is natural, cannot 
! reach the haven of divinely prescribed 
I Vr'orship, as interpreted by the sym- 
bolic books of the Scottish Reforma- 
tion. If this is tobe assumed as the cen- 
tre dogma of the Reformation, then we 
"must fight all our battles o'er again." 
All theorising apart, we may in- 
quire for information, What have all 
Commemorative movements eflfectdd 
in regard to sound opinions, sound 
morality, and even political civilisa- 
tion among the adherents of those 
systems which hold them to be essen- 
tials? Shall we take this Comme- 
morative leaf out of the symbolic 
books of Heathenism and Popery for 
decorating the spiritual system of 
Christianity? Shall we adopt, be- 
cause of the supposed defect of the 
Scottish Reformation, this dogma of 
the Anglican Church to purify our 
theology, increase our morality, and 
act as a i»reventive of Tractarianism ? 
Have those half reformed systems on 
the Continent, in England, and Ire- 
land, so outshone Scotland in scrip- 
tural doctrine, morality, and intelli- 
gence, that we require their supple- 
mental experience to intensify our 
love of civil and religious freedom? 
Has Scotland's presbytery been found 
too favourable to Continental and 
Anglican prelatic priest-craft and 



84 



king-craft, tliat we stand in need of 
her Commemorative dogmas and prac- 
tices? This were a sorry commen- 
dation of Scotland's Reformation, and 
as sorry a commendation of England 
and Ireland in casting off their own 
prelacy, and formally as well as so- 
lemnly adopting the Piesbyterian 
doctrine, worship, government, and 
discipline of non- commemorating 
Scotland ? The intelligent reader of 
British history during its most event- 
ful era of the second Reformation, 
will not fail to discover a satisfac- 
tory and profitable solution of the 
problem, the doctrinal and moral 
superiority of the Scottish Reforma- 
tion over the general Protestantism 
of England. This view of the ques 
tion, and without the formality of 
reasoning, we do think, at least with 
the intelligent and candid, should go 
far to settle the question of ecclesias- 
tical Commemorative movements. 

Leaving, however, the contrasted 
history of Presbytery and Prelacy as 
throwing light on the question of 
Commemorations, it may contribute 
somewhat to an elucidation of the 
native tendency of such Commemora- 
tions to trace their effects among 
those Scottish Presbyterians who 
have now and again lent themselves 
to their celebration. We can only 
specify a few of the Commemoration 
movements by Presbyterians in Scot- 
land, and put it to the reader candidly 
to say. What have been their effects 
on the religious, political, and social 
world? By authority of the General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 
the jubilee of the Revolution of 1688 
was religiously held throughout Scot- 
land in 1788. Who that is in any 
measure acquainted with the history 
of the national Church is ignorant of 
the painfully instructive fact, that 
from that period her declension in 
regard to doctrine and polity was 
rapid and startling! A religious 



Commemorative service was cele- 
brated in the High Church of Glas- 
gow, and a great public Commemora- 
tive meeting was held, same year, 
1838, in the Assembly Rooms, Edin- 
burgh, as the Bicentenary of the 
Glasgow Assembly of 1638. A brief 
period served to shew the leading 
j actors in these Commemorative move- 
; ments ranged against each other in 
mortal ecclesiastical strife ! Then 
came the still more attractive display 
of the Bicentenary Commemoration 
of the Westminster Assembly of 1G43, 
held in Canonmills Hall, Edinburgh. 
And to compare small things with 
great, we had, same year, 1843, "the 
Commemoration of the Bicentenary 
of the Westminster Assembly by the 
Reformed Synod." 

Without attempting a specification 
I of the effects of these movements on 
the respective associations engaged 
in their celebration, it will serve our 
purpose much better, and may give 
less offence, to bring again before the 
reader the formal declaration of Dr. 
Begg, " Convener of the Committee 
of the Protestant Institute of Scot- 
land" — "Whilst our reforming fa- 
thers have gone to their rest and 
reward, a new generation has groirn 
vp in comparative ignorance oftheiwin- 
ciples of the Eefonnation, and of their 
sufferings a?ul struggles. Rome has 
meanwhile been steadily acquiring 
great social and political power. 
Many of the great and noble of the 
land have been caught in her snares. 
The Government now trains her 
I priests, pays her teachers, employs 
j her emissaries in almost every de- 
partment at home and abroad. A 
I number of Jesuits have lately settled 
[ in Edinburgh, in addition to all the 
I agents from Rome, and from the 
large sums placed by the Romish 
Propaganda at the disposal of the 
Scottish bishops, it is evident that a 
great struggle to subvert the Reforma- 



85 



tion is about to be made." This ad- 
mitted and much lamented fact, pain- 
fully illustrative of the true state of 
the political and religious world, 
speaks whole volumes on the inade- 
quacy of all the popular schemes, and 
especially those of a Commemorative 
kind, to meet the present crisis. The 
tendency of such appliances, most 
assiduously and strenuously worked, 
has thus been demonstrated to be not 
the purification of the moral atmo- 
sphere, but rather a gradually in- 
creasing deviation from those prin- 
ciples of the Eeformation which gave 
full and palpable proof of their tho- 
roughly conservative character. 

But what the history of such Com- 
memorations has rendered so patent 
is nothing less or more than the 
natural harvest which the Comme- 
morative seed sown in the religious 
field might have been expected to 
produce. To an illustration of this 
vastly important and practically use- 
ful question, we may now very briefly 
and generally address ourselves. 

I. The late Commemoration has 
not done much to recommend the 
character of our Reformers. This is 
all the more curious as there has 
been of late years a kind of mania 
for honouring the names of the Scotch 
Covenanters by lectures, public 
speechification, and historic sketches. 
This, too, is a special object among 
the late Commemorators, who de- 
clare, in their programme, that "such 
a movement is due to the memory of 
our Reformed fathers, who shed their 
blood for those glorious principles 
which have made our land great." 
Now, we do submit, that by the 
recorded speeches of the leaders, the 
memory of our fathers is not repre- 
sented in the most attractive light. 
They are accused, and in round 
terms, of ignorance of their leading 
principles, of culpable asperity, and 
of dark intolerance and persecution. 



Dr. William Anderson, to whose 
keeping their memory was intrusted 
by the United Presbyterian Synod, 
formally charged them with serious 
ignorance on the doctrine of baptism, 
and appeared to furnish amusement 
to his audience by, according to his 
own classic phrase, " finding hairs in 
their necks!" Principal TuUoch, 
who was the Mercurius of the Gene- 
ral Assembly of the Established 
Church, in his reported speech on 
this subject, says : — " There are be- 
yond doubt those in our own day 
who seem to think that they are 
most like Calvin because they seem 
to take up with the asperities and in- 
tolerance of Calvin ; there are some 
who seem to think they resemble 
Knox and Calvin because they have 
learned to abuse as roundly and 
savagely as they could." Of the 
same stamp, but more sanguinary in 
character, is the charge preferred by 
Dr. M'Crie in the opening Comme- 
moration speech against the Re- 
formers : "To us it appears strangely 
inconsistent, that in the same breath 
they should have enacted the same 
bloody penalties against their op- 
ponents." Without multiplying such 
offensive, and, of late, popular epi- 
thets, strangely intended as com- 
plimentary to the memory of the 
Reformers, we do ask. Whether 
the tendency is to recommend the 
character and cause of the Reformers 
to "this new generation which has 
grown up in comparative ignorance 
of their principles, struggles, and 
sufferings?" This more than ques- 
tionable mode of commendation by 
their would-be friends suggests the 
lines of Cowper : — 
" What dotage will not vanity maintain? 

What web too weak to catch a modern 
brain ? 

The moles and bats in full assembly find, 

On special search, the keen-eyed eagle blind. 

And did they dream, and art thou wiser 
now? 

Prove it — if better, I submit and bow." 



86 



II. All Commemorative move- 
ments of the above heterogeneous 
character must necessarily ignore a 
distinctive profession of religion. To 
shew that it is a primary, and com- 
prehensive, and necessary duty of 
the visible Church of Christ, and of 
her every individual adherent, to 
make and hold fast the scriptural 
profession of the faith, is conceived 
to be a superfluous task ; especially 
as it is so explicitly declared in. 
Scripture, is so obvious from the 
nature of the thing, and is implied in 
denominationalism. 

A profession of the faith, or system 
of revealed truth, supposes that there 
is a distinctive system to profess ; and 
implies tliat the professor holds it to 
be his distinguishing duty " never to 
give himself up to neutrality or in- 
difference in formally promulgating, 
to the honour of Christ and the best 
interests of his fellows, the profession 
adopted." We would fain hope no 
Presbyterian will find himself at 
liberty to question the soundness of 
this scriptural reformation, and ra- 
tional position, or Avill hazard his 
credit for intellect by venturing to 
shake it. The question, " Who is 
judge?" especially as the professors 
of the i-espective systems have already 
passed solemn judgment, and are 
understood to be acting upon it, has 
nothing whatever to do with the 
primary question of duty to adopt 
and to hold fast the profession of the 
faith.. 

Now, haw is it possible — not for 
individual Commemorators, but for 
the Commemorative Association — to 
exhibit anything like the profession 
of the faith? Does not such an 
Association assume the impossibility 
of discharging this first duty of the 
Church and her every individual 
member, and does it not make pro- 
vision against even attempting the 
duty? By dispensing with this duty 



the Commemorative Association dis- 
penses with the services of Christ's 
Church. The very existence and 
pretensions of ihe Commemoration 
formally declare that Christ's Church, 
as a divine institute, has become 
obsolete, is no longer adequate to 
the crisis, and that she must be sup- 
planted by another, and better, al- 
though human institution ! From 
this disreputable predicament we are 
at a loss to discover any logical and 
honourable escapement ; and if such 
j an escapement can be found, it is 
I incumbent on the Commemorator to 
I shew it for the honour of the Church, 
the head of the Church, and the 
duty of the religious woi'ld. Let 
him who would address himself to 
the clear and satisfactory solution of 
this interesting problem keep his eye 
fixed on the fact, that the Commemo- 
rative Assembly is not the Church, 
and yet that it undertakes, as a reli- 
gious society, to revive the cause of 
the Scottisli Reformation ! 

Moreover, if this Association can 
accomplish what it proposes, where- 
fore should any man adopt and hold 
fast a distinctive profession of reli- 
gion, and especially that profession 
of it which the Eeformers adopted in 
this country? If all this can be 
reached, and that too more effectually 
by this Association than by the visi- 
ble Church, of what use is the duty 
of a religious profession at all in our 
present national and ecclesiastical 
emergencj'? And this question so 
natural and necessary, and altogether 
irrespectively of the reply which the 
Commemorator may make to it, is 
answered in the public disregard of 
the religious world to any distinctive 
profession ! Where is he whose ears 
are not daily saluted with the popu- 
lar exclamation, " What about a re- 
l ligious profession ? we want prac- 
j tice ; " as if to profess the revealed 
I truths, the systematised truths of 



THE AEK. 



87 



Ciiristy were not practice of the -very 
highest kind.., And who is ignorant 
of the notorious fact, that the vast 
body of the adherents ofdenomi- 
nationalism are attached more to 
their respective chiefs than to any 
distinctive cause? Who can shut 
his eyes to the equally popular fact, 
that the .removal, death, or new ap- 
pointment of a popular or unpopular 
preacher, entirely changes the ap- 
pearance and character of a congre- 
gation and a religious body 1 In 
the same category stand the equally 
notorious. facts, that members when 
faithfully dealt. with for the grosser 
sins of dishonesty and intemperance 
are found wandering through all the 
signs of the ecclesiastical Zodiac ; 
that whole congregations glory in 
abandoning their former ecclesiastical 
connexion, and praying for admission 
into those against which they most • 
solemnly lifted up the right hand;j 
and all because of low and personal 
considerations ! And, in fine, as [ 
this is the order of the day in reli- | 
gious Scotland, so it is held to be i 
part and parcel of the religious \ 
liberty which is essential to the j 
Reformation ! 

We require not to prosecute this line j 
of remark bearing on the not to be de- 
nied facts of the case, which most pain- 
fully contrast with the history of the 
early Reformed Church of Scotland, 
but would invite the attention of the 
ecclesiastical world to Scotland's de- 
bauched conscience in regard to the 
great duty of making an